Questions about Gödel's incompleteness theorems and related topics.

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Expressibility of Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem

Can Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem be expressed as a formal sentence in ZFC and be proven formally or is it inherently meta-mathematical? (Note: I am referring to the theorem itself, not the ...
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Can two distinct formulae (or series of formulae) have the same Gödel number?

As I am studying Gödel's incompleteness theorem I am wondering if two distinct formulae or series of formulae can have the same Gödel number? Or the function mapping each formula or series of formulae ...
2
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1answer
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Gödel's proof method and fundamental theorem of arithmetic

I am a novice to Gödel's proof (the theorem that consistency contradicts completeness), and, as it seems to me, he uses the fundamental theorem of arithmetic to uniquely number any formula. My ...
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0answers
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Could it be that Goldbach conjecture is undecidable?

The result closest to Goldbach conjecture is Chen's theorem [Sci. Sinica 16 157–176], the proposition ``1+2''. It is natural to ask if it is likely that under our arithmetic axioms the Goldbach ...
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1answer
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If a statement holds for all standard models of PA, then does it hold for all models?

Suppose that $\varphi$ is a consequence of every standard model of PA. Then is it provable from PA?
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1answer
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Gödel's way of teaching non-standard models to Takeuti.

In Memoirs of a Proof Theorist, Gaisi Takeuti relates how Gödel taught him about nonstandard models in an "interesting" way: It went as follows. Let T be a theory with a nonstandard model. By ...
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4answers
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Proving Undecidability of first order logic without first proving it for arithmetic.

All text I have read prove the Undecidability of first order logic a bit as an afterthought and after having proved the incompleteness and Undecidability of (Peano) Arithmetic. This proof also ...
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1answer
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particular property and completeness?

I was puzzeling with the almost standard definition of completeness: In mathematical logic and metalogic, a formal system is called complete with respect to a particular property if every formula ...
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0answers
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Tensor Product of Hilbert Spaces: incomplete?

Let $\mathcal{H}$ be an infinite dimensional Hilbert space and $\mathcal{H}\otimes_0\mathcal{H}$ its algebraic twofold tensor product. Define a scalar product on it as ...
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2answers
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Gödel incompleteness theorem [closed]

Gödel incompleteness theorem states that any effectively generated theory capable of expressing elementary arithmetic cannot be both consistent and complete.So what are some Gödel sentences about ...
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1answer
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Criticism on truth of Gödel sentence in standard interpretation

Mendelson in his book mentioned the Gödel sentence and argued that in standard interpretation it is true. But Peter Milne in his article (On Godel Sentences and What They Say) criticized: "But we know ...
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Truth of Godel's sentence in standard interpretation

It is siad that the Godel's sentence: g is true in the standard interpretation. But I have problem in truth of g in the standard interpretation. We proved that if theory K is consistent g is not ...
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2answers
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Scapegoat theory and PA

A theory T is scapegoat if for every formula A with only one free variable there exist a closed term s such that T proves: (∃x(¬A(x)))⇒¬A(s) I think it is an expectable property for each theory since ...
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Undecidable sentence in Godel's incompleteness theorem? [duplicate]

At first I want to apologize to you for repeating my question, since I didnt get satisfying answer. And because answering to this question is very important to me, I have to repost this question. ...
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0answers
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What follows from Incompleteness about provability of partial correctness?

A colleague and I can't figure out what our professor is getting at with this question: What follows from the incompleteness theorems about the provability of partial correctness assertions? What ...
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2answers
121 views

Undecidable sentence in Godel's incompleteness theorem

In Godel's incompleteness theorem, the undecidable sentence is g: I am not provable. Ok. I accepted it and realized that in satandard interpretation it is true. So we found a true sentence which ...
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1answer
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Non-self-referential undecidable sentences in arithmetic

Are there any known undecidable sentences for PA are neither "self-referential" (like a sentence equivalent to its own nonprovability) nor imply consistency of PA (like in the Paris Harrington ...
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5answers
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Understanding ω-consistent and ω-incomplete theory

A theory $K$ is said to be $ω$-consistent if, for every formula $B(x)$ of $K$, if $﹁ B(n)$ is a theorem in $K$ for every natural number $n$, then it is not the case that $(∃x)B(x)$ is a theorem in ...
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3answers
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Concrete example for diagonal lemma

Diagonal lemma says that in a theory with enough assumption for any formula $A(x)$ there exist a sentence $B$ such that $B$ $\iff$ $A(\#(B))$ is a theorem in that theory, in which $\#(B)$ represents ...
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1answer
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How did Kurt Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem affect the mathematical world?

Hi I am looking not to understand the Incompleteness Theorem, but to find out more about how and what this has effected the mathematics world. I am in high school, in Honors Algebra II, and I am ...
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6answers
669 views

prove that it's not provable

Is it possible to prove that you can't prove some theorem? For example: Prove that you can't prove the Riemann hypothesis. I have a feeling it's not possible but I want to know for sure. Thanks in ...
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2answers
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clarify the term “arithmetics” when talking about Gödel's incompleteness theorems

I am not quite sure what really is meant when talking about "arithmetics" in context of Gödel's incompleteness theorems. How I so far understand it: Gödel proved that every sufficiently powerful ...
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Under the impact of Gödel's incompleteness theorems, are the conclusions of statistics reliable?

After I read the Gödel's incompleteness theorems, I am confused about the following: Could you tell me if the conclusions of mathematical statistics are reliable? Gödel's incompleteness theorems ...
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How is Goedel's 1st incompleteness theorem related to the Axioms of a theory

i am thinking of various connections and formulations of Goedel's 1st incompleteness theorem. Apart from connections to Turing's Halting Problem and Algorithmic Complexity Theory, i am looking for ...
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2answers
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Gödel's incompleteness theorems: where to learn? Is there a straightforward relation between the two?

What would be a good textbook or paper to learn the proofs of the two Gödel's incompleteness theorems from? I would prefer it to be as close to the original proofs as possible. I have not tried to ...
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Why doesn't “$V$ is a model of $ZF$” imply consistency of ZF?

One can prove that $V$, Von Neumann's universe, satisfies all of $ZF$ axioms, so it's a model of $ZF$. But I can't see why this doesn't imply the consistency of that theorem. I'm aware that ...
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What is the prerequisite knowledge for learning Godel's incompleteness theorem

I am very interested in learning the incompleteness theorem and its proof. But first I must know what things I need to learn first. My current knowledge consists of basic high school education and the ...
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1answer
159 views

Is Douglas Hofstadter's version of Godel's proof utter nonsense?

Is Douglas Hofstadter's version of Godel's proof, which he offers in his book Godel, Escher, Bach, utter nonsense? Hofstadter goes to great length to disguise the fact that there are two distinct ...
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Maths, esp. Godel, and poetry

At the risk of being an interloper: I'm a poet with a bit of mathematical training. Right now I've got a grant from the Arts Council of Northern Ireland to write a collection (loosely) based on the ...
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2answers
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If $T$ proves any incorrect $\forall$-rudimentary sentence, then $T$ is inconsistent

A theory $T$ in the language of arithmetic is called $\omega$-inconsistent if for some formula $F(x)$, $\exists x F(x)$ is a theorem of $T$, but so is $\neg F(n)$ for each natural number $n$. ...
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1answer
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Must every decidable theory be axiomatizable?

Note: By "theory" I mean a set of sentences, not assumed to be closed under logical consequence (otherwise the question would be trivial). Comments/ideas: There's a well-known result that every ...
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Modern book on Gödel's incompleteness theorems in all technical details

Is there a modern book on Gödel's incompleteness theorems that goes into each and every technical aspect of the proof of them (a classical one, if such exists)? I'm not interested in popular ...
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Peano's theory of arithmetic and Gödel's 1st Incompleteness Theorem

Let $\mathcal{N}$ be Peano's 1st order theory of arithmetic and $\mathscr{A}$ it's standard model (which we assume exists). Infer from Gödel's 1st Incompleteness Theorem that there exists a closed ...
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1answer
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Does second-order arithmetic (Z2) prove soundness and uniform reflection for first-order arithmetic (PA)?

(1) Does full second-order arithmetic (Z2) prove soundness and uniform reflection schemas for first-order arithmetic (PA)? That is, do we have for all formulas $\phi$: $$ \underset \phi \forall \; ...
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1answer
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Con(PA) implies consistency of $\mathsf{PA}$ + ¬Con($\mathsf{PA}$)

The Wikipedia article for $\omega$-consistency says "Now, assuming PA is really consistent, it follows that $\mathsf{PA}$ + ¬Con($\mathsf{PA}$) is also consistent, for if it were not, then PA would ...
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Interaction of completeness and second incompleteness theorems

So I was reading the Wikipedia article on Godel's completeness theorem, the section on its relation to completeness. It says that completeness gives the existence of a model of arithmetic $\mathcal M ...
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Does Gödel's theorem of incompleteness contradicts it self? [closed]

I stumbled today with Gödel's theorem of incompleteness, and couldn't avoid to think about the possibility, that it could also be incomplete. It comes to mind that if one assume that maths are ...
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6answers
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Why is the Continuum Hypothesis (not) true?

I'm making my way through Thomas W Hungerfords's seminal text "Abstract Algebra 2nd Edition w/ Sets, Logics and Categories" where he makes the statement that the Continuum Hypothesis (There does not ...
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1answer
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The effects of requiring a recursive vs. a recursively enumberable axiomatization in the incompleteness theorem

I believe that the (paraphrased) original statement of Gödels first incompleteness theorem (including Rosser's trick) is If T is a sufficiently strong recursive axiomatization of the natural ...
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1answer
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Logic soundness and completeness

I have to do a number of similar type questions, but I am having trouble grasping the general concepts around soundness and completeness. I have read up on the general definitions and think I ...
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2answers
115 views

What percentage of formulas is unprovable in a given axiomatic system?

I am trying to use language I am not familiar with, so bear with me. If I make no sense, I try to be clearer. Assume we are given a formal language. Assume $S$ is the set of every well-formed formula ...
0
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1answer
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Kolmogorov (Kolmogoroff-) Complexity, Contradiction with Invariance Theorem.

Fix some programming languages $S$ which is rich enough such that one can write interpreters for $S$ in $S$. Define $$ K(w) := \mbox{length of a shortest program producing $w$}. $$ Now fix some ...
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1answer
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What other unprovable theorems are there? [duplicate]

Gödel's incompleteness theorem presents us with the possibility of having theorems that are neither provable nor disprovable in a given axiomatic set. Already we have the continuum hypothesis which ...
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Gödel's (in)completeness theorems and the axiomatization of Euclidean geometry

In David Hilbert's 1899 Grundlagen der Geometrie, Hilbert gives a rigorous axiomatization of Euclidean geometry. As I understand it, some of Hilbert's axioms must be expressed in second order logic ...
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1answer
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What was the planned topic of Gödel's second paper on incompleteness?

Gödel's incompleteness theorems first appeared together in a paper titled (translated to English) "On formally undecidable propositions of Principia Mathematica and related systems I," with the Roman ...
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Classifying Types of Paradoxes: Liar's Paradox, Et Alia

The well-known Liar's Paradox "This statement is false" leads to a recursive contradiction: If the statement is interpreted to be true then it is actually false, and if it is interpreted to be false ...
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Question about computability of true/provable formulas

I would like to clarify some things related to the computability of the sets of all theorems and true formulas for the formal arithmetic. Consider the theory $T$ of formal arithmetic (the theory of ...
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are there non-standard models of arithmetic in second order arithmetic?

non-standard models of arithmetic in second order arithmetic? Background: According to Godel's theorem, if we have, in a given consistent system S, a non-provable wff. A, then we can extend the ...
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2answers
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What does the completeness of a system mean for the provability of certain statments?

Through the 16th to 19th centuries mathematicians tried to prove the Euclids parallel postulate from Euclid's other four postulates. In the beginning of the 19th century the mathematics community ...
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Examples of statements which are true but not provable

Speaking informally and working, for example, in Peano Arithmetic (PA), we know that the essence of the Gödel's first incompleteness theorem is that there are true statements (in our model PA), which ...