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7
votes
6answers
204 views

Definition of tangent

What is the formal definition of a tangent to a curve? The only one I can find is that it is a straight line drawn between two infinitely close points on the curve.
2
votes
2answers
52 views

Surface Area of a Sphere

I'm having trouble with finding the surface area of a sphere, without using any calculus. What I thought, was that the surface area of a sphere is fundamentally an infinite number of rings, ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

In-depth explanation of infinitely small differences?

As in this question's title, could anyone give me an explanation of an infinitely small difference and how one would calculate it (if one could even do that)? I've been trying to learn calculus for a ...
1
vote
0answers
50 views

find the the variable that maximizes a function

I have a function that I am trying to find for what input it maximizes. $$ f(n) = {\binom{S}{2}}^{n/S}$$ I need to find the $S$ for which this function maximizes (for infinite $n$). more generally, ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

If 0.99…=1 What about 0.89…=0.9?

I notice the general pattern is that ?.??999... equals to 0.??1 more than the repeating 9 part. Is it true?
4
votes
0answers
73 views

Defining “Penon Infinitesimals”.

In this lecture (which is accompanied by these slides), right near the end (so page 9 in the pdf of the slides; I don't think you have to watch the lecture), P. Johnstone refers to the "Penon ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Infinitesimals in gradients

Take the function $y(\vec v)$ such that $y:\mathbb R^n\to\mathbb R$. Given it's gradient $\nabla y = \left(\frac{\partial y}{\partial v_1},\cdots,\frac{\partial y}{\partial v_n}\right)$, it is ...
0
votes
2answers
26 views

Muddled Notions Regarding the Measurement of Quantities in Different Dimensions

In my calculus class, I've learned a lot about finding areas/volumes of various shapes by summing up infinitely small slices of 'something' and adding them all up. This is very interesting to me, but ...
2
votes
3answers
69 views

Functions and Infinitesimals?

My textbook says the following: $ads = v dv$ where $a$, $s$, $v$ are functions. I was introduced to integral calculus a semester ago, and Riemann Sums (and integrals) are the only notion of ...
10
votes
5answers
242 views

Is line element mathematically rigorous?

I know differentials (in a way of standard analysis) are not very rigorous in mathematics, there are a lot of amazing answers here on the topic. But what about line element? $$ds^2 = dx^2 + dy^2 ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Is there a source linking Robinson's work in wing theory with his theory of infinitesimals?

Abraham Robinson worked in applied mathematics for several decades. MathSciNet lists 12 articles by Robinson in wing theory. His production included the book Robinson, A.; Laurmann, J. A. Wing ...
6
votes
1answer
359 views

Are infinitesimals dangerous?

Amir Alexander is a historian of mathematics. His new book is entitled "Infinitesimal: How a Dangerous Mathematical Theory Shaped the Modern World". See here. Two questions: (1) In what sense are ...
0
votes
5answers
209 views

What is the name of $0.\overline{0}1$

Short question: What is the name of the number closest but not equal to zero? Long question: Some programmers were discussing about the smallest number close to zero, which is ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Limits and common sense

I'm stuck in understanding of limits. It all makes sense, but at a certain point my answers which seem logical to me are not true. Please can somebody explain why as a huge number gets divided by a ...
3
votes
1answer
171 views

infinitesimal calculus

I have been reading some non-standard analysis from Keisler's book and I think it is logically consistent till now but there are criticisms against it and why isn't non-standard analysis accepted more ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Small Lorentz Transformation

This is very simple and I can 50% understand it but would like to properly understand why it is. If we have an infinitesimal Lorentz transformation $\Lambda^\mu _\nu = \delta^\mu _\nu + \omega^\mu ...
4
votes
1answer
96 views

Non-standard analysis way of proving that derivative of $e^x$ is $e^x$

What is the non-standard (infinitesimal) analysis way of proving that the derivative of $e^x$ is $e^x$? I tried to prove it myself, but I am having a hard time proving this without recourse to ...
9
votes
7answers
192 views

Intuition for a real line vs. a “hyperreal line”

I am a student of pure mathematics but I have no formal background in nonstandard analysis. I came across the concept of a hyperreal field recently, read just a little about them, and followed the ...
4
votes
2answers
129 views

How do mathematics define a point?

I have a serious doubt. How do mathematicians define a 'point' in a space or a plot? If we have a clear explanation for a 'point' , I think my doubt on infinitesimals and infinity will be clarified.
4
votes
1answer
75 views

Perturbation in characteristic p, or Why, really, does Lie's theorem fail?

While recalling some basics of Lie theory, I found a funny proof of the main lemma in Lie's theorem on triangularity of representations of solvable Lie algebras. It turns out that this proof has a ...
11
votes
3answers
394 views

Who gave you the epsilon?

Who gave you the epsilon? is the title of an article by J. Grabiner on Cauchy from the 1980s, and the implied answer is "Cauchy". On the other hand, historian I. Grattan-Guinness points out in his ...
5
votes
2answers
135 views

How can this result in Thermodynamics be rigorously proved?

In Fermi's "Thermodynamics" there's a proof of the formula: $$W=\int _{V_1} ^{V_2} p\,\text dV,$$that is, the work done by the pressure of a gas that expands from a volume $V_1$ to a volume $V_2$ on ...
1
vote
1answer
271 views

Proof of Chain Rule using Nonstandard Analysis

I am trying to make an introduction and make myself comfortable with the Nonstandard Analysis in order to gain intuition for derivatives and integration. I am trying to prove myself the famous Chain ...
2
votes
0answers
111 views

Surface infinitesimals and its intuitive manipulation?

The excess pressure in the concave side of any liquid bubble or drop with surface tension of the liquid being $T$ is $\frac {4T}r$ and $\frac {2T}r$ respectively. I wanted to derive it using a ...
2
votes
0answers
66 views

differentiable function in R but non continuous derivative for any point in R

Need your help with the next Question (I thought about her and could not find an answer) Is there differentiable function for all R , so that the derivative is non continuous for any point in R ? ...
4
votes
3answers
132 views

non-archimedean in lay terms

I've dabbled with studying infinitesimals off and on for years ... Robinson, Keisler, Bell ("Smooth Worlds"), etc., even a bit of category theory. But I'm not a mathematician and tend to jump in way ...
1
vote
1answer
94 views

sum of legs of inscribed right triangle

Consider a right and isoceles triangle ABC inscribed in a circle such as its hypotenuse forms the diameter AB of the circle (the right vertex is thus at the "apex" of the circle). If we procede to an ...
2
votes
2answers
227 views

Definition of the integral in non-standard calculus

In the sources I've seen, the integral is defined in non-standard calculus as the hyperreal extension of a function related to Riemann sums. E.g., Let $$ S(\Delta x) = \sum_{a}^{b}f(x)\Delta x$$ be a ...
2
votes
3answers
373 views

Calculating limits using the $\epsilon$-$\delta$ definition.

Suppose you have a function $f(x)=( x^2-4)/(x-2)$. How then do we find the limit as $x\to2$ in accordance with the epsilon delta definition? I mean suppose we don't know how to calculate limit and we ...
0
votes
3answers
203 views

What is the epsilon-delta definition of limits, exactly?

I am a bit confused with infinitesimals, and want to know why they were discarded and the epsilon-delta definition is being used? What is the epsilon-delta definition of limit? What is the intuition ...
7
votes
6answers
653 views

What is the meaning of infinitesimal?

I have read that an infinitesimal is very small, it is unthinkably small but I am not quite comfortable with with its applications. My first question is that is an infinitesimal a stationary value? It ...
6
votes
6answers
603 views

What does limit actually mean?

I have been in a deep confusion for about a month over the topic of limits! According to our book the limit at $a$ is the value being approached by a function $f(x)$ as $x$ approaches $a$ I have a ...
16
votes
1answer
297 views

Calculus over $\mathbb{Q}$

The mismatch between the sensitivity of 'mathematical calculus' and the flexibility of 'real world calculus' has been bothering me a bit recently. What I mean is this: in the real world, I can trust ...
2
votes
1answer
74 views

Co-transitivity of the constructive order relation

One of the first exercises in J.L. Bell's A Primer of Infinitesimal Analysis asks the reader to show that, for arbitrary real numbers $a$, $b$, and $x$, if $a < b$, then either $x > a$ or $x ...
-4
votes
1answer
113 views

Proof that $0 = 1$ or that $\frac1\infty = 0$ [closed]

Proof that $0.9\ldots = 1$: Let $x = 0.999\ldots$ $$10x = 9.999\ldots\\ 9x = 9.999\ldots - 0.999\\ x = 1$$ Proof $0 = 1$: $$1 - \frac{1}\infty = 0.999\ldots\\ 1 - \frac{1}\infty = 1\\ ...
2
votes
2answers
159 views

Defining infinitesimals

Can such definition of infinitesimals hold? $$\mathrm{d} x :=a:(a>0 \;\And\; \forall b \in \mathbb{R}^+\backslash \{ a \}\;(a<b))$$ And, if the above definiton works, then obviously ...
2
votes
3answers
215 views

Formal definition of the Differential of a function

The formal definition of the differential of a differentiable function $f: x \mapsto y=f(x)$ is that it's a two-variable function, its name is $df$ and its value is $df(x,\Delta_X) = ...
1
vote
0answers
62 views

rigorous treatment of infinitesimal reparametrizations

my first post :) I am asking this directed to mathematicians or mathematical physicists since I don't like the usual physics approach. Reading some string theory books I always find that the ...
2
votes
2answers
177 views

Nilpotent infinitesimals comparison

I'd like to understand better the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to nilpotent infinitesimal numbers and their application to differential geometry in the context of physics and ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

What is $(\operatorname{monad}(0), \leq)$ isomorphic to?

Suppose, given $\epsilon \in \operatorname{monad}(0)$ and $\epsilon \neq 0$, is it true for each $x \in \operatorname{monad}(0)$, $$x = \sum_{r_i \in s \subset \Bbb R, s \text{ is finite}}a_i ...
7
votes
1answer
142 views

What is this limit called? Is it a different kind of derivative?

(first I should notice you this is not something I can look up in a textbook, because I'm learning partial derivatives, alike I do with most Maths, as a hobby. If something below is wrong, blame the ...
1
vote
1answer
125 views

More than one dx under integral

Normally, integrals look like $\int{f(x)dx}$. But, I occasionally get something like $\int{dx\over 1+f(x)dx}$. Is it a sign of an error? Partcularly, I tried to relativistic constant force ...
5
votes
2answers
77 views

How to show $\chi_{{}^{*}P} ={}^{*}\chi_{P}$ by transfer principle?

Let $\mathfrak{R}$ be the real number system, $(\mathbb{R},+,\cdot,<)$ and ${}^{*}\mathfrak{R}$ be the hyperreal number system $({}^{*}\mathbb{R},{}^{*}+,{}^{*}\cdot,{}^{*}<)$. Transfer ...
3
votes
1answer
168 views

Why every member of ${}^{*}\mathbb{R}$ is infinitely close to some member of ${}^{*}\mathbb{Q}$

Let $\mathbb{Q}$ be the set of rational numbers. Show that every member of ${}^{*}\mathbb{R}$ is infinitely close to some member of ${}^{*}\mathbb{Q}$. This is an exercise on page 180, A ...
1
vote
1answer
131 views

Derivative of a little-o remainder

If we have a $\phi: \mathbb{R} \times \mathbb{R}^n \times \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$, $\phi = \phi(t, \mathbf{q},\alpha)$ one-parameter group of infinitesimal transformation which is $\mathcal{C}^2$ ...
4
votes
3answers
163 views

How $\frac{dx}{dy}=f(x)g(y) \Leftrightarrow \int \frac{dx}{f(x)} = \int g(y)dy$?

In my intro differential equations class we have often used the "equivalence" stated in title. It seems to me that somehow, the intermediate step $$ \frac{dx}{f(x)} = g(y)dy$$ is being used, in which ...
1
vote
0answers
115 views

Proving $f$ is constant.

Let $f$ and $g$ be continuous function where $f,g:[a,b] \rightarrow \Bbb R $ and $\int_a^b g(x)=0$ and $\int_a^b f(x)g(x)=0$ , show that $f$ is a constant function. I tried a bunch of things ...
5
votes
1answer
66 views

Determining hyperreal class for $\frac{\epsilon + \delta}{\sqrt{\epsilon^2 + \delta^2}}$

I'm solidifying my calculus by going through Keisler's book that uses a hyperreal/infinitesimal approach. I'm stuck on this problem. Given infinitesimals $\epsilon,\delta > 0$, deterimine whether ...
5
votes
0answers
123 views

Nontrivial trivial integrals

Consider two propositions in geometry: Circumscribe a right circular cylinder about a sphere. The surface area of the cylinder between any two planes orthogonal to the cylinder's axis equals the ...
0
votes
1answer
124 views

Euler's use of infinitesimal calculus

Can anyone explain (12) in this article. Why can we write $f(n)$ as a sum of derivatives: $$f(n) = \frac{ds}{dn} - \frac{1}{2!}\frac{d^2s}{dn^2} + \frac{1}{3!}\frac{d^3s}{dn^3} - \cdots$$ where $s(n) ...