Concerns all aspects of integration, including the integral definition and computational methods. For questions solely about the properties of integrals, use in conjunction with (indefinite-integral), (definite-integral), (improper-integrals) or another tag(s) that typically describe(s) the types of ...

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10
votes
2answers
484 views

Families of functions closed under integration

What are some concrete families $\mathcal F$ of real functions that are closed under integration in the sense that for every $f \in \mathcal F$ there is $F \in \mathcal F$ such that $F'=f$? Here are ...
10
votes
2answers
12k views

Problem when integrating $e^x / x$.

I made up some integrals to do for fun, and I had a real problem with this one. I've since found out that there's no solution in terms of elementary functions, but when I attempt to integrate it, I ...
9
votes
2answers
417 views

How can I calculate $\int_0^{\pi/2}\frac{\sin^3 t}{\sin^3 t+\cos^3 t}dt$?

Calculating with Mathematica, one can have $$\int_0^{\pi/2}\frac{\sin^3 t}{\sin^3 t+\cos^3 t}dt=\frac{\pi}{4}.$$ How can I get this formula by hand? Is there any simpler idea than using $u = \sin ...
8
votes
3answers
207 views

Convergence/Divergence of $\int_{0}^{1/e} \frac{\log \left(\frac{1}{x}\right)}{(\log^2 (x)-1)^{3/2}} \mathrm{dx}$

Initially I wanted to compute $$\int_{0}^{1/e} \frac{\log \left(\frac{1}{x}\right)}{(\log^2 (x)-1)^{3/2}} \mathrm{dx}$$ but it seems that Mathematica says that the integral diverges. I thought of ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Proving Abel-Dirichlet's test for convergence of improper integrals using Integration by parts

I'm struggling with the following calculus question. Let there be two functions $f,g : [a, \infty) \to \mathbb R$ such that: $g$ is monotonic, differentiable and has a limit at zero $f$ is ...
2
votes
5answers
16k views

how to calculate the integral of $\sin^2(x)/x^2$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Proof for an integral involving sinc function How do I show that $\int_{-\infty}^\infty \frac{ \sin x \sin nx}{x^2} \ dx = \pi$? ...
11
votes
4answers
2k views

Integral:$ \int^\infty_{-\infty}\frac{\ln(x^{2}+1)}{x^{2}+1}dx $

How to evaluate: $$ \int^\infty_{-\infty}\frac{\ln(x^{2}+1)}{x^{2}+1}dx $$ Maybe we can evaluate it using the well-known result:$\int_{0}^{\frac{\pi}{2}} \ln{\sin t} ...
7
votes
1answer
3k views

The absolute value of a Riemann integrable function is Riemann integrable.

This is an exercise in Bartle & Sherbert's Introduction to Real Analysis second edition. They ask to show that if $I=[a,b]$ is a closed bounded interval and that $f:I\to\mathbb{R}$ is (Riemann) ...
7
votes
5answers
509 views

A little integration paradox

The following integral can be obtained using the online Wolfram integrator $$ \int \frac{dx}{1+\cos^2 x} = \frac{\tan^{-1}(\frac{\tan x}{\sqrt{2}})}{\sqrt{2}}$$ Now assume we are performing this ...
6
votes
0answers
314 views

Finding $\lim_{n\to\infty} e^{-n}\sum_{k=0}^n \frac{n^k}{k!}$ if it exists [duplicate]

Does there exist the following limitation? If the answer is yes, could you show me how to find that? $$\lim_{n\to\infty} e^{-n}\sum_{k=0}^n \frac{n^k}{k!}$$ In the following, I'm going to write what ...
6
votes
1answer
196 views

Understanding the solution of $\int\left(1-x^{p}\right)^{\frac{n-1}{p}}\log\left(1-x^{p}\right)dx$

I would like to solve the integral $$\int\left(1-x^{p}\right)^{\frac{n-1}{p}}\log\left(1-x^{p}\right)dx.$$ My problem is that I arrived at a solution via wolfram alpha, but I would like to ...
5
votes
2answers
524 views

Evaluation of $\int\frac{\sqrt{\cos 2x}}{\sin x}dx$

Evaluation of $$\displaystyle \int\frac{\sqrt{\cos 2x}}{\sin x}dx$$ $\bf{My\; Try::}$ Let $\displaystyle I = \int\frac{\sqrt{\cos 2x}}{\sin x}dx = \int\frac{\cos 2x}{\sin^2 x\sqrt{\cos 2x}}\sin xdx ...
3
votes
1answer
235 views

How can one prove the impossibility of writing $ \int e^{x^{2}} \, \mathrm{d}{x} $ in terms of elementary functions?

Can we express $ \displaystyle \int e^{x^{2}} \, \mathrm{d}{x} $ in terms of elementary functions? (Note: Infinite series are not allowed.) If not, then is there a proof that $ \displaystyle \int ...
0
votes
3answers
149 views

Compute the Integral

Compute the integral. $$\int_{-\infty}^\infty \frac{x^4}{1+x^8} \, dx$$ The answer at the back of the book is $$\frac{\pi}{4\sin(\frac{3\pi}{8})}$$
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Computing $\int_{-\infty}^\infty \frac{\sin x}{x} \mathrm{d}x$ with residue calculus

This refers back to the integral of $\frac{\sin(x)}x = \frac\pi2$ already posted. How do I arrive at $\frac\pi2$ using the residue theorem? I'm at the following point: $$\int \frac{e^{iz}}{z} - \int ...
4
votes
1answer
157 views

Integral calculus proof

If $f(x)$ is continuous in $[a,b]$, prove that $ \displaystyle \lim_{n \to \infty} \dfrac{b-a}{n} \displaystyle \sum^n _{k=1} f\left( a + \dfrac{k(b-a)}{n} \right) = \displaystyle \int_a ^ b f(x)dx$ ...
4
votes
3answers
834 views

Integrating $\frac{\log(1+x)}{1+x^2}$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Evaluate the integral: $\int_{0}^{1} \frac{\ln(x+1)}{x^2+1} dx$ I am a bit stuck here in evaluating the following integral:$$\int_{0}^{1}\frac{\log(1+x)}{1+x^2}\,\mathrm ...
3
votes
2answers
96 views

What are BesselJ functions?

I solved an integration on mathematica which gives BesselJ functions and some other terms. I explored mathematica help and google but could not understand the difference between different types of ...
2
votes
1answer
239 views

Is this definition missing some assumptions?

In his "Calculus on manifolds" Spivak first defines $n$-dimensional (Riemann-) integral over rectancles, then over Jordan measurable subsets of rectangles and finally extends it to open sets using ...
1
vote
3answers
165 views

how to solve $\int\frac{1}{1+x^4}dx$ [duplicate]

i want find the answer and metod of solve of $\int\frac{1}{1+x^4}dx$. I know $$\int\frac{1}{a^2+x^2}dx=\frac{1}{a}\arctan\frac{x}{a}+C$$, How I can use this to solve of that integration.
1
vote
2answers
774 views

How do you integrate $e^{x^2}$?

I know that $\int{\frac{1}{x}}dx$ is simply $\ln{(x)}+c$ (-which is clearly unrelated to the problem but I just thought I would share anyway) but I am not sure how to approach $e^{x{^2}}$. Perhaps a ...
11
votes
5answers
643 views

Why is $\int^\infty_{-\infty} \frac{x}{x^2+1} dx$ not zero?

We break up $\int^\infty_{-\infty} \dfrac{x}{x^2+1} dx$ into: $$\lim_{t\to -\infty} \int^0_t \dfrac{x}{x^2+1} dx + \lim_{t\to \infty} \int^t_0 \dfrac{x}{x^2+1} dx$$ So, evaluated, this gives; ...
10
votes
5answers
2k views

Is $\int_a^b f(x) dx = \int_{f(a)}^{f(b)} f^{-1}(x) dy$?

Is it true that $\int_a^b f(x) dx = \int_{f(a)}^{f(b)} f^{-1}(x) dy$ ? Just making sure. If not, how about: $\int_a^b f(x) dx = (f(b)-f(a))b - \int_{f(a)}^{f(b)}f^{-1}(x)dx$ ? I'm having a hard ...
9
votes
2answers
415 views

Why should the substitution be injective when integrating by substitution?

I made a silly mistake in evaluating some integral by using a non-injective $u$-substitution. But why should $u$-substitutions be injective in the first place? I reasoned in the following way: the ...
5
votes
2answers
338 views

Trig integral $\int{ \cos{x} + \sin{x}\cos{x} dx }$

Assume we have: $ \int{ \cos{x} + \sin{x}\cos{x} dx } $ 2 ways to do it: Use $\sin{x}\cos{x} = \frac{ \sin{2x} }{2} $ Then $ \int{ \cos{x} + \frac{\sin{2x}}{2} dx } $ $ = \sin{x} - \frac{ cos{2x} ...
2
votes
4answers
722 views

Using Spherical coordinates find the volume:

Inside the surfaces $z=x^2+y^2$ and $z=\sqrt{2-x^2-y^2}$ I integrated over the ranges: $0 \leq \theta \leq 2\pi$ $ 0 \leq \phi \leq \frac{\pi}{2}$ $0 \leq r \leq \sqrt{2}$ I get ...
2
votes
2answers
380 views

Insidious exponential integral

I hope that someone's up for the challenge; I'm attempting to solve this via computer: \begin{equation} \int_{-\pi}^\pi{\displaystyle \frac{e^{i\cdot a\cdot t}(e^{i\cdot b\cdot t}-1)(e^{i\cdot c ...
1
vote
0answers
80 views

Validity of Substitutions in Integrals [duplicate]

In integrals, we often make 'u' substitutions, which involve writing $u=f(x)$, and then also writing $du=f'(x)dx$. How valid is this? I've heard that you aren't allowed to do things like 'break' up ...
1
vote
1answer
148 views

Integral of series with complex exponentials

Suppose that $f\in L^2(\mathbb{R}/2\pi\mathbb{Z})$ takes the form $$f(\theta)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_ne^{in\theta}.$$ The function $$F(z)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_nz^n$$ converges in $|z|<1$. How can I ...
1
vote
1answer
143 views

Integral remainder converges to 0

I want to show that $\displaystyle \log(1+x)=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}(-1)^{n-1}\frac{x^n}{n}$ for $-1<x\leq1$ i want to show it with the integral remainder of the taylor series that gave me: ...
1
vote
1answer
461 views

Limit of $ (\int_a^b f(x)^n \ dx)^{1/n}$ when $n\to\infty$

I've been working on the following problem: Show that if $f\in C[a, b]$ , $f\ge 0$ on $[a, b]$, then $\left(\int_a^b f(x)^n \,dx\right)^{1/n}$ converges when $n\to\infty$ and the limit is ...
0
votes
1answer
55 views

Generalized Riemann Integral: Improper Version

Reference For a bounded nonexample of integrability see: Riemann Integral: Bounded Nonexample For a convergence theorem on integral see: Riemann Integral: Uniform Convergence For a comparison of ...
0
votes
1answer
173 views

Inverse Fourier transform to find out $\hat c_1$

If we have an integration which is need to solve inversely $$a_0 e^{-r^2/R^2} = \int_0^\infty \hat{c}_1(k) \frac{\sin(k r)}{r} dk,$$ If I transform the $\sin(kr)$, then we get imaginary part. Please ...
0
votes
1answer
210 views

On the convergence of a specific sequence of integrable functions

Let $\{f_n\}$ a sequence of measurable non-negative functions on $\mathbb{R}$ converging point-wise on $\mathbb{R}$ to $f$, and let $f$ integrable over $\mathbb{R}$. If $\displaystyle ...
42
votes
2answers
1k views

Ramanujan log-trigonometric integrals

I discovered the following conjectured identity numerically while studying a family of related integrals. Let's set $$ R^{+}:= \frac{2}{\pi}\int_{0}^{\pi/2}\sqrt[\normalsize{8}]{x^2 + \ln^2\!\cos x} ...
33
votes
2answers
2k views

Integral $\int_0^1\frac{\arctan^2x}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}\mathrm dx$

Is it possible to evaluate this integral in a closed form? $$I=\int_0^1\frac{\arctan^2x}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}\mathrm dx$$ It also can be represented as $$I=\int_0^{\pi/4}\frac{\phi^2}{\cos \phi\,\sqrt{\cos ...
35
votes
2answers
980 views

Closed form for ${\large\int}_0^1\frac{\ln(1-x)\,\ln(1+x)\,\ln(1+2x)}{1+2x}dx$

Here is another integral I'm trying to evaluate: $$I=\int_0^1\frac{\ln(1-x)\,\ln(1+x)\,\ln(1+2x)}{1+2x}dx.\tag1$$ A numeric approximation is: ...
33
votes
1answer
612 views

Generalizing $\int_{0}^{1} \frac{\arctan\sqrt{x^{2} + 2}}{\sqrt{x^{2} + 2}} \, \frac{\operatorname dx}{x^{2}+1} = \frac{5\pi^{2}}{96}$

The following integral \begin{align*} \int_{0}^{1} \frac{\arctan\sqrt{x^{2} + 2}}{\sqrt{x^{2} + 2}} \, \frac{dx}{x^{2}+1} = \frac{5\pi^{2}}{96} \tag{1} \end{align*} is called the Ahmed's integral ...
29
votes
3answers
825 views

Prove $\displaystyle \int_{0}^{\pi/2} \ln \left(x^{2} + (\ln\cos x)^2 \right) \, dx=\pi\ln\ln2 $

How to prove $$ \int_{0}^{\pi/2}\ln\left(\,x^{2} + \ln^{2}\left(\,\cos\left(\,x\,\right)\,\right) \,\right)\,{\rm d}x\ =\ \pi\ln\left(\,\ln\left(\, 2\,\right)\,\right) $$ I don't know how to ...
22
votes
4answers
916 views

Evaluating $\int_0^1 \log \log \left(\frac{1}{x}\right) \frac{dx}{1+x^2}$

Show that $\displaystyle{\int_0^1 \log \log \left(\frac{1}{x}\right) \frac{dx}{1+x^2} = \frac{\pi}{2}\log \left(\sqrt{2\pi} \Gamma\left(\frac{3}{4}\right) / \Gamma\left(\frac{1}{4}\right)\right)}$ ...
29
votes
3answers
796 views

Closed form for the integral $\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{\ln^{2}(x)\ln(1+x)}{(1-x)(x^{2}+1)}dx$

Here is a challenging one maybe some would like a go at. Show that: ...
53
votes
14answers
9k views

Why do we need to learn integration techniques?

After a lifetime of approaching math the wrong way, I took two college math courses this quarter with a newfound zest for math. These classes are integral calc and multivariable calc. Integral calc ...
18
votes
3answers
1k views

How do I evaluate this integral $\int_0^\pi{\frac{{{x^2}}}{{\sqrt 5-2\cos x}}}\operatorname d\!x$?

Show that $$\int\limits_0^\pi{\frac{{{x^2}}}{{\sqrt 5-2\cos x}}}\operatorname d\!x =\frac{{{\pi^3}}}{{15}}+2\pi \ln^2 \left({\frac{{1+\sqrt 5 }}{2}}\right).$$ I don't have any idea how to start, ...
33
votes
4answers
1k views

Rain droplets falling on a table

Suppose you have a circular table of radius $R$. This table has been left outside, and it begins to rain at a constant rate of one droplet per second. The drops, which can be considered points as they ...
27
votes
2answers
869 views

Show $\int_{0}^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\frac{x^{2}}{x^{2}+\ln^{2}(2\cos(x))}dx=\frac{\pi}{8}\left(1-\gamma+\ln(2\pi)\right)$

Here is an interesting, albeit tough, integral I ran across. It has an interesting solution which leads me to think it is doable. But, what would be a good strategy?. ...
22
votes
8answers
1k views

A proof of $\int_{0}^{1}\left( \frac{\ln t}{1-t}\right)^2\,\mathrm{d}t=\frac{\pi^2}{3}$

What is the proof of the following: $$\int_{0}^{1} \left(\frac{\ln t}{1-t}\right)^2 \,\mathrm{d}t=\frac{\pi^2}{3} \>?$$
19
votes
4answers
943 views

Evaluating $\int_0^1 \frac{\log x \log \left(1-x^4 \right)}{1+x^2}dx$

I am trying to prove that $$\int_0^1 \frac{\log x \log \left(1-x^4 \right)}{1+x^2}dx = \frac{\pi^3}{16}-3G\log 2 \tag{1}$$ where $G$ is Catalan's Constant. I was able to express it in terms of ...
19
votes
4answers
953 views

Evaluate $\int_0^\infty \frac{\log(1+x^3)}{(1+x^2)^2}dx$ and $\int_0^\infty \frac{\log(1+x^4)}{(1+x^2)^2}dx$

Background: Evaluation of $\int_0^\infty \frac{\log(1+x^2)}{(1+x^2)^2}dx$ We can prove using the Beta-Function identity that $$\int_0^\infty \frac{1}{(1+x^2)^\lambda}dx=\sqrt{\pi}\frac{\Gamma ...
24
votes
4answers
1k views

Integral $\int_0^\infty \log(1+x^2)\frac{\cosh{\frac{\pi x}{2}}}{\sinh^2{\frac{\pi x}{2}}}\mathrm dx=2-\frac{4}{\pi}$

Hi I am trying to show$$ I:=\int_0^\infty \log(1+x^2)\frac{\cosh{\frac{\pi x}{2}}}{\sinh^2{\frac{\pi x}{2}}}\mathrm dx=2-\frac{4}{\pi}. $$ Thank you. What a desirable thing to want to prove! It is a ...
15
votes
2answers
572 views

Integral $\int_0^\pi \theta^2 \ln^2\big(2\cos\frac{\theta}{2}\big)d \theta$.

I am trying to calculate $$ I=\frac{1}{\pi}\int_0^\pi \theta^2 \ln^2\big(2\cos\frac{\theta}{2}\big)d \theta=\frac{11\pi^4}{180}=\frac{11\zeta(4)}{2}. $$ Note, we can expand the log in the integral to ...