Questions on proving and manipulating inequalities.

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15
votes
6answers
2k views

Comparing $\pi^{e}$ and $e^{\pi}$

How can I calculate without calculator or something like this the values of $\pi^{e}$ and $e^{\pi}$ in order to compare them ?
8
votes
2answers
1k views

How do you show that $l_p \subset l_q$ for $p \leq q$?

I can't seem to work out the inequality $(\sum |x_n|^q)^{1/q} \leq (\sum |x_n|^p)^{1/p}$ for $p \leq q$ (which I'm assuming is the way to go about it).
5
votes
1answer
674 views

Inequality involving $\limsup$ and $\liminf$

This may have been asked before, however I was unable to find any duplicate. This comes from pg. 52 of "Mathematical Analysis: An Introduction" by Browder. Problem 14: If $(a_n)$ is a sequence in ...
14
votes
1answer
548 views

On the equality case of the Hölder and Minkowski inequalites

I'm following the book Measure and Integral of Richard L. Wheeden and Antoni Zygmund. This is the problem 4 of chapter 8. Consider $E\subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$ a measurable set. In the following all the ...
12
votes
8answers
3k views

How to prove and interpret $\operatorname{rank}(AB) \leq \operatorname{min}(\operatorname{rank}(A), \operatorname{rank}(B))$?

Let A and B be two matrices which can be multiplied. Then $\operatorname{rank}(AB) \leq \operatorname{min}(\operatorname{rank}(A), \operatorname{rank}(B))$ I proved $\operatorname{rank}(AB) \leq ...
1
vote
1answer
898 views

Proof the inequality $n! \geq 2^n$ by induction

I'm having difficulity solving an exercise in my course. The question is: Prove that $n!\geq 2^n$. We have to do this with induction. I started like this: The lowest natural number where the ...
25
votes
6answers
1k views

Proving : $ \bigl(1+\frac{1}{n+1}\bigr)^{n+1} \gt (1+\frac{1}{n})^{n} $

How could we prove that this inequality holds $$ \left(1+\frac{1}{n+1}\right)^{n+1} \gt \left(1+\frac{1}{n} \right)^{n} $$ where $n \in \mathbb{N}$, I think we could use the AM-GM inequality ...
15
votes
1answer
500 views

How do you prove Gautschi's inequality for the gamma function?

A few answers here on math.SE have used as an intermediate step the following inequality that is due to Walter Gautschi: $$x^{1-s} < \frac{\Gamma(x+1)}{\Gamma(x+s)} < (x+1)^{1-s},\qquad x > ...
7
votes
3answers
952 views

Is the Euler phi function bounded below?

I am working on a question for my number theory class that asks: Prove that for every integer $n \geq 1$, $\phi(n) \geq \frac{\sqrt{n}}{\sqrt{2}}$. However, I was searching around Google, and on ...
4
votes
3answers
2k views

lim sup inequality $\limsup ( a_n b_n ) \leq \limsup a_n \limsup b_n $

I´m not sure how to start with this proof, how can I do it? $$ \limsup ( a_n b_n ) \leqslant \limsup a_n \limsup b_n $$ I also have to prove, if $ \lim a_n $ exists then: $$ \limsup ( a_n b_n ) = ...
7
votes
4answers
992 views

Showing the inequality $|\alpha + \beta|^p \leq 2^{p-1}(|\alpha|^p + |\beta|^p)$

I have a small question that I think is very basic but I am unsure how to tackle since my background in computing inequalities is embarrasingly weak - I would like to show that, for a real number $p ...
6
votes
2answers
3k views

Proof of upper-tail inequality for standard normal distribution

$X \sim \mathcal{N}(0,1)$, then to show that for $x > 0$, $$ \mathbb{P}(X>x) \leq \frac{\exp(-x^2/2)}{x \sqrt{2 \pi}} \>. $$
13
votes
7answers
736 views

What does $\ll$ mean?

I saw two less than signs on this Wikipedia article and I was wonder what they meant mathematically. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_tank_problem EDIT: It looks like this can use TeX commands. ...
18
votes
4answers
2k views

Purely “algebraic” proof of Young's Inequality

Young's inequality states that if $a, b \geq 0$, $p, q > 0$, and $\frac{1}{p} + \frac{1}{q} = 1$, then $$ab\leq \frac{a^p}{p} + \frac{b^q}{q}$$ (with equality only when $a^p = b^q$). Back when I ...
2
votes
1answer
9k views

Reverse Triangle Inequality Proof

I've seen the full proof of the Triangle Inequality $|x+y|\le|x|+|y| $ However, I haven't seen the proof of the reverse triangle inequality: $||x|-|y||\le|x-y|$ Could you please prove this using ...
9
votes
2answers
426 views

An inequality : is it true if it is then how to prove it?

consider positive numbers $a_1,a_2,a_3,\ldots,a_n$ and $b_1,b_2,\ldots,b_n$. does the following in-equality holds and if it does then how to prove it ...
17
votes
1answer
422 views

How prove this inequality $(a^2+bc^4)(b^2+ca^4)(c^2+ab^4) \leq 64$

Question: If $a,b,c$ are nonnegative real numbers such that $a+b+c=3,$ then $$(a^2+bc^4)(b^2+ca^4)(c^2+ab^4) \leq 64$$ My try: I found this inequality is only if $(a,b,c)=(2,0,1)$ But I ...
9
votes
5answers
2k views

Proving $(1 + 1/n)^{n+1} \gt e$

I'm trying to prove that $$ \left(1 + \frac{1}{n}\right)^{n+1} > e $$ It seems that the definition of $e$ is going to be important here but I can't work out what to do with the limit in the ...
4
votes
3answers
3k views

Properties of $\liminf$ and $\limsup$ of sum of sequences

Let $\{s_n\}$ and $\{t_n\}$ be sequences. I've noticed this inequality in a few analysis textbooks that I have come across, so I've started to think this can't be a typo: $\limsup\limits_{n ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Subadditivity of the limit superior

$$ \limsup \left(f(h)+g(h)\right) \leq \limsup f(h)+ \limsup g(h).$$ How can we prove this? Any help would be appreciated.
6
votes
1answer
269 views

If $\sigma_n=\frac{s_1+s_2+\cdots+s_n}{n}$ then $\operatorname{{lim sup}}\sigma_n \leq \operatorname{lim sup} s_n$

This is a question from the book Methods of Real Analysis by R. R. Goldberg. If $(s_n)$ is a sequence of real numbers and if $$\sigma_n=\frac{s_1+s_2+\cdots+s_n}{n}$$ then prove that: ...
4
votes
4answers
220 views

Prove that $n^k < 2^n$ for all large enough $n$

If $k\ge 2$ is an integer, prove by elementary means (no calculus or limits) that there is a $N(k)$ such that $n^k < 2^n$ for all integers $n \ge N(k)$. Give an explicit form for $N(k)$.
2
votes
5answers
2k views

Prove by mathematical induction that $2n ≤ 2^n$, for all integer $n≥1$?

I need to prove $2n \leq 2^n$, for all integer $n≥1$ by mathematical induction? This is how I prove this: Prove:$2n ≤ 2^n$, for all integer $n≥1$ Proof: $2+4+6+...+2n=2^n$ $i.)$ Let $P(n)=1 ...
14
votes
5answers
2k views

Prove $(-a+b+c)(a-b+c)(a+b-c) \leq abc$, where $a, b$ and $c$ are positive real numbers

I have tried the arithmetic-geometric inequality on $(-a+b+c)(a-b+c)(a+b-c)$ which gives $$(-a+b+c)(a-b+c)(a+b-c) \leq \left(\frac{a+b+c}{3}\right)^3$$ and on $abc$ which gives $$abc \leq ...
11
votes
1answer
686 views

Factorial Inequality problem

I met an inequality, I ask, do not mathematical induction to prove that: Prove \[ \left(\frac n2\right)^n > n! > \left(\frac n3\right)^n \] without using induction
10
votes
2answers
308 views

Inequality $\sum_{1\le k\le n}\frac{\sin kx}{k}\ge 0$

Show the following inequality for any $x\in [0, \pi]$ and $n\in \mathbb{N}^*$, $$ \sum_{1\le k\le n}\frac{\sin kx}{k}\ge 0. $$ I have this question a very long time ago from a book or magazine but I ...
9
votes
6answers
1k views

Proving $\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}{\frac{1}{\sqrt{k}}\ge\sqrt{n}}$ with induction

I am just starting out learning mathematical induction and I got this homework question to prove with induction but I am not managing. $$\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}{\frac{1}{\sqrt{k}}\ge\sqrt{n}}$$ ...
7
votes
0answers
451 views

Enestrom-Kakeya Theorem [duplicate]

The Enestrom-Kakeya theorem states that all roots of the polynomial: $$p(z):=\sum_{k=0}^n a_kz^k$$ lie outside the open unit disk if the sequence $(a_k)$ is positive and decreasing. A proof can be ...
4
votes
2answers
933 views

How to prove $a^n < n!$ for all $n$ sufficiently large, and $n! \leq n^n$ for all $n$, by induction?

I have a couple things I want to prove. I'm pretty sure a proof by induction is the best route for these. First, I need to show that $5^n < n!$ from some $n_{0} > 0$. I'm choosing $n_{0} = ...
47
votes
4answers
2k views

Prove $\left(\dfrac{2}{5}\right)^{\frac{2}{5}}<\ln{2}$

Inadvertently, I find this interesting inequality,But this problem have nice solution? prove that $$\ln{2}>(\dfrac{2}{5})^{\frac{2}{5}}$$ This problem have nice solution? Thank you. ago,I find ...
5
votes
2answers
882 views

Challenging inequality: $abcde=1$, show that $\frac{1}{a}+\frac{1}{b}+\frac{1}{c}+\frac{1}{d}+\frac{1}{e}+\frac{33}{2(a+b+c+d+e)}\ge{\frac{{83}}{10}}$

Let $a,b,c,d,e$ be positive real numbers which satisfy $abcde=1$. How can one prove that: $$\frac{1}{a} + \frac{1}{b} + \frac{1}{c} + \frac{1}{d} +\frac{1}{e}+ \frac{33}{2(a + b + c + d+e)} ...
14
votes
4answers
498 views

How find this inequality $\max{\left(\min{\left(|a-b|,|b-c|,|c-d|,|d-e|,|e-a|\right)}\right)}$

let $a,b,c,d,e\in R$,and such $$a^2+b^2+c^2+d^2+e^2=1$$ find this value $$A=\max{\left(\min{\left(|a-b|,|b-c|,|c-d|,|d-e|,|e-a|\right)}\right)}$$ I use computer have this $$A=\dfrac{2}{\sqrt{10}}$$ ...
7
votes
3answers
971 views

Hardy's Inequality for Integrals

I am trying to prove Hardy's Inequality for integrals: Let $f:(0,\infty) \rightarrow \mathbb R$ be in $L^p$. Let $F(x) = \frac{1}{x} \int_0 ^x f(t)dt$. Then $F \in L^p$ and $\|F\|_p \leq ...
7
votes
1answer
548 views

Another way to go about proving the limit of Fibonacci's sequence quotient.

It is not difficult to inductively prove that $$\eqalign{ & \phi = \phi + 0 \cr & {\phi ^2} = \phi + 1 \cr & {\phi ^3} = 2\phi + 1 \cr & {\phi ^4} = 3\phi + 2 ...
12
votes
1answer
268 views

Chebyshev: Proof $\prod \limits_{p \leq 2k}{\;} p > 2^k$

How do I prove the following: $$\prod_{p \leq 2k} \; p > 2^k \text{ with } p \in \mathbb{P}$$ I tried induction, but I didn't know how to go on because I don't have a look at all numbers. ...
7
votes
2answers
249 views

Proving Integral Inequality

I am working on proving the below inequality, but I am stuck. Let $g$ be a differentiable function such that $g(0)=0$ and $0<g'(x)\leq 1$ for all $x$. For all $x\geq 0$, prove that ...
5
votes
1answer
208 views

Inequality concerning inverses of positive definite matrices

I don't find a way to prove this: given $A$, $B$, symmetric and positive definite: $$A>B \Rightarrow A^{-1} < B^{-1},$$ where $A>B$ means that $A-B$ is positive definite.
11
votes
3answers
1k views

Lower bound for $\phi(n)$: Is $n/5 < \phi (n) < n$ for all $n > 1$?

Is it true that : $\frac {n}{5} < \phi (n) < n$ for all $n > 1$ where $\phi (n)$ is Euler's totient function . Since $\phi(n)$ has maximum value when $n$ is a prime it follows that ...
8
votes
1answer
238 views

Why does Group Theory not come in here?

Here is a list of questions that I find quite similar, for the one and only reason that they all show much "symmetry". Which is at the same time my problem, because I don't have a very precise notion ...
8
votes
1answer
222 views

Is it possible to generalize Ramanujan's lower bound for factorials that he used in his proof of Bertrand's Postulate?

I am starting to feel more confident in my understanding of Ramanujan's proof of Bertrand's postulate. I hope that I am not getting overconfident. In particular, Ramanujan's does the following ...
8
votes
5answers
827 views

Proof that $x \Phi(x) + \Phi'(x) \geq 0$ $\forall x$, where $\Phi$ is the normal CDF

As title. Can anyone supply a simple proof that $$x \Phi(x) + \Phi'(x) \geq 0 \quad \forall x\in\mathbb{R}$$ where $\Phi$ is the standard normal CDF, i.e. $$\Phi(x) = \int_{-\infty}^x ...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

Quantile function properties

I am confused by "Inverse distribution function (quantile function)" section of the wikipedia page on CDFs . It says that $$F^{-1}(F(x)) \leq x\text{ and }F(F^{-1}(y)) \geq y$$ However, I ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

How to use triangle inequality to establish Reverse triangle inequality

I need to use $|a+b| \leq |a|+|b|$ to show that $||a|-|b|| \leq |a-b|$. I have tried to represent $||a|-|b||$ as $||a|+(-|b|)|$, and then get $||a|+(-|b|)| \leq |a|+|-|b||$, but that isn't leading ...
5
votes
4answers
1k views

Geometric mean never exceeds arithmetic mean

This was a mathematical induction question proposed in a textbook, and I've exhausted multiple approaches (proving RHS - LHS > 0, splitting the fraction, fractional exponents, etc.) The geometric ...
4
votes
5answers
372 views

Showing $a^2 < b^2$, if $0 < a < b$

Lately, I've been stumbling with proofs of inequalities. For example: Given $0 < a < b$ Show $a^2 < b^2$ The only thing I've been able to come up with so far: $a^2 < b^2$ ...
3
votes
12answers
317 views

How to prove this inequality $ x + \frac{1}{x} \geq 2 $

I was asked to prove that: $$x + \frac{1}{x}\geqslant 2$$ for all values of $ x > 0 $ I tried substituting random numbers into $x$ and I did get the answer greater than $2$. But I have a ...
3
votes
1answer
98 views

Understanding the Gamma Function

Is this valid? If $x_1 > x_2 > x_3 > 0$ and $\Delta{t_1} = \Delta{t_2} + \Delta{t_3}$, Does it follow that: $$\frac{\Gamma(x_1 + \Delta{t_1})}{\Gamma(x_1)} \ge \frac{\Gamma(x_2 + ...
3
votes
4answers
210 views

Does $|x|^p$ with $0<p<1$ satisfy the triangular inequality on $\mathbb{R}$?

I am curious about whether $|x|^p$ with $0<p<1$ satisfy $|x+y|^p\leq|x|^p+|y|^p$ for $x,y\in\mathbb{R}$. So far my trials show that this seems to be right... So can anybody confirm whether this ...
3
votes
3answers
193 views

$(W_1+W_2+\cdots+W_n)^a \leq W_1^a +\cdots + W_n^a$ for $n$ integer, $n\geq 2$, $W\gt 0$ and $a$ constant, real, $0\lt a\lt 1$

I am looking for a proof that this inequality: $$(W_1+W_2+\cdots+W_n)^a \leq W_1^a +\cdots + W_n^a$$ is valid. I have a power function $f(W)=W^a$ where $a$ is a real number, constant but usually ...
2
votes
4answers
444 views

For what natural numbers is $n^3 < 2^n$? Prove by induction

Problem For what natural numbers is $n^3 < 2^n$? Attempt @ Solution For $n=1$, $1 < 2$ Suppose $n^3 < 2^n$ for some $n = k \ge 1$ It looks like the inequality is true for $n = 0$, $n = 1$ ...