Questions on proving, manipulating and applying inequalities.

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34
votes
7answers
3k views

Comparing $\pi^{e}$ and $e^{\pi}$

How can I calculate without calculator or something like this the values of $\pi^{e}$ and $e^{\pi}$ in order to compare them ?
6
votes
1answer
1k views

Inequality involving $\limsup$ and $\liminf$

This may have been asked before, however I was unable to find any duplicate. This comes from pg. 52 of "Mathematical Analysis: An Introduction" by Browder. Problem 14: If $(a_n)$ is a sequence in ...
15
votes
5answers
5k views

How to prove and interpret $\operatorname{rank}(AB) \leq \operatorname{min}(\operatorname{rank}(A), \operatorname{rank}(B))$?

Let A and B be two matrices which can be multiplied. Then $\operatorname{rank}(AB) \leq \operatorname{min}(\operatorname{rank}(A), \operatorname{rank}(B))$ I proved $\operatorname{rank}(AB) \leq ...
9
votes
1answer
23k views

Reverse Triangle Inequality Proof

I've seen the full proof of the Triangle Inequality \begin{equation*} |x+y|\le|x|+|y|. \end{equation*} However, I haven't seen the proof of the reverse triangle inequality: \begin{equation*} ...
16
votes
2answers
2k views

On the equality case of the Hölder and Minkowski inequalites

I'm following the book Measure and Integral of Richard L. Wheeden and Antoni Zygmund. This is the problem 4 of chapter 8. Consider $E\subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$ a measurable set. In the following all the ...
30
votes
10answers
1k views

Proofs of AM-GM inequality

The arithmetic - geometric mean inequality states that $$\frac{x_1+ \ldots + x_n}{n} \geq \sqrt[n]{x_1 \cdots x_n}$$ I'm looking for some original proofs of this inequality. I can find the usual ...
19
votes
1answer
1k views

How do you prove Gautschi's inequality for the gamma function?

A few answers here on math.SE have used as an intermediate step the following inequality that is due to Walter Gautschi: $$x^{1-s} < \frac{\Gamma(x+1)}{\Gamma(x+s)} < (x+1)^{1-s},\qquad x > ...
15
votes
1answer
307 views

Prove that $(p+q)^m \leq p^m+q^m$

If $p,q$ are positive quantities and $0 \leq m\leq 1$ then Prove that $$(p+q)^m \leq p^m+q^m$$ Trial: For $m=0$, $(p+q)^0=1 < 2= p^0+q^0$ and for $m=1$, $(p+q)^1=p+q =p^1+q^1$. So, For ...
11
votes
3answers
2k views

Is the Euler phi function bounded below?

I am working on a question for my number theory class that asks: Prove that for every integer $n \geq 1$, $\phi(n) \geq \frac{\sqrt{n}}{\sqrt{2}}$. However, I was searching around Google, and on ...
12
votes
2answers
2k views

How do you show that $l_p \subset l_q$ for $p \leq q$?

I can't seem to work out the inequality $(\sum |x_n|^q)^{1/q} \leq (\sum |x_n|^p)^{1/p}$ for $p \leq q$ (which I'm assuming is the way to go about it).
12
votes
2answers
7k views

Proof of upper-tail inequality for standard normal distribution

$X \sim \mathcal{N}(0,1)$, then to show that for $x > 0$, $$ \mathbb{P}(X>x) \leq \frac{\exp(-x^2/2)}{x \sqrt{2 \pi}} \>. $$
8
votes
1answer
472 views

If $\sigma_n=\frac{s_1+s_2+\cdots+s_n}{n}$ then $\operatorname{{lim sup}}\sigma_n \leq \operatorname{lim sup} s_n$

This is a question from the book Methods of Real Analysis by R. R. Goldberg. If $(s_n)$ is a sequence of real numbers and if $$\sigma_n=\frac{s_1+s_2+\cdots+s_n}{n}$$ then prove that: ...
4
votes
12answers
548 views

How to prove this inequality $ x + \frac{1}{x} \geq 2 $

I was asked to prove that: $$x + \frac{1}{x}\geqslant 2$$ for all values of $ x > 0 $ I tried substituting random numbers into $x$ and I did get the answer greater than $2$. But I have a ...
11
votes
2answers
520 views

Prove $(a_1+b_1)^{1/n}\cdots(a_n+b_n)^{1/n}\ge \left(a_1\cdots a_n\right)^{1/n}+\left(b_1\cdots b_n\right)^{1/n}$

consider positive numbers $a_1,a_2,a_3,\ldots,a_n$ and $b_1,b_2,\ldots,b_n$. does the following in-equality holds and if it does then how to prove it ...
37
votes
19answers
3k views

Simplest or nicest proof that $1+x \le e^x$

The elementary but very useful inequality that $1+x \le e^x$ for all real $x$ has a number of different proofs, some of which can be found online. But is there a particularly slick, intuitive or ...
5
votes
3answers
4k views

lim sup inequality $\limsup ( a_n b_n ) \leq \limsup a_n \limsup b_n $

I´m not sure how to start with this proof, how can I do it? $$ \limsup ( a_n b_n ) \leqslant \limsup a_n \limsup b_n $$ I also have to prove, if $ \lim a_n $ exists then: $$ \limsup ( a_n b_n ) = ...
27
votes
6answers
1k views

Proving : $ \bigl(1+\frac{1}{n+1}\bigr)^{n+1} \gt (1+\frac{1}{n})^{n} $

How could we prove that this inequality holds $$ \left(1+\frac{1}{n+1}\right)^{n+1} \gt \left(1+\frac{1}{n} \right)^{n} $$ where $n \in \mathbb{N}$, I think we could use the AM-GM inequality ...
21
votes
4answers
4k views

Purely “algebraic” proof of Young's Inequality

Young's inequality states that if $a, b \geq 0$, $p, q > 0$, and $\frac{1}{p} + \frac{1}{q} = 1$, then $$ab\leq \frac{a^p}{p} + \frac{b^q}{q}$$ (with equality only when $a^p = b^q$). Back when I ...
10
votes
6answers
2k views

Proving $\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}{\frac{1}{\sqrt{k}}\ge\sqrt{n}}$ with induction

I am just starting out learning mathematical induction and I got this homework question to prove with induction but I am not managing. $$\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}{\frac{1}{\sqrt{k}}\ge\sqrt{n}}$$ ...
10
votes
2answers
2k views

Prove $\limsup\limits_{n \to \infty} (a_n+b_n) \le \limsup\limits_{n \to \infty} a_n + \limsup\limits_{n \to \infty} b_n$

I am stuck with the following problem. Prove that $$\limsup_{n \to \infty} (a_n+b_n) \le \limsup_{n \to \infty} a_n + \limsup_{n \to \infty} b_n$$ I was thinking of using the triangle inequality ...
8
votes
4answers
16k views

Proof of triangle inequality

I understand intuitively that this is true, but I'm embarrassed to say I'm having a hard time constructing a rigorous proof that $|a+b| \leq |a|+|b|$. Any help would be appreciated :)
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Proof the inequality $n! \geq 2^n$ by induction

I'm having difficulity solving an exercise in my course. The question is: Prove that $n!\geq 2^n$. We have to do this with induction. I started like this: The lowest natural number where the ...
5
votes
3answers
349 views

How do you prove ${n \choose k}$ is maximum when k is $ \lceil \frac n2 \rceil$ or $ \lfloor \frac n2\rfloor $?

How do you prove ${n \choose k}$ is maximum when k is $ \lceil \frac{n}{2} \rceil $ or $ \lfloor \frac{n}{2} \rfloor$ ? This link provides a proof of sorts but it is not satisfying. From what I ...
4
votes
3answers
4k views

Properties of $\liminf$ and $\limsup$ of sum of sequences

Let $\{s_n\}$ and $\{t_n\}$ be sequences. I've noticed this inequality in a few analysis textbooks that I have come across, so I've started to think this can't be a typo: $\limsup\limits_{n ...
7
votes
4answers
527 views

$X_n\leq Y_n$ implies $\liminf X_n \leq \liminf Y_n$ and $\limsup X_n \leq \limsup Y_n$

Can anyone prove this question? I tried but I didn't get any I idea, so I hope someone can solve it. Let $X_n\leq Y_n$ for each $n\in \Bbb N$. Show that $\liminf X_n \leq \liminf Y_n$ and $\limsup ...
4
votes
4answers
416 views

Prove that $n^k < 2^n$ for all large enough $n$

If $k\ge 2$ is an integer, prove by elementary means (no calculus or limits) that there is a $N(k)$ such that $n^k < 2^n$ for all integers $n \ge N(k)$. Give an explicit form for $N(k)$.
3
votes
7answers
202 views

Show that if $n>2$, then $(n!)^2>n^n$.

Show that if $n>2$, then $(n!)^2>n^n$. My work: I tried to apply induction. So, at the induction step, I need to prove, $n^n>(n+1)^{n-1}$ Here, I tried to use induction again without ...
9
votes
5answers
4k views

Proving $(1 + 1/n)^{n+1} \gt e$

I'm trying to prove that $$ \left(1 + \frac{1}{n}\right)^{n+1} > e $$ It seems that the definition of $e$ is going to be important here but I can't work out what to do with the limit in the ...
10
votes
4answers
2k views

Showing the inequality $|\alpha + \beta|^p \leq 2^{p-1}(|\alpha|^p + |\beta|^p)$

I have a small question that I think is very basic but I am unsure how to tackle since my background in computing inequalities is embarrasingly weak - I would like to show that, for a real number $p ...
13
votes
1answer
1k views

Factorial Inequality problem

I met an inequality, I ask, do not mathematical induction to prove that: Prove \[ \left(\frac n2\right)^n > n! > \left(\frac n3\right)^n \] without using induction
13
votes
7answers
900 views

What does $\ll$ mean?

I saw two less than signs on this Wikipedia article and I was wonder what they meant mathematically. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_tank_problem EDIT: It looks like this can use TeX commands. ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Subadditivity of the limit superior

$$ \limsup \left(f(h)+g(h)\right) \leq \limsup f(h)+ \limsup g(h).$$ How can we prove this? Any help would be appreciated.
6
votes
5answers
7k views

how to strictly prove $\sin x<x$ for $0<x<\frac{\pi}{2}$

$$\sin x<x\,(0<x<\frac{\pi}{2})$$ In most textbooks, to prove this inequality is based on geometry illustration (draw a circle, compare arc length and chord ), but I think that strict proof ...
16
votes
1answer
584 views

How prove this inequality $(a^2+bc^4)(b^2+ca^4)(c^2+ab^4) \leq 64$

Question: If $a,b,c$ are nonnegative real numbers such that $a+b+c=3,$ then $$(a^2+bc^4)(b^2+ca^4)(c^2+ab^4) \leq 64$$ My try: I found this inequality is only if $(a,b,c)=(2,0,1)$ But I ...
14
votes
6answers
4k views

Prove $(-a+b+c)(a-b+c)(a+b-c) \leq abc$, where $a, b$ and $c$ are positive real numbers

I have tried the arithmetic-geometric inequality on $(-a+b+c)(a-b+c)(a+b-c)$ which gives $$(-a+b+c)(a-b+c)(a+b-c) \leq \left(\frac{a+b+c}{3}\right)^3$$ and on $abc$ which gives $$abc \leq ...
6
votes
4answers
1k views

Showing inequality for harmonic series.

I want to show that $$\log N<\sum_{n=1}^{N}\frac{1}{n}<1+\log N.$$ But I don't know how to show this.
5
votes
3answers
876 views

Proof by induction of Bernoulli's inequality: $(1 + x)^n \geq 1 + nx$

I'm asked to used induction to prove Bernoulli's Inequality: If $1+x>0$, then $(1+x)^n\geq 1+nx$ for all $n\in\mathbb{N}$. This what I have so far: Let $n=1$. Then $1+x\geq 1+x$. This is true. Now ...
6
votes
4answers
2k views

Geometric mean never exceeds arithmetic mean

This was a mathematical induction question proposed in a textbook, and I've exhausted multiple approaches (proving RHS - LHS > 0, splitting the fraction, fractional exponents, etc.) The geometric ...
3
votes
3answers
224 views

$(W_1+W_2+\cdots+W_n)^a \leq W_1^a +\cdots + W_n^a$ for $n$ integer, $n\geq 2$, $W\gt 0$ and $a$ constant, real, $0\lt a\lt 1$

I am looking for a proof that this inequality: $$(W_1+W_2+\cdots+W_n)^a \leq W_1^a +\cdots + W_n^a$$ is valid. I have a power function $f(W)=W^a$ where $a$ is a real number, constant but usually ...
2
votes
5answers
3k views

Prove by mathematical induction that $2n ≤ 2^n$, for all integer $n≥1$?

I need to prove $2n \leq 2^n$, for all integer $n≥1$ by mathematical induction? This is how I prove this: Prove:$2n ≤ 2^n$, for all integer $n≥1$ Proof: $2+4+6+...+2n=2^n$ $i.)$ Let $P(n)=1 ...
67
votes
3answers
3k views

Prove $\left(\dfrac{2}{5}\right)^{\frac{2}{5}}<\ln{2}$

Inadvertently, I find this interesting inequality,But this problem have nice solution? prove that $$\ln{2}>(\dfrac{2}{5})^{\frac{2}{5}}$$ This problem have nice solution? Thank you. ago,I find ...
10
votes
1answer
512 views

The series $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty \frac n{\frac1{a_1}+\frac1{a_2}+\dotsb+\frac1{a_n}}$ is convergent

If a series $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty a_n$ is convergent, and $a_n\gt0$... Do not refer to Carleman's inequality or Hardy's inequality, show that the series $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac ...
8
votes
1answer
244 views

Inequality involving the sup of a function and its first and second derivatives

Let $f:\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ be a twice differentiable function. And let $$\eqalign{ & M_0 = \sup \left|f(x)\right| \cr & M_1 = \sup \left|\frac{d}{dx} f(x) \right| ...
9
votes
2answers
353 views

Proving Integral Inequality

I am working on proving the below inequality, but I am stuck. Let $g$ be a differentiable function such that $g(0)=0$ and $0<g'(x)\leq 1$ for all $x$. For all $x\geq 0$, prove that ...
11
votes
3answers
1k views

Lower bound for $\phi(n)$: Is $n/5 < \phi (n) < n$ for all $n > 1$?

Is it true that : $\frac {n}{5} < \phi (n) < n$ for all $n > 1$ where $\phi (n)$ is Euler's totient function . Since $\phi(n)$ has maximum value when $n$ is a prime it follows that ...
4
votes
3answers
143 views

How to prove the inequality $2\sqrt{n + 1} − 2 \le 1 +\frac 1 {\sqrt 2}+\frac 1 {\sqrt 3}+ \dots +\frac 1 {\sqrt n} \le 2\sqrt n − 1$?

Prove that for any positive integer $n$, $$2\sqrt{n + 1} − 2 \le 1 +\frac 1 {\sqrt 2}+\frac 1 {\sqrt 3}+ \dots +\frac 1 {\sqrt n} \le 2\sqrt n − 1$$ Progress I think Riemann sum should be used for ...
11
votes
10answers
454 views

Prove by induction that for all $n \geq 3$: $n^{n+1} > (n+1)^n$

I am currently helping a friend of mine with his preperations for his next exam. A big topic of the exam will be induction, thus I told him he should practice this a lot. As at the beginning he had no ...
7
votes
2answers
4k views

How to use triangle inequality to establish Reverse triangle inequality

I need to use $|a+b| \leq |a|+|b|$ to show that $||a|-|b|| \leq |a-b|$ . I have tried to represent $||a|-|b||$ as $||a|+(-|b|)|$ , and then get $||a|+(-|b|)| \leq |a|+|-|b||$ , but that isn't ...
17
votes
4answers
772 views

Inequality with Complex Numbers

Consider the following problem: Prove that for every set of complex numbers $\{z_i\}$, with $i$ ranging from one to $n$, there is a subset $J$ such that $$\left|\sum_{j\in J} z_j\right|\ge ...
16
votes
6answers
3k views

If $a > b$, is $a^2 > b^2$?

Given $a > b$, where $a,b ∈ ℝ$, is it always true that $a^2 > b^2$?