All aspects of integration, including the definition of the integral and computing different types of integrals. For questions solely about the properties of integrals, don't use this tag alone! Use in conjunction with (indefinite-integral), (definite-integral), (improper-integrals) or another ...

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Properties of functional integration

this question comes from theoretical Physics, the issue being the so called Path Integral. The measure of this thing is something written as $[d\phi]=\prod_x d\phi(x)$ And this should be the limit ...
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variation of a function over countable intervals

Let $f$ be a function of bounded variation on $[0,1]$. Let $\{[a_n,b_n]\}_{n=1}^\infty$ such that $(a_n,b_n)$ are pairwise disjoint and $\cup_{n=1}^\infty [a_n,b_n]=[0,1]$. (for example, $[1/2, 1], ...
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Find the average temperature for the following regions

Consider the temperature function $T(x, y, z) = \large\frac{z}{1+x^2+y^2}$ where there is a heat source along the $z$ axis increasing in temperature as you get farther away from the origin. Find the ...
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36 views

How do I find this equation if I only know how to calculate new value using old value?

Hello Math Exchange people! I'm a pretty big math noob, and I have this thing in a video game that I'd like to optimize using math instead of trying random combinations. In every game loop, the game ...
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2answers
61 views

A closed form of $\int_0^1\frac{\ln\ln\left(\frac{1}{x}\right)}{x^2-x+1}dx$

This integral has been bugging me since yesterday: $$\int_0^1\frac{\ln\ln\left(\frac{1}{x}\right)}{x^2-x+1}dx$$ I've tried substitution $y=\frac{1}{x}$ and $e^y=\frac{1}{x}$, but those didn't ...
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1answer
46 views

What is this equation with zeta from a T-Shirt in a video?

There's an equation on a T-shirt in the music video by Remy Zero for "Gramarye". There's not a completely clear shot of it, but it's something along the lines of: $$?^{???}(z) = \frac{n !}{2 \pi ?} ...
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2answers
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Changing order of integration limits

$$\int_{1}^{3} \int_{0}^y x+y-1 \, dx \, dy = 9$$ How would I change the order of integration here? Wouldn't this require two integrals? $$\int_{0}^{1} \int_{1}^3 x+y-1 \, dy \, dx + \int_{1}^{3} ...
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2answers
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Integrating 1/x

The standard definition of integrating $\frac{1}{x}$ is: $$ \int \frac{dx}{ax + b} = \frac {1}{a} \ln |ax + b| + K $$ Now, if I'm understanding the "constant factor rule", that is: $$ \int k ...
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2answers
41 views

Calculating $\int_{-\pi}^{+\pi} e^{ixt} e^{-i \omega t} dt$

We know that Fourier Transform of $e^{ixt}$, where $x$ is a real parameter, $t\in \mathbb R$ is $$\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} e^{ixt} e^{-i \omega t} dt=\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} e^{ixt-i \omega t} ...
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1answer
51 views

How does one find the area of an implicit function?

For example we have the equation $y^2+\sin({4y\cos{x}})=4$ You can see the graph here at: https://www.desmos.com/calculator/1sxvfl2amd So far I know it is split into top and bottom. I'm trying to ...
2
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2answers
37 views

How to find derivative of an integral of this type

$$f(x) = \int _x^{e^x}\:\left(\sin t^2\right)\,dt$$ How to find the derivative $f'(x)$ Attempt: $\sin (e^{x^2}) e^x$
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A Binet-like integral $\int_{0}^{1} \left(\frac{1}{\ln x} + \frac{1}{1-x} -\frac{1}{2} \right) \frac{x^s }{1-x}\mathrm{d}x$

I met this integral $$ \int_{0}^{1} \left(\frac{1}{\ln x} + \frac{1}{1-x} -\frac{1}{2} \right) \frac{ \mathrm{d}x}{1-x} \qquad (*) $$ while evaluating this log-cosine integral. I made several ...
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3answers
29 views

what is difference between numerical integration and interpolation?

I am studying finite element method.While studying i am confuse with numerical integration and interpolation.Is this two methods are same or different?. If they are different then is there any ...
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1answer
26 views

Proving and visualizing $\mathbf 1_{(x,x+a]}(y) = \mathbf 1_{[y-a,y)}(x)$

Here is a trick from one of the proofs in probability: $$\iint \mathbf 1_{(x,x+a]}(y) \ \lambda(dx) \ \mathbb P(dy) = \iint \mathbf 1_{[y-a,y)}(x) \ \lambda(dx) \ \mathbb P(dy)$$ for $a>0$. So ...
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4answers
40 views

Double integral with variable change, why the $2\pi$?

I've seen a lot of examples from my textbook where the result of an integration is $2\pi$ instead of $0$, as I would expect it to be. And several of my results will match the correct result if I ...
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2answers
26 views

Evaluation of Indefinite Integral resulting in Hypergeometric Function

I am attempting to derive the result: $$ \int \left(1+x^n\right)^{-1/m}dx= x\,_2F_1\left(\frac 1m,\frac 1n;1+\frac 1n;-x^n\right)$$ First, I start off with the binomial expansion of the integrand to ...
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1answer
36 views

Are these two expression square integrable?

I have two expressions (let's call them functions $f,g$) on $[0,1]$, where I want to find out whether they are square-integrable or better: for which $m \in \mathbb{Z}$ they are square-integrable ( ...
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3answers
91 views

$\int_{0}^{\pi/2}\ln\left(1+4\sin^4 x\right)\mathrm{d}x$ and the golden ratio

We already know that, for any real number $t$ such that $t\geq-1$, $$ \int_{0}^{\pi/2} \ln \left(1+t \sin^2 x\right) \mathrm{d}x = \pi \ln \left( \frac{1+\sqrt{1+t}}{2} \right). $$ Prove that ...
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0answers
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What types of integrals cannot be solved using improper Riemann-Stieltjes Integration?

I came across the wikipedia discussion of the Riemann-Stieltjes integral. The first sentence in the "Generalization" section gave me pause: An important generalization is the Lebesgue–Stieltjes ...
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0answers
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Change of variables formula with integrator of bounded variation

Let $G$ be be continuous with bounded variation on finite intervals. If $f$ is continuous then it is well known that $\int_a^bf(G(s))dG(s)=\int_{G(a)}^{G(b)}f(x)dx$. How general can $f$ be so that ...
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1answer
37 views

Finding Cauchy principal value for: $ \int_1^\infty \frac{ a x^2 + c }{x^4 - b x^2 - c} \mathrm{d}x $

I need to solve the integral $ \displaystyle \mathcal{P} \int_1^\infty \frac{ a x^2 + c }{x^4 - b x^2 - c} \mathrm{d}x $, where $\mathcal{P}$ is the Cauchy principal value, $ - 1 \leq c \leq 1$ and ...
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1answer
37 views

Notation for Surface Integral in $\mathbb{R}^3$

Recently, a paper of mine got accepted, but the reviewers are struggling with the (in my view) standard notation for surface integrals in $\mathbb{R}^3$: Let $\Gamma \subset \mathbb{R}^3$ be a ...
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2answers
127 views

integrate $ \int \frac {x dx}{\sqrt {1+x^{10}} } $

This is a tough one. Thanks. $$\int \frac {x dx}{\sqrt {1+x^{10}} } $$ This is not a homework problem. I spend 10 hours over the course of 3 days on this. I tried: 1) substituting u for x^5 to get ...
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1answer
88 views

Show there exists $x\in (0,1)$ such that $f(x) \leq \int_0^1 f(t) dt$

Please help me check my proof, thanks! (a) Show there exists $x\in (0,1)$ such that $$f(x) \leq \int_0^1 f(t) dt.$$ Proof: when $f$ is constant a.e, the equality holds for all points except for a ...
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4answers
88 views

Using integral definition to solve this integral

I'm trying to solve this question using the definition of integral: $$\int^5_2 (4-2x)dx$$ Definition of integral: We define first the inferior and superior sum: Let $f:[a,b]\to \mathbb R$ be a ...
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4answers
90 views

How find this integral $I=\int_{0}^{\frac{\pi}{2}}(\ln{(1+\tan^4{x})})^2\frac{2\cos^2{x}}{2-(\sin{(2x)})^2}dx$

Find the value: $$I=\int_{0}^{\frac{\pi}{2}}(\ln{(1+\tan^4{x})})^2\dfrac{2\cos^2{x}}{2-(\sin{(2x)})^2}dx$$ I use computer have this reslut ...
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1answer
29 views

Does the limit $\lim_{k\to\infty}\int|\cos kx |f(x) d\lambda(x)$ always exist?

Let $f$ be a Lebesgue integable function. Does the limit $$\lim_{k\to\infty}\int|\cos kx |f(x) d\lambda(x)$$ always exist?
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1answer
34 views

Computing a contour integral over curve not centered at origin

Consider the integral $$ \int_C \frac{1}{z} \, dz $$ where $C$ is the circle of radius $R$ centered at the point $z_0 \in \mathbb{C}$. We parametrize the curve by $z(\theta) = z_0 + Re^{i\theta}$ ...
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0answers
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existence of solution of volterra integral equation of the first kind

$$ \int_0^t k(s,t)f(s)ds=g(t) $$ To know the existence and uniquness of solution of volterra integral equation(VIE) of the first kind, we differentiate it and convert to the VIE of the second kind. ...
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4answers
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equation of line tangent to integral

Given a function, $$F(x)= \int_{-2}^x 3-4t \;\mathrm{dt}$$ find the equation of the line tangent to $F(x)$ at $x=1$ I'm having difficulty understanding why evaluating $F(1)$ (equal to $15$) is ...
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1answer
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Where is the error in this parameterization?

The problem is thus: find $$\int_c (x+2y)\mathrm{d}x+x^2\mathrm{d}y \space \mathrm{where \space C \space consists \space of \space \space line \space segments \space} (0,0)\space \mathrm{to} \space ...
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1answer
43 views

If $f$ is in $R[a,b]$, show that

If $f$ is in $R[a,b]$, show that $$\int_a^b f =\lim_{c\to a^+} \int_c^b f$$ the hint is to show $$\left|\int_a^b f - \int_c^b f \right| = \left|\int_a^c f \right| \le \int_a^c |f|$$
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1answer
103 views

What is the error in this line integral?

C is the arc of the curve $y=\sqrt{x}$ from $(1,1)$ to $(4,2)$. Find $$\int_cx^2y^3-\sqrt{x}\space\mathrm{d}y$$Looks simple enough. I take $x=t$ and $y=\sqrt{t}$. This leaves $$\int_1^2[t^2\cdot ...
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4answers
37 views

Using integrating factor

I have the following differential equation $$\frac{dN(t)}{dt} = A - \mu N(t)$$ I understand that I will need to use an integrating factor but am not sure how to proceed. I think I should use ...
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2answers
52 views

Evaluate integral by completing the square and doing trigonometric substitution

$\int \frac{1}{(x-2)\sqrt{x^{2}-4x+3}} dx$ is my problem Complete the square $\int \frac{1}{(x-2)\sqrt{(x-2)^{2}-1}} dx$ I know I'm probably supposed to use $ \frac{d}{dx}\operatorname{arcsec}(u) = ...
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2answers
55 views

Integration by Tables problem

$$\int \frac {dx} {x(x^8-256)}$$ I am supposed to use the formula $$\int \frac {dx} {x(ax+b)} = \frac1b\ln\left|\frac x {ax+b}\right|+C $$ to find the integral. I don't know how to start. Help is ...
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1answer
54 views

Integral involving Gamma Function

I am solving the following integral: $$ \int_{-1}^{K} u^B e^{-u} du $$ The solution of the integral is a lower incomplete Gamma Function if -1 is replaced with 0. Can anybody help me in solving the ...
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2answers
100 views

Evaluate $\int_0^1 \sqrt{2x-1} - \sqrt{x}$ $dx$

I'm trying to calculate the area between the curves $y = \sqrt{x}$ and $y= \sqrt{2x-1}$ Here's the graph: I've already tried calculating the area with respect to $y$, i.e. $\int_0^1 ...
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0answers
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Integrating with indicator functions

I want to evaluate $$\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}(A_1e^{-\beta_1(b-x-y)}+B_1e^{-\beta_2(b-x-y)})(pn_1e^{-n_1y}1_{\{y\geq0\}}+qn_2e^{n_2y}1_{\{y<0\}})dy,$$ $b>x, \beta_1<n<\beta_2$. I am trying ...
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0answers
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Proof for Scheffe's Lemma and General Dominated Convergence theorem

While reading this question here about the proof for Scheffe's Lemma, I was confused since someone said the proof in the question was not correct. I thought the argument was fine, and the author only ...
4
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1answer
35 views

Double Integral transformation to Polar coordinates

Here's the question from an exam that I couldn't solve: If $\int_1^2 \int_0^x \frac{1}{(x^2+y^2)^\frac{3}{2}} ~\mathrm{dy} ~\mathrm{dx}$ transforms to $\int_0^a \int_b^c \frac{1}{r^2} ...
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2answers
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$\dfrac{\partial}{\partial x}\left(\int_{g(x)}^{h(x)}f(y)\, dy \right)= f(h(x))h'(x)-f(g(x))g'(x)$

I'm trying to prove the following, interesting, relation: $\dfrac{d}{dx}\left(\int_{g(x)}^{h(x)}f(y)\, dy \right)= f(h(x))h'(x)-f(g(x))g'(x)$ I tried to integrate by parts the RHS, but i don't ...
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58 views

How to evaluate the integral $\int e^{ipx}e^{ipx} d^{3}x = 0$

I am embarrassed to ask this question. But I came across the following in a physics book: $$\int e^{ipx}e^{ipx} d^{3}x = 0$$ $d^{3}x = dydydz$, as @Semiclassical shows below. This came up in the ...
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1answer
112 views

Normalization of a two-dimensional kernel function

I've got three two-dimensional kernel functions which look like this $$ k(r,h) = n \cdot \begin{cases} \ldots & 0 \le r \le h \\ 0 & otherwise \end{cases} $$ With ...
7
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2answers
169 views

Proving that $\int_0^1\frac{x \log^2(1-x)}{1+x^2} \ dx = \frac{35}{32}\zeta(3)+\frac{1}{24}\log^3(2) -\frac{5}{96} \pi^2 \log(2)$

Could we possibly prove this result without using the polylogarithm? I know how to do it by polylogarithm means, but I want a different way. Is that possible? $$\int_0^1\frac{x \log^2(1-x)}{1+x^2} ...
2
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3answers
120 views

Integration - finding an explicit formula

The question in my textbook asks: If $f$ is a continuous function such that $$\int\limits_0^x{f(t)dt}=xe^{2x}+\int\limits_0^x{e^{-t}f(t)dt}$$ for all $x$, find an explicit formula for $f(x)$. My ...
2
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4answers
102 views

How to prove $\int_0^\pi \frac{dx}{2+2\sin x+\cos x}=\log3$?

How can we prove that: $$\int_0^\pi \frac{dx}{2+2\sin x+\cos x}=\log3$$ I don't have any ideas, the $f(\pi-x)$ thing doesn't work as well. Please help :)
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2answers
42 views

Doubt in integral substitution

I am not able to figure out what substitution to use in the following integral $$ \int \frac{(x-1)e^x}{(x+1)^3}dx $$ Any help would be appreciated.
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2answers
47 views

Examples of interesting integrable functions with at least 2 fixed points and an explicit inverse

What are some interesting functions I can use to demonstrate this integration trick: $$\int_a^b [f(x)+f^{-1}(x)]=b^2-a^2$$ I would like to know of some interesting functions where this trick is not ...
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2answers
65 views

Triple Integral exercise

Calculate $\int\int\int_Dz\;dxdydz$ if $D$ is the region inside $z=0,z=\sqrt{x^2+y^2}$ and $x^2+y^2=1$. I would like to know if the answer I got is right. This is what I did: $(1)$ Change to ...