Somewhere beyond the numbers lies the concept of Infinity. But what exactly does "infinity" mean? What rules does it obey? What interesting properties does it have?

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What is the point of (Compactness Theorem in the) Overspill Principle?

I am trying to understand the basics of computation theory. The Overspill Principle (also at google) basically says if you are cool you can do everything Let Г be a sentence of predicate logic ...
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37 views

Expected value of a the reciprocal of a random number

If I selected a real number at random from the interval (0.0,1.0), assuming a uniform distribution, the "expected value" would be 0.5. (I am not certain I am using the phrase correctly; I mean, if I ...
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298 views

Is infinity a real or complex quantity?

Since I was interested in maths, I have a question. Is infinity a real or complex quantity? Or it isn't real or complex?
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135 views

Why is 2 bigger than 1? [closed]

If you can split $2$ in infinite pieces, and $1$ in infinite pieces, why is $2 > 1?$ It's like saying infinit > infinit.
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Calculate $\displaystyle \lim_{x \to \infty} x - \sqrt{x^2 + 2x}$ without derivations.

How can I calculte $\displaystyle \lim_{x \to \infty} x - \sqrt{x^2 + 2x}$? Here is what I´ve done so far: Multiplying by $\displaystyle \frac{x + \sqrt{x^2 + 2x}}{x + \sqrt{x^2 + 2x}}$ I got ...
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Limit of constant function

I was reading a proof using Markov Chains in a finite state space $E$. Denote $p_{ij}(n) = P(X_n = j | X_0 = i)$. Since the state space is finite, then probability of landing somewhere in the state ...
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71 views

Difference between limits $\infty$ and $+\infty$

Is there a difference between these two limits? $$\lim_{x\rightarrow\infty}f(x)=+\infty\text{ and }\lim_{x\rightarrow+\infty}f(x)=\infty$$
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275 views

How come $1^{\infty}$ = undefined, while $2^{\infty} = \infty$ and $0^{\infty} = 0$? [duplicate]

$1^\infty$ = undefined $2^\infty = \infty$ $0^\infty = 0$ Why is $1^\infty$ undefined? People were trying to explain to me that infinity isnt part of the Real numbers, yet, $2^\infty$ and ...
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New Axioms of Infinity

Axiom of Infinity says there is an inductive set (i.e. a set which includes $\emptyset$ and is closed under successor operator). Formally: $Inf:\exists x~(\emptyset\in x~\wedge~\forall y\in ...
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150 views

What's wrong with using algebra on infinite series?

I've recently found an article (referred somewhere on this site) criticizing the use of common rules of algebra on infinite series. To be honest, the video referred is one of the videos of Numberphile ...
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108 views

Infinite Series of the asymptotic expansion of Fresnel Integrals

I need to find the infinite series for the asymptotic expansions of the fresnel integrals as $x\rightarrow \infty$ and $x\rightarrow 0$. Now I have computed the asyptotic expansions to be as follows ...
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63 views

How can infinity be an accumulation point?

I can't wrap my mind around this: An accumulation point is a point of a set, which in every yet so small neighborhood (of itself) contains infinitely many points of the set, right? So if (in my case) ...
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25 views

limits for positive and negative infinity

It says we use the l'hospital's rule, however I don't understand because the limit for positive infinity and negative infinity are different. Please help!
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31 views

How do we evaluate this limit?

$$ A_N(x) = \lim_{N\to \infty}(\sin(x)/x)^N $$ The solution to this problem is given as, $$ A_N(x) = \exp( -Nx^2/6). $$ The problem is solved through Taylor series expansion for $\sin(x)$. And ...
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77 views

A solution to the equation $\frac{1}{x}=0$ [duplicate]

The number $i$ is defined as a solution to the equation $x^2+1=0$. How come no one has yet defined a number $j$ as a solution to the equation $\frac{1}{x}=0$? The purpose of course is to be able to ...
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31 views

Find any sequence that meets these criteria.

I'm struggling with this problem and don't know where to start looking: Is there any sequence $a_n$ such that $\lim\limits_{n \to \infty}a_n \neq 0$ and $\lim\limits_{n \to \infty}(n \sqrt[n]{|a_n|}) ...
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25 views

Probability Distribution of Count of Factors for All Numbers

Is the following a known thing? Define "factor count" as the count of factors each number has, then subtract 1. Ignore the number "1" as a factor. For example: Prime numbers have a factor count ...
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Is it possible to extend the complex plane affinely and projectively at the same time?

Is it possible to extend the complex plane affinely and projectively at the same time? That is by adding both the positive infinity (with based on it directed infinity) AND the unsigned complex ...
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4answers
144 views

What is the answer to the paradox of the infinitesimal?

I just read this article on npr, which mentioned the following question: You can keep on dividing forever, so every line has an infinite amount of parts. But how long are those parts? If they're ...
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1answer
41 views

Does this relative primes formula violate the feasibility of picking truly random numbers?

I read a question on this site recently that fascinated me by pointing out that you can't truly pick a random number from an infinite set. I can't find the answer now, but it was shown that you have ...
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3answers
72 views

Can an infinite set be transitive, irreflexive, total, and have an upper and lower bound?

I need an infinite structure that can be put into an order with the following properties: The order must... be transitive, be irreflexive, be total (i.e., every two things share some sort of ...
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Having trouble showing the cardinality of two infinite sets is the same

We just learned about Aleph-naught today and I read about it on wikipedia but I do not know how to go about solving this problem in my homework: Prove that N(natural numbers) has the same ...
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105 views

Why can't the reals be constructed from the infinitesimal?

If the infinitesimal gives an unlimited precision as 1/∞ --> 0 Which can be thought of as the decimal 0.000000.....00000... then Why can't the reals, which demands, simply, unlimited precision (this ...
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Cardinality of the set of at most countable subsets of the real line?

I'm exploring an unrelated question about power series with complex coefficients. While exploring this question, I wondered: What is the cardinality of the set of all such power series? Or with ...
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How to properly clamp Beckmann Distribution

I am trying to implement the Cook-Torrance Microfacet BRDF shading model and I am having some trouble with the Beckmann Distribution: Beckmann Distribution with width parameter ...
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89 views

Are all uncountable infinities greater than all countable infinities? Are some uncountable infinities greater than other uncountable infinities? [duplicate]

I recently finished a discrete mathematics class, and near the end of the semester, the prof (very superficially) touched on countable and uncountable infinities. His explanation of countable ...
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How the extension of complex plane with complex infinity $\tilde{\infty}$ coexists with extension of real line with positive infinity $\infty$?

How the extension of complex plane with complex infinity $\tilde{\infty}$ coexists with extension of real line with positive infinity? Are there any paradoxes arizing? What are the rules when the ...
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114 views

Is infinity a real number? [duplicate]

Is infinity a real number? If not, why not? I want some very good arguments. Thanks. $$\rightarrow\leftarrow\Huge\Huge\Huge\boldsymbol\infty$$
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23 views

Equal number of 1s and 0s in number of n digits

How many ways could one create a binary number of n digits where the number of 1s and 0s are equal? For example, if n was 8 then we could have: 10101010 or 11110000 In addition to this, I may ...
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1answer
59 views

Calculus 2 Integral Question

I've been trying to resolve a calculus question and seem to be having troubles understanding exactly how to approach it. Some hints are supplied, but they don't exactly seem to help. Thanks to anyone ...
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167 views

Does the Mandelbrot fractal contain countably or uncountably many copies of itself?

I've been working on a program that draws fractal images, and I was struck by a question that came to mind. It is clear that the Mandelbrot fractal contains infinitely many copies of itself, but I've ...
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42 views

Help with calculating infinite sum

I'm working on a problem, and I'm stuck in the calculations of finding $\sum_{0}^{\infty}\frac{1}{1+n^2}$ Suggestions on how to approach this calculation? Thanks! (Also, I used Fourier to get to ...
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60 views

Difficult limit problem

$\lim_{n\to \infty} {\sqrt[n]{n^{-n}+2^n}}$ Intuitively, this seems like it should equal 2, but how would one go about showing this? I have tried factoring this somehow, but whatever form I get it in ...
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Is there an expression for $(S/k)$ where $S=\sum_{n=1}^\infty n$ and $k \in \mathbb{Z}$?

Given that $S=\sum_{n=1}^\infty n=-1/12$ (for an explanation see this question or this video from Youtube) For example if $k=4$: $(S/4)=1/4+2/4+3/4+1+5/4+6/4+7/4+2+9/4...$ Please edit to improve ...
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Is $\lim\limits_{n \to \infty} n$ “equal” to $\mathbb{N}$?

In set theory, the natural numbers are defined by means of inductive sets and the successor operation $S(n+1) = n \cup \{n\}$ As such, we have $1 = \{0\}$, $2 = \{0, 1\}$, $3 = \{0, 1, 2\}$, ...
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140 views

Is Continuum Hypothesis false? [closed]

The continuum hypothesis states that there is no set whose cardinality is strictly between that of the integers and the real numbers. However, it seems that it is possible to construct sets that ...
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72 views

Why are these expressions indeterminate expressions?

Why are these $1^\infty,$ $0\cdot\infty$ and $\infty^0$ indeterminate forms. Why we can't solve these expressions?
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502 views

What is the cardinality of the set of infinite cardinalities?

I am currently aware of only two infinite cardinalities: $\aleph_0 = |\Bbb N|$ $\aleph_1 = |\Bbb R|$ Questions: Is there an infinite number of infinite cardinalities? If yes, is this set of ...
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120 views

Infinite chessboard question

Suppose there is a species of aliens called cyborgs. There is an infinite chessboard in their homeland. There is 1 cyborg on every square. If cyborgs can jump infinitely far, or jump and land on their ...
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142 views

Infinity and Hilbert's hotel paradox

I did some infinite series calculations while studying Fourier analysis and the concept of infinity really bugs me. I haven't read or heard not one sensible explanation yet (for me), what infinity ...
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436 views

Why does $ (\frac{1}{2})^∞ = 0?$

Recently while at my tutoring I had a question that said: "Aladin has a pair of magic scissors that can cut things in to tiny pieces. If he cuts a carpet in half, cuts the half into half and continues ...
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Is there, for every set $X$, a set $Y$ for which $|Y| < |X|$ but $|\mathcal{P}(Y)| \geq |X|$?

As the title says, my question is: Is there, for every set $X$, a set $Y$ for which $|Y| < |X|$ but $|\mathcal{P}(Y)| \geq |X|$? I'm fairly certain this is true for finite sets but maybe ...
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5answers
126 views

Do non-square infinite matrices exist?

Sorry, I tried to wrap my head more around this, but I failed. Given non-square matrix $A$ that has dimension $kn \times n$. Now let $n$ goto infinity. Is the matrix finally square?
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Is $\frac{0}{0}$ different from $\frac{1}{0}$?

In my mind, zero divided by zero answers the question of what $a$, when multiplied with zero, equals zero: $a * 0 = 0$ Obviously, any real number will satisfy this equation. However, one divided by ...
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What is the cardinality of the equivalence class

Consider this relation: $$R = \left\{ {\left\langle {f,g} \right\rangle \in {{\left\{ {0,1} \right\}}^N} \times {{\left\{ {0,1} \right\}}^N}|\exists k \in N\left| {\left\{ {i \in N|f(i) \ne g(i)} ...
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$0.999999\ldots=1$? Others? [duplicate]

I have seen this problem come up many times and I was wondering if my proof is valid for $0.999\ldots=1$ where $0.999\ldots$ is continuous: $$x=0.999\ldots$$ $$10x=9.999\ldots$$ ...
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Naive calculations with infinite series [duplicate]

In the realm, where the sum of natural numbers is $-1/12$ : $1+2+3+4+...=-1/12$ Is this true?: $2+4+6+8+...=2*(1+2+3+4+...)=-2/12$ Can this kind of naive calculations always be done? -or are there ...
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Evaluating an integral over inifinty with polars leads to an integral of cosine over inifinity, how can this be resolved?

So I have the integral $$\int_0^\infty\int_0^\infty\frac{yx^2}{x^2 +y^2}e^{-(x^2 +y^2)} \,dx\,dy$$ And converting this into polars gives: $$\int_0^\infty r^2 e^{-r^2}\,dr ...
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Finding a limit with a Square Root

$$\lim_{x\to \infty} \frac{\sqrt{9x^6-x}}{x^3+7}$$ I thought it would simply be $1/3$, not sure where I went wrong.
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Are all infinite sets equivalent by an indexing function?

Would it be true to say that two infinite sets would always be equivalent since you could always match the index of their elements? For instance, match the first element in $A$ to the first element ...