My question stems from reading Swetz, 1994 (mostly excerpts from the journal Mathematics Teacher) and Berlinski, 2005 (a popular book on 10 most important mathematical breakthroughs in history). 1) ...
Let's define the "difficulty" of a theorem as the logarithm of the size of its shortest proof divided by the logarithm of the size of the theorem itself. For example, if a theorem has difficulty less ...
How to show the existence of an infinite set of independent undecidable sentences? By "independent" I mean that no implication between any two elements is provable. A finite set that satisfies the ...
I apologize for the, perhaps, silly question. My impression, as a layman, is that Gödel Incompleteness Theorem should rule out the possibility that P=NP. Is that true or there are deeper technical ...
Maybe this is a dumb question, but I have to admit that it is not really clear to me what the theory is, in which incompleteness of PA and stronger theories is proved. The texts I did study so far are ...
Why is Godel's first theorem not a proof for the truth of the so called undecidable proposition? You may say it's a proof from the outside, but if not all proofs from the outside be formalized inside ...
I am trying very hard to understand Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem. I am really interested in what it says about axiomatic languages, but I have some questions: Gödel's theorem is proved based on ...
Is Robinson Arithmetic complete in the sense of Gödels completeness theorem? And is Robinson Arithmetic incomplete in the sense of Gödels first incompleteness theorem? If RA is both it would be a good ...
I made an assertion in What are some examples of theories stronger than Presburger Arithmetic but weaker than Peano Arithmetic? that Q has higher consistency strength than Pres, Presburger arithmetic; ...