Concerns all aspects of integration, including the integral definition and computational methods. For questions solely about the properties of integrals, use in conjunction with (indefinite-integral), (definite-integral), (improper-integrals) or another tag(s) that typically describe(s) the types of ...

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4
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2answers
3k views

Riemann sum of $\sin(x)$

I would like to calculate the Riemann sum of $\sin(x)$. Fun starts here: $$R = \frac{\pi}{n} \sum_{j=1}^n \sin\left(\frac{\pi}{n}\cdot j\right)$$ What would be the simplest way to calculate the sum ...
3
votes
2answers
493 views

So close yet so far Finding $\int \frac {\sec x \tan x}{3x+5} dx$

Cruising the old questions I came across juantheron asking for $\int \frac {\sec x\tan x}{3x+5}\,dx$ He tried using $(3x+5)^{-1}$ for $U$ and $\sec x \tan x$ for $dv$while integrating by parts. below ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Proving Abel-Dirichlet's test for convergence of improper integrals using Integration by parts

I'm struggling with the following calculus question. Let there be two functions $f,g : [a, \infty) \to \mathbb R$ such that: $g$ is monotonic, differentiable and has a limit at zero $f$ is ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Heisenberg uncertainty principle in $d$ dimensions.

Suppose $f(x)$ is a $d$-dimensional real function and $\int_{R^{d}}|f(x)|^2dx=1$. Show that $$ (\int_{R^{d}}|x|^2|f(x)|^2dx)(\int_{R^{d}}|\xi|^2|\hat f(\xi)|^2d\xi)\geq\frac{d^2}{16\pi^2}$$ I ...
2
votes
3answers
212 views

What is the integration of $\int 1/(x^{2n} +1)dx$?

I am a student who is preparing for IIT exam. I was just practicing calculus and encountered this problem. I tried different substitutions but none of them seemed to work. So what is the integration ...
2
votes
5answers
25k views

how to calculate the integral of $\sin^2(x)/x^2$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Proof for an integral involving sinc function How do I show that $\int_{-\infty}^\infty \frac{ \sin x \sin nx}{x^2} \ dx = \pi$? ...
1
vote
3answers
1k views

$\int e^{-x^2}dx$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Proving $\int_{0}^{+\infty} e^{-x^2} dx = \frac{\sqrt \pi}{2}$ How does one integrate $\int e^{-x^2}\,dx$? I read somewhere to use polar coordinates. How is this done? ...
8
votes
1answer
5k views

The absolute value of a Riemann integrable function is Riemann integrable.

This is an exercise in Bartle & Sherbert's Introduction to Real Analysis second edition. They ask to show that if $I=[a,b]$ is a closed bounded interval and that $f:I\to\mathbb{R}$ is (Riemann) ...
6
votes
1answer
225 views

Banach Spaces: Uniform Integral vs. Riemann Integral

Problem Given a finite measure space $\Omega$ and a Banach space $E$. One has strict inclusion: ...
4
votes
1answer
168 views

Generalized Riemann Integral: Bounded Nonexample?

Reference For a convergence theorem on integral see: Riemann Integral: Uniform Convergence For an improper version of integral see: Riemann Integral: Improper Version For a comparison of integrals ...
2
votes
1answer
335 views

Show that $u(x)=\ln\left(\ln\left(1+\frac{1}{|x|}\right)\right)$ is in $W^{1,n}(U)$, where $U=B(0,1)\subset\mathbb{R}^n$.

The entire problem statement is: Let $n>1$ and let $U=B(0,1)\subset\mathbb{R}^n$. Show that $u:U\to\mathbb{R}$ given by $$u(x)=\ln\left(\ln\left(1+\frac{1}{|x|}\right)\right)$$ is in ...
10
votes
1answer
210 views

Evaluating this integral $ \small\int \frac {x^2 dx} {(x\sin x+\cos x)^2} $

The question: Compute$$ \int \frac {x^2 \, \operatorname{d}\!x} {(x\sin x+\cos x)^2} $$ Tried integration by parts. That didn't work. How do I proceed?
4
votes
0answers
260 views

existence of solution of volterra integral equation of the first kind

$$ \int_0^t k(s,t)f(s)ds=g(t) $$ To know the existence and uniquness of solution of volterra integral equation(VIE) of the first kind, we differentiate it and convert to the VIE of the second kind. ...
4
votes
2answers
3k views

Integrate $\csc^3{x} \ dx$

I found these step which explain how to integrate $\csc^3{x} \ dx$. I understand everything, except the step I highlighted below. How did we go from: $$\int\frac{\csc^2 x - \csc x \cot x}{\csc x - ...
3
votes
2answers
367 views

How can I show that $f$ must be zero if $\int fg$ is always zero?

Let $f(x)$ be continuous on $[a,b]$ and suppose $\int_a^b f(x)g(x)dx = 0$ for every continuous function $g$ on $[a,b]$. Prove that $f(x)=0$ on $[a,b]$. I understand that $f(x)$ must be zero ...
3
votes
6answers
349 views

Limit $\lim_{n\to \infty} \frac{1}{2n} \log{2n\choose n}$ [duplicate]

$\lim_{n\to \infty} \frac{1}{2n} \log{2n\choose n}$ I could not approach it beyond these simple steps, $\lim_{n\to \infty} \frac{1}{2n} \log(\frac{2n!}{(n!)^2})$ $=\lim_{n\to \infty} ...
2
votes
2answers
518 views

Calculating: $\lim_{n\to \infty}\int_0^\sqrt{n} {(1-\frac{x^2}{n})^n}dx$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Prove: $\lim\limits_{n \to \infty} \int_{0}^{\sqrt n}(1-\frac{x^2}{n})^ndx=\int_{0}^{\infty} e^{-x^2}dx$ I need some help calculating the above limit. What i have ...
1
vote
3answers
187 views

how to solve $\int\frac{1}{1+x^4}dx$ [duplicate]

i want find the answer and metod of solve of $\int\frac{1}{1+x^4}dx$. I know $$\int\frac{1}{a^2+x^2}dx=\frac{1}{a}\arctan\frac{x}{a}+C$$, How I can use this to solve of that integration.
7
votes
3answers
120 views

Integral of $\frac{\sqrt{x^2+1}}{x}$

So I have to do the integration of $\frac{\sqrt{x^2+1}}{x}$. Give me a hint. What should I replace? Should I do it with integration by parts?
3
votes
3answers
354 views

Evaluate $\int_0^{2\pi} \frac{\sin^2\theta}{5+4\cos\theta}\,\mathrm d\theta$

Evaluate $$\int_0^{2\pi} \frac{\sin^2\theta}{5+4\cos(\theta)}\mathrm d\theta$$ This is the final question on my review for my final exam tomorrow, and I will be honest and say that I have no clue ...
3
votes
2answers
692 views

Is there any geometric explanation of relationship between Integral and derivative?

It is said integral is anti-derivative, derivative is tangent of graph function in each point on the function and integral is the area of the region in the xy-plane bounded by the graph. I can not ...
3
votes
1answer
87 views

Evaluating $\int_{I^n} \left( \min_{1\le i \le n}x_i \right)^{\alpha}\,\, dx$

Let $\alpha \in \mathbb R$ and let's call $I:=[0,1]$. Evaluate $$ \int_{I^n} \left( \min_{1\le i \le n}x_i \right)^{\alpha}\,\, dx. $$ Well, the case $n=1$ is easy and the integral equals ...
2
votes
2answers
87 views

Problem with indefinite integration

I introduce shift $t^5=2x -3$,but it doesn't help $$\int \frac{2\sqrt[5]{2x-3}-1}{\left(2x-3\right)\sqrt[5]{2x-3}+\sqrt[5]{2x-3}}dx$$
2
votes
1answer
103 views

$C[0,1]$ with $L^1$ norm is not Banach space.

I want to check that $(C[0,1],∥⋅∥_1)$ is not a Banach space, where $\|f\|_1 = \int_0^1 |f(x)|\,{\rm d}x$.I took $(f_n)_{n \geq 1}$ a sequence in $C[0,1]$ given by:$f_n: [0,1] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}, ...
2
votes
1answer
247 views

About the confluent versions of Appell Hypergeometric Function and Lauricella Functions

I know there are two important properties about Appell Hypergeometric Function and Lauricella Functions: ...
45
votes
4answers
4k views

Integral $\int_0^1\frac{\ln\left(x+\sqrt2\right)}{\sqrt{2-x}\,\sqrt{1-x}\,\sqrt{\vphantom{1}x}}\mathrm dx$

Is there a closed form for the integral $$\int_0^1\frac{\ln\left(x+\sqrt2\right)}{\sqrt{2-x}\,\sqrt{1-x}\,\sqrt{\vphantom{1}x}}\mathrm dx.$$ I do not have a strong reason to be sure it exists, but I ...
41
votes
2answers
2k views

Integration of forms and integration on a measure space

In Terence Tao's PCM article: DIFFERENTIAL FORMS AND INTEGRATION, it is pointed out that there are three concepts of integration which appear in the subject (single-variable calculus): the ...
52
votes
2answers
2k views

Closed form for $\int_0^1\log\log\left(\frac{1}{x}+\sqrt{\frac{1}{x^2}-1}\right)\mathrm dx$

Please help me to find a closed form for the following integral: $$\int_0^1\log\left(\log\left(\frac{1}{x}+\sqrt{\frac{1}{x^2}-1}\right)\right)\,{\mathrm d}x.$$ I was told it could be calculated in a ...
38
votes
2answers
2k views

Integral $\int_0^1\frac{\arctan^2x}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}\mathrm dx$

Is it possible to evaluate this integral in a closed form? $$I=\int_0^1\frac{\arctan^2x}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}\mathrm dx$$ It also can be represented as $$I=\int_0^{\pi/4}\frac{\phi^2}{\cos \phi\,\sqrt{\cos ...
31
votes
1answer
1k views

Prove $\int_0^1\frac{x^2-2\,x+2\ln(1+x)}{x^3\,\sqrt{1-x^2}}\mathrm dx=\frac{\pi^2}8-\frac12$

How can I prove the following identity? $$\int_0^1\frac{x^2-2\,x+2\ln(1+x)}{x^3\,\sqrt{1-x^2}}\mathrm dx=\frac{\pi^2}8-\frac12$$
31
votes
2answers
1k views

Integral $\int_0^1\frac{1-x^2+\left(1+x^2\right)\ln x}{\left(x+x^2\right)\ln^3x}dx$

I'm struggling with this integral $$I=\int_0^1\frac{1-x^2+\left(1+x^2\right)\ln x}{\left(x+x^2\right)\ln^3x}dx.\tag1$$ Mathematica could not evaluate it in a closed form. Its numeric value is ...
35
votes
7answers
3k views

Evaluating the integral, $\int_{0}^{\infty} \ln\left(1 - e^{-x}\right) \,\mathrm dx $

I recently got stuck on evaluating the following integral. I do not know an effective substitution to use. Could you please help me evaluate: $$\int_{0}^{\infty} \ln\left(1 - e^{-x}\right) \,\mathrm ...
36
votes
4answers
1k views

Rain droplets falling on a table

Suppose you have a circular table of radius $R$. This table has been left outside, and it begins to rain at a constant rate of one droplet per second. The drops, which can be considered points as they ...
23
votes
4answers
746 views

Polygamma function series: $\displaystyle\sum_{k=1}^{\infty }\left(\Psi^{(1)}(k)\right)^2$

Applying the Copson's inequality, I found: $$S=\displaystyle\sum_{k=1}^{\infty }\left(\Psi^{(1)}(k)\right)^2\lt\dfrac{2}{3}\pi^2$$ where $\Psi^{(1)}(k)$ is the polygamma function. Is it known any ...
27
votes
4answers
1k views

Evaluating $\int_0^1 \frac{\log x \log \left(1-x^4 \right)}{1+x^2}dx$

I am trying to prove that $$\int_0^1 \frac{\log x \log \left(1-x^4 \right)}{1+x^2}dx = \frac{\pi^3}{16}-3G\log 2 \tag{1}$$ where $G$ is Catalan's Constant. I was able to express it in terms of ...
22
votes
4answers
1k views

Evaluate $\int_0^\infty \frac{\log(1+x^3)}{(1+x^2)^2}dx$ and $\int_0^\infty \frac{\log(1+x^4)}{(1+x^2)^2}dx$

Background: Evaluation of $\int_0^\infty \frac{\log(1+x^2)}{(1+x^2)^2}dx$ We can prove using the Beta-Function identity that $$\int_0^\infty \frac{1}{(1+x^2)^\lambda}dx=\sqrt{\pi}\frac{\Gamma ...
19
votes
4answers
967 views

A closed form for $\int_{0}^{\pi/2} x^3 \ln^3(2 \cos x)\:\mathrm{d}x$

We already know that \begin{align} \displaystyle & \int_{0}^{\pi/2} x \ln(2 \cos x)\:\mathrm{d}x = -\frac{7}{16} \zeta(3), \\\\ & \int_{0}^{\pi/2} x^2 \ln^2(2 \cos x)\:\mathrm{d}x = ...
32
votes
5answers
1k views

Evaluating $\int_{0}^{1}\frac{1-x}{1+x}\frac{\mathrm dx}{\ln x}$

Some time ago I came across to the following integral: $$I=\int_{0}^{1}\frac{1-x}{1+x}\frac{\mathrm dx}{\ln x}$$ What are the hints on how to compute this integral?
21
votes
4answers
2k views

Good book on evaluating difficult definite integrals (without elementary antiderivatives)?

I am very interested in evaluating difficult definite integrals without elementary antiderivatives by manipulating the integral somehow (e.g. contour integration, interchanging order of ...
17
votes
2answers
688 views

Integral $\int_0^\pi \theta^2 \ln^2\big(2\cos\frac{\theta}{2}\big)d \theta$.

I am trying to calculate $$ I=\frac{1}{\pi}\int_0^\pi \theta^2 \ln^2\big(2\cos\frac{\theta}{2}\big)d \theta=\frac{11\pi^4}{180}=\frac{11\zeta(4)}{2}. $$ Note, we can expand the log in the integral to ...
25
votes
1answer
501 views

Prove the following integral inequality: $\int_{0}^{1}f(g(x))dx\le\int_{0}^{1}f(x)dx+\int_{0}^{1}g(x)dx$

Suppose $f(x)$ and $g(x)$ are continuous function from $[0,1]\rightarrow [0,1]$, and $f$ is monotone increasing, then how to prove the following inequality: ...
17
votes
4answers
870 views

Computing $\int_{0}^{\pi}\ln\left(1-2a\cos x+a^2\right) \, dx$

For $a\ge 0$ let's define $$I(a)=\int_{0}^{\pi}\ln\left(1-2a\cos x+a^2\right)dx.$$ Find explicit formula for $I(a)$. My attempt: Let $$\begin{align*} f_n(x) &= \frac{\ln\left(1-2 ...
52
votes
3answers
1k views

How much does symbolic integration mean to mathematics?

(Before reading, I apologize for my poor English ability.) I have enjoyed calculating some symbolic integrals as a hobby, and this has been one of the main source of my interest towards the vast ...
19
votes
2answers
497 views

Mathematical meaning of certain integrals in physics

While studying on texts of physics I notice that differentiation under the integral sign is usually introduced without any comment on the conditions permitting to do so. In that case, I take care of ...
16
votes
2answers
632 views

Evaluating $\int_{-1}^{1}\frac{\arctan{x}}{1+x}\ln{\left(\frac{1+x^2}{2}\right)}dx$

This is a nice problem. I am trying to use nice methods to solve this integral, But I failed. $$\int_{-1}^{1}\dfrac{\arctan{x}}{1+x}\ln{\left(\dfrac{1+x^2}{2}\right)}dx, $$ where ...
13
votes
4answers
489 views

Finding $\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\arctan\left(\sin x\right)dx$

$$\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\arctan\left(\sin x\right)dx$$ I try to solve it, but failed. Who can help me to find it? I encountered this integral when trying to solve ...
13
votes
3answers
33k views

How to calculate the integral in normal distribution?

The factory is making products with this normal distribution: $\mathcal{N}(0, 25)$. What should be the maximum error accepted with the probability of 0.90? [Result is 8.225 millimetre] How will I ...
12
votes
1answer
1k views

A Putnam Integral $\int_2^4 \frac{\sqrt{\ln(9-x)}\,dx}{\sqrt{\ln(9-x)} + \sqrt{\ln(x+3)}}.$

This is a Putnam Problem that I have been trying to solve (on and off) for two years, but I have failed. I am in Calculus BC. This problem comes from the book "Calculus Eighth Edition by Larson, ...
13
votes
4answers
592 views

Proving that $\int_0^\infty\frac{J_{2a}(2x)~J_{2b}(2x)}{x^{2n+1}}~dx~=~\frac12\cdot\frac{(a+b-n-1)!~(2n)!}{(n+a+b)!~(n+a-b)!~(n-a+b)!}$

How could we prove that $$\int_0^\infty\frac{J_{2a}(2x)~J_{2b}(2x)}{x^{2n+1}}~dx~=~\frac12\cdot\frac{(a+b-n-1)!~(2n)!}{(n+a+b)!~(n+a-b)!~(n-a+b)!}$$ for $a+b>n>-\dfrac12$ ? Inspired by ...
26
votes
4answers
5k views

Using Integration By Parts results in 0 = 1

I've run into a strange situation while trying to apply Integration By Parts, and I can't seem to come up with an explanation. I start with the following equation: $$\int \frac{1}{f} \frac{df}{dx} ...