Questions on proving, manipulating and applying inequalities.

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0
votes
1answer
31 views

Estimate $|f(x)| \le \frac C{|x|^3}$

Let $$f(x) = \frac{\sin x}x+\frac{\sin(x-1)}{2(x-1)}+\frac{\sin(x+1)}{2(x+1)}.$$ Find the common denominator and use common trigonometric identities to establish that $$|f(x)| \le \frac ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Norm and Inner Product Inequality in Hilbert spaces

Let $H$ be a Hilbert space, and suppose that $C \subset H$ is closed, convex and nonempty. Then, for $y_{j}=P_{C}(x_{j})$, $j=1,2$ where $P_{C}$ is the metric projection onto $C$ and $x_{1},x_{2} \in ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

Proof of $\lim\sup(a_nb_n)\leq \lim\sup(a_n)\limsup(b_n)$

Let $a_n>0$ and $b_n\geq 0$, then $\lim\sup(a_nb_n)\leq \lim\sup(a_n)\limsup(b_n)$ My attempt at a proof is as follows. Let $A_n=\sup\{a_n, a_{n+1},...\}$, $B_n=\sup\{b_n, b_{n+1},...\}$, and ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Criteria for inequality

I am working with an inequality and I need to prove something of the shape $$c\cdot a+d\cdot b \leq a\cdot b$$ The numbers $a$ and $b$ have a specific form, but for the $c$ and $d$ I only know that ...
3
votes
0answers
19 views

Sum of Complex Numbers and Modulus Inequality

Let $z_{1}, \dots, z_{n} \in \mathbb{C}$. Then, there exists a subset $S \subset \{1,\dots,n\}$ such that: $ \left| \displaystyle\sum_{j \in S}z_{j} \right| \geq ...
4
votes
2answers
136 views

Prove that $7<e^2<8$

I was asked by my teacher to prove that $7<e^2<8$ using only algebraic methods and knowing that $2<e<3$. I don't know how to do this, where to start from, but I guess that I would need ...
3
votes
1answer
54 views

Prove that $a^ab^bc^c\geq (\frac{a+b}{2})^{\frac{a+b}{2}} (\frac{b+c}{2})^{\frac{b+c}{2}}(\frac{c+a}{2})^{\frac{c+a}{2}}$

Prove that $$a^ab^bc^c\geq \left(\frac{a+b}{2}\right)^{\frac{a+b}{2}} \left(\frac{b+c}{2}\right)^{\frac{b+c}{2}}\left(\frac{c+a}{2}\right)^{\frac{c+a}{2}}\geq \left(\frac{a+b+c}{3}\right)^{a+b+c}$$ ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Lagarias and Robin theorems versus multiplicative property

If I use for example Robin's theorem, see here in the section Growth of arithmetic functions, or Lagarias equivalence, see (5) here has sense ask us what is the more sharp inequality for ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Inequality in the proof of Weak Harnack Inequality

Let $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^{n}$ a bounded domain s.t $B_{1} \subset \Omega$ , $u \in H^{1}(\Omega)$ a nonnegative supersolution in the weak sense of the equation $Lu=-D_{i}(a_{ij}(x)D_{j}u)$ ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Why is the following reverse triangle inequality true for given series?

I wish to show that for $(a_k)$ a sequence of numbers, $a_k \in \mathbb{R}$ then claim : $|\sum\limits_{k = n+1}^m a_k | \leq ||\sum\limits_{k = n+1}^\infty a_k| - |\sum\limits_{k = ...
1
vote
1answer
11 views

Function Inequality

Let $E$ and $F$ be normed vector spaces and $\mathscr{L}(E,F) = \{f:E \rightarrow F \mid f$ is linear and continuous$\}$ be a normed vector space with the norm $\lVert f \rVert = \sup_{|x|=1} \{|f(x)| ...
12
votes
1answer
209 views

Inequality with summation of cosine terms $\left|1 + 2\sum_{j=1}^k \cos (\frac{2\pi n}{q}j) \right| \leq 1 + 2\sum_{j=1}^k \cos (\frac{2\pi }{q}j)$

I got stuck on the following problem: Let $q\in \mathbb{N}$ be a fixed odd number and $k,n \in \{ 1,…,\frac{q-1}{2}\}$. I want to show that $$ \left|1 + 2\sum_{j=1}^k \cos (\frac{2\pi n}{q}j) \right| ...
-1
votes
0answers
48 views

Proving $n^n \cdot \left(\frac{n+1}{2}\right)^{2n}\geq \left(\frac{n+1}{2}\right)^3$

Proving $$n^n \cdot \left(\frac{n+1}{2}\right)^{2n}\geq \left(\frac{n+1}{2}\right)^3$$ , Where $n\in \mathbb{N}$ $\bf{My\; Try::}$ Using $\bf{A.M\geq G.M}\;,$ We get ...
1
vote
2answers
69 views

Prove that $\frac 12\leq \frac{1}{n+1}+\frac {1}{n+2}+\frac{1}{n+3}…+\frac{1}{n+n}$

How do I prove $$\frac 12\leq \frac{1}{n+1}+\frac {1}{n+2}+\frac{1}{n+3}...+\frac{1}{n+n}$$ without using induction? Note that clearly $n\neq 0$ Thanks for any help!!
6
votes
5answers
116 views

Prove by mathematical induction: $\frac{1}{n}+\frac{1}{n+1}+\dots+\frac{1}{n^2}>1$

Could anybody help me by checking this solution and maybe giving me a cleaner one. Prove by mathematical induction: $$\frac{1}{n}+\frac{1}{n+1}+\dots+\frac{1}{n^2}>1; n\geq2$$. So after I check ...
9
votes
4answers
222 views

Proving that $\frac{1}{n}+\frac{1}{n+1}+\cdots+\frac{1}{2n}>\frac{13}{24}$ by induction. Where am I going wrong?

I have to prove that $$\frac{1}{n}+\frac{1}{n+1}+\dots+\frac{1}{2n}>\frac{13}{24}$$ for every positive integer $n$. After I check the special cases $n=1,2$, I have to prove that the given ...
4
votes
5answers
91 views

Prove that $\frac{1}{n+1} + \frac{1}{n+3}+\cdots+\frac{1}{3n-1}>\frac{1}{2}$

Without using Mathematical Induction, prove that $$\frac{1}{n+1} + \frac{1}{n+3}+\cdots+\frac{1}{3n-1}>\frac{1}{2}$$ I am unable to solve this problem and don't know where to start. Please help me ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Absolute value of product is less than product of absolute values: $|(1+a_1)(1+a_2)\dots (1+a_n)-1|\leq (1+|a_1|)(1+|a_2|)\dots (1+|a_n|)-1$

For a sequence $a_n\in\mathbb{C}$ I want to show that $$|(1+a_1)(1+a_2)\dots (1+a_n)-1|\leq (1+|a_1|)(1+|a_2|)\dots (1+|a_n|)-1$$ I think I should show this by induction on $n$. For the base case I'm ...
3
votes
1answer
47 views

Require assistance proving $n≥2 \Longrightarrow \frac{n!}{n^n} ≤ \frac{1}{2}^{\lfloor \frac{n}{2}\rfloor}$

Theorem: $n≥2 \Longrightarrow \frac{n!}{n^n} ≤ \frac{1}{2}^{\lfloor \frac{n}{2}\rfloor}$ Attempted Solution: We use induction. Additionally, we prove the stronger inequality omitting the floor ...
0
votes
2answers
29 views

Triangle Inequality?

I'm having trouble proving the following claim: $\forall a, b, c \in \mathbb{R}_+: T(a, b, c) \Rightarrow [|a − b| < c$ and $|b − c| < a$ and $|a − c| < b]$ Where $T(a, b, c)$ is a ...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

Prove that $|a\sqrt{1-b^2}+b\sqrt{1-a^2}-\sqrt{3(1-a^2)(1-b^2)} +\sqrt{3}ab| \le2$

Prove for any $a, b \in [-1, 1]$ that $$|a\sqrt{1-b^2}+b\sqrt{1-a^2}-\sqrt{3(1-a^2)(1-b^2)} +\sqrt{3}ab| \le2$$ I'm sure there is a solution using the Cauchy-Swartz inequality. Thus i tried to ...
1
vote
4answers
74 views

Proving that the exponential inequality $e^x \ge x^e$ holds for all $x \ge 0$ [duplicate]

How does one prove that $$e^x \ge x^e$$ for all $x \ge 0$? I tried to do this by setting $f(x)=e^x-x^e$ Plotting this function shows this easily, as seen here. However, when I tried to prove ...
8
votes
9answers
298 views

Why $e^x$ is always greater than $x^e$?

I find it very strange that $$ e^x \geq x^e \, \quad \forall x \in \mathbb{R}^+.$$ I have scratched my head for a long time, but could not find any logical reason. Can anybody explain what is the ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

How to prove the following equivalence

$T$ is a positive real number $\lambda_k$ is a family of positive reals number that $\to \infty$ with $k$ $f(s)$ is a function that is a $o(s)$ and $0<f(s)<s$ I want to prove that $\liminf_k ...
14
votes
1answer
160 views

Simple(r) proof that $\pi(2^n)\geq n$?

We can clearly prove that $\pi(2^n)\geq n$ with Bertrand's postulate, but that seems like overkill. Is there any simpler way one can prove that $\pi(2^n)\geq n$? Note: $\pi(m)$ is the prime ...
9
votes
0answers
826 views

How to prove this polynomial inequality?

How can we prove the following? If $\frac{dP_{n}}{dz}|_{z=z_{0}}=0$ then $|P_{n}(z_{0})|<2$ for all $n>1$, where $P_{n}(z)\equiv P_{n-1}^{2}+z$ and $P_{1}\equiv z$ $z$ is in the complex plane. ...
2
votes
3answers
71 views

Trying to prove for all integers: $n \ge 1 \implies \frac{2n+1}{2n+2} \ge \frac{\sqrt{n}}{\sqrt{n+1}}$

Been racking my brain on this one.. I've tried some things but not sure if it flows logically: $\forall x \in \mathbb{Z}: n \ge 1$ $n+2 \ge 1$ $2n+2 \ge n+1$ $\frac{2n+1}{2n+2} \ge ...
1
vote
2answers
69 views

how to prove this inequality $(ab+bc+ac)^2 ≥ 3abc(a+b+c)$

Prove that if $a,b,c$ are non-negative real numbers, then $(ab + bc + ca)^2 \geq 3abc(a+b+c)$. I tried to compute from $(a-b)^2 + (b-c)^2 + (c-a)^2 \geq 0$.
1
vote
2answers
44 views

Is this function bounded above?

Consider nonconstant functions $f(x), g(x) \neq x$. Suppose there exist positive constants $k_1$ and $k_2$ such that $k_{1} x \leq f(x) \leq k_{2} x$ and $\frac{1}{2}k_{1} x \leq g(x) \leq k_{2} x$. ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

Reference for theorem? Inequality of integrals of increasing function over two distributions

I have a monotone increasing function $H(x)$ and two distributions with CDFs $F_1$ and $F_2$, where $F_1(x) \leq F_2(x)$ everywhere. The domain is $[0,\infty)$. This seems like it must be true: $$ ...
1
vote
2answers
48 views

DKW-style $\ell_{\infty}$ bounds for sum of i.i.d. random functions: $\to [0,1]$

Let $\mathbf{G}$ be the set of (edit: convex) functions $g: X \to [0,1]$, where $X$ is a compact subset of $\mathbb{R}^d$ or something like that. Suppose I have a distribution $D$ on $\mathbf{G}$. ...
2
votes
1answer
235 views

The sum of differences between two data sets is minimized when both are ordered the same way

Suppose we have two sets of data, $X$ and $Y$, each of which contains $10$ positive numbers. Now let us order the data sets $$X=\left\{ x_{1},\cdots,x_{10}\right\},\quad x_{1}\ge\cdots\ge ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

What function gives this inequality?

Let $i<j<k<l$ be positive integers. I want to find a "nice" function $f(x, y)$ such that $f(i, k)+f(j, l)>\max(f(i, j)+f(k, l), f(i, l)+f(j, k))$. This seems a bit tricky because the ...
3
votes
1answer
114 views

Inequality $2a^nb^nc^n+1\geq a^{2n}+b^{2n}+c^{2n}$

Let $a,b,c\in[-1,1]$ be such that $$2abc+1\geq a^2+b^2+c^2.$$ Prove that $$2a^nb^nc^n+1\geq a^{2n}+b^{2n}+c^{2n}$$ for any positive integer $n$. The case $n=1$ is of course the same as the ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Real values of $x$ in $(1+2^x)\cdot (1+8^x)\cdot (1+9^x)^2 = (1+6^x)^4$

$(1)$ Real values of $x$ in $2^x+3^{-x}+4^{-x}+6^x = 4$ $(2)$ Real values of $x$ in $(1+2^x)\cdot (1+8^x)\cdot (1+9^x)^2 = (1+6^x)^4$ My Try: For First one:: Here ...
5
votes
1answer
206 views

Does the triangle inequality for the absolute value hold for matrix trace?

It is well-known that, $\left|m-n\right|\ge\left|\left|m\right|-\left|n\right|\right|$ for real numbers. But if one defines $\left|M\right|=\sqrt{M^2}$ for a symmetric matrix $M$, does one have ...
0
votes
2answers
25 views

Question on double inequality with radicals

A really simple question, but I thought I'd ask anyway. Does $n<x^n<(n+1)$ imply $\sqrt[n] n < x < \sqrt[n] {n+1}$? Thank you very much.
0
votes
3answers
54 views

Show that $\frac{1}{1+k}=\frac{\frac{1}{k}}{1+\frac{1}{k}}\leq \ln(1+\frac{1}{k})\leq\frac{1}{k}$

Prove the following: $$\frac{1}{1+k}=\frac{\frac{1}{k}}{1+\frac{1}{k}}\leq \ln(1+\frac{1}{k})\leq\frac{1}{k}$$ I know I can prove it with induction if the values were naturals. However, the "problem" ...
0
votes
2answers
63 views

An inequality on an arbitrary function

I'm trying to find the complexity of a program and reduced the question to the following one: Let $g$ be a function from natural numbers (including $0$) to natural numbers. Assume that for every $n ...
2
votes
1answer
80 views

What is the intuition behind the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in the real numbers?

The Cauchy-Schwarz inequality states that $$\left(\sum_{i=1}^n x_i y_i\right)^2\leq \left(\sum_{i=1}^n x_i^2\right) \left(\sum_{i=1}^n y_i^2\right).$$ The proof, with the discriminant argument, is ...
3
votes
2answers
47 views

Sketch the set of points satysfing an inequality $|z+1|+|z-1|\leq2$

The inequality is $$|z-1|+|z+1|\leq2$$ I used a triangle inequality to show that Since triangle inequality states: $$|z+w|\leq|z|+|w|$$ Then $$|z-1+z+1|\leq|z-1|+|z+1|\leq2$$ So $$|2z|\leq2$$ From ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Solving inequality to state function f>1

I have the following function, $$f = \frac{x-a}{y-a} $$ I want to specify the condition for $f>1$ I wrote it as, $$f>1$$ when $$\frac{x-a}{y-a}>1$$ so, I rewrote it as, $$x-a>y-a$$ ...
3
votes
2answers
51 views

Prove $ab\leq F(a)+G(b),~~\text{for all}~a\geq 0$ and $b\geq 0$

Suppose that te function $f:[0,\infty)\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ is continuous and strictly increasing, with $f(0)=0$ and $f([0,\infty))=[0,\infty)$. Then define ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

How to show $\log a\le n(\sqrt[n]{a}-1) \le \sqrt[n]{a}\log a$

Let $ b=\sqrt[n]{a}$. How to show: $\log a\le n(\sqrt[n]{a}-1) \le \sqrt[n]{a}\log a$? Thank you ;)
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Inequality problem for Markov Process

Is there any upper bound available for the following quantity $$E[\max_{1 \leq k \leq n} X_k]$$ where $\{X_n\}$ is a Markov chain.
2
votes
3answers
43 views

Why are some solutions excluded if we simply multiply the denominator in an fraction inequality?

I have the next inequality for which I have to find the solutions : $$\frac{2x-5}{3x-1}\geq 1, \text{ where } x\in\mathbb{R}$$ I know I have to subtract $1$ and then I have to analyse the sign for ...
1
vote
3answers
115 views

Considering a convex polygon lying on a plane in 3D space, how can I know if a point on that plane lies inside or outside that polygon?

I have a plane in space and a polygon in it. I know the position of each vertices making the polygon. I also know the position of the point on the plane. How can I know whether the point is inside or ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Question on statement of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality: $\vert\langle x,y \rangle \vert \leq \Vert x \Vert \cdot \Vert y \Vert$

Denoting the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality as Wikipedia does, $$\vert\langle x,y \rangle \vert \leq \Vert x \Vert \cdot \Vert y \Vert$$ and noting that $$\vert\langle x,y \rangle \vert = \Vert x\cdot y ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

How to solve the “$\min$” function coming with absolute value in an inequality

Prove that if $|x-a|<\min(k/(2|1+b|),1)$ and $|y-b|<(k/2(1+|a|))$, then $|xy-ab|<k.$ In this question I don't know how to deal with "$\min$" part in the first inequality.
1
vote
1answer
26 views

How to show that $(X-a)^+\le X^++|a|$

How to show that $(X-a)^+\le X^++|a|$, where $X, a$ are real Is the following OK; $(X-a)^+ +(a-X)^+=|X-a|$ and If the claim (in the yellow box) is not true then also; $(a-X)^+> a^++|X|$ but ...