Questions about Gödel's incompleteness theorems and related topics.

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3
votes
1answer
94 views

Looking for counterexamples where the output of a computable function always has a computably checkable property, but PA cannot prove this

Suppose we have a computable function $f$, say over the naturals, and a decidable set $S$ of naturals, such that $f(x) \in S$ for all $x$. In this case, for any specific $x$, there is some specific ...
1
vote
1answer
194 views

Consequences of Incompleteness.

Suppose that I'm a working mathematician that has just proved a Theorem, say, in Number Theory. Does Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem imply that I can't know for sure if there exists a proof of the ...
6
votes
2answers
411 views

$\omega$-consistency and related terms

We know that a theory $T$ is $\omega$-inconsistent if there is a formula $\psi$ such that $T$ proves $(\exists x)\psi(x)$, and $T$ also proves $\lnot \psi(n)$ separately for each standard natural ...
1
vote
1answer
88 views

Have I understood the whole Incompleteness business correctly?

I am reading Gödel-Escher-Bach and a good dialogue by Eliezer Yudkowsky and I think I might have understood the nature of the Completeness and Incompleteness theorems (at least regarding Peano ...
2
votes
1answer
86 views

In Godel's first incompleteness theorem, what is the appropriate notion of interpretation function?

Wikipedia states Godel's first incompleteness as follows. Any effectively generated theory capable of expressing elementary arithmetic cannot be both consistent and complete. In particular, for ...
5
votes
2answers
133 views

Running programs in nonstandard models of PA

I came across the following problem in several places, to paraphrase: Let $T$ be a recursively axiomatizable, consistent extension of PA. Then there exists some $e$ such that the $e'$th program ...
10
votes
2answers
552 views

Where, specifically, did Principia Mathematica fail?

I'm very fascinated by the book Principia Mathematica. From what I've learned so far, Principia Mathematica set out to be, essentially, the bible of mathematics and logic, from which all mathematical ...
1
vote
3answers
135 views

On consistency of axiomatic systems

Can an axiomatic system (which is capable of expressing arithmetic) be complete and consistent? Let me explain my motivation a little bit (though it can be a kind of a mess...) I'm aware of Goedel's ...
1
vote
2answers
208 views

Is this incompleteness result easier to get than incompleteness of PA?

Gödel's theorem for Peano Arithmetic shows that (under consistency hypothesis on PA) there is a statement which cannot be proved or disproved within PA that is true under the standard model ...
8
votes
1answer
303 views

Are the Godel's incompleteness theorems valid for both classical and intuitionistic logic?

I am studying an undergraduate text about math logic. The proofs of the two Godel's incompleteness theorems are not completely formal: they are admittedly simpler that the real proofs. For what I ...
3
votes
2answers
563 views

Proving and understanding the Fixed point lemma (Diagonal Lemma) in Logic - used in proof of Godel's incompleteness theorem

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diagonal_lemma I am wondering about the proof of the "Fixed-Point Lemma" $\text{Mod } \Sigma$ is the class of all models of $ \Sigma$. $\text{Th Mod } \Sigma$ is the set ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

Definability of Kolmogorov Complexity?

This paper claims to have a proof of Godel's Second Incompleteness Theorem using Kolmogorov Complexity: http://www.ams.org/notices/201011/rtx101101454p.pdf As far as I can tell, it seems to assume ...
4
votes
1answer
330 views

How to prove primitive recursive functions are definable in Peano Arithmetic?

Background: I'm working on a talk that presents Godel's first Incompleteness Theorem from a computability-theoretic perspective. The idea is to show that the first incompleteness theorem follows from ...
3
votes
2answers
553 views

Don't Gödel's completeness and incompleteness theorems contradict each other? [duplicate]

Gödel's completeness theorem: Given a set of axioms, if we cannot derive a contradiction, then the system of axioms must be consistent. Gödel's incompleteness theorem:'Given any consistent, ...
4
votes
1answer
101 views

Incompleteness theorem and $\mathbb{L}$.

Let $\alpha > \omega$ and $u = \{\ulcorner \sigma \urcorner : \sigma \in \mathrm{Th}(\mathbb{L}_\alpha, \in)\} \subseteq \omega$, where by $\mathbb{L}_\alpha$ we denote as usual the constructible ...
6
votes
2answers
352 views

Can an unprovable statement be interpreted as being generally true in some cases?

For example, let's say that Goldbach's conjecture turns out to be unprovable. This would mean that a program cannot devise a way to check whether any counterexample exists. This seems to mean that ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Can ZFC+A and ZFC+negation of A be both inconsistent where A is some conjecture?

So I know that a conjecture/statement or negation of it plus ZFC can both turn out to be consistent, which means that a statement is not provable. But I would like to go opposite way - and let's say ...
1
vote
1answer
295 views

Decidable and recursively-axiomatizable theories

A few questions: If $T$ is a decidable and consistent theory, can there be any theory $T' \subset T$ that isn't decidable? Is there a decidable theory which isn't complete? How can I prove that any ...
11
votes
2answers
518 views

Is Gödel's incompleteness theorem provable without any model-theoretic notion?

The entry on Gödel's incompletenss theorem in Wikipedia says: Any effectively generated theory capable of expressing elementary arithmetic cannot be both consistent and complete. In particular, ...
0
votes
1answer
145 views

Uniqueness of super godel numbers of $\varphi$ and $\neg \varphi$

Let $e_{0},e_{1},...,e_{n}$ be a sequence of wffs or other expressions. Code each $e_{i}$ by a regular godel number $g_{i}$, to yield a sequence of numbers $g_{0},g_{1},...,g_{n}$. Then encode this ...
7
votes
2answers
225 views

How is the standard model of number theory specified, and why can't we use that specification to prove any number theoretical sentence of interest?

According to Gödel's incompleteness theorem, there exists a sentence $G$ in the vocabulary of number theory ($N$) which is not provable from any (recursively enumerable) consistent set of axioms $T$, ...
5
votes
1answer
170 views

Is there any recursive definition, using only addition, of the set of values of $x^2+y^2$?

There is a recursive definition of the set of squares which uses only addition: $CS(x,y) := IS(x) \wedge IS(y) \wedge x \lt y \wedge \forall z: (x \lt z) \wedge (z \lt y)⇒\neg IS(z)$ $IS(x)⇔ x=0 ...
1
vote
1answer
121 views

Relationship between $\Sigma_{1}$ and $\Pi_{1}$ functions (Logic)

I am working on the following homework problem for a logic class on Godel's incompleteness theorems and the following question is asked. Is the converse of Theorem $13.1$ true? Explain. Theorem ...
5
votes
3answers
174 views

Gödel's incompleteness wrt weakend versions of ZFC

Suppose for the sake of argument that we look at ZFC with the axiom of infinity removed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%B6del%27s_incompleteness_theorems#First_incompleteness_theorem ...
3
votes
1answer
80 views

Complexity of transforming an indirect proof into a direct one

Suppose that ZFC is consistent, and let ZFC'=ZFC+Con(ZFC). We can define a reasonable notion of the length of a proof inside ZFC', such that for any $n$ the set $P_n$ of all proofs of length $\leq n$ ...
4
votes
1answer
60 views

Special undecidability situation

Suppose that ZFC is consistent, and let ZFC'=ZFC+Con(ZFC). Can one construct two statements $\phi_1$ and $\phi_2$ such that $$ ZFC' \vdash ((ZFC \vdash \phi_1) \ \text{or} \ (ZFC \vdash \phi_2)) $$ ...
3
votes
2answers
174 views

Does $\Sigma_1 \cup \Pi_1$ generate the complete first order theory of arithmetic?

If a set $T$ of sentences in the language of arithmetic is deductively closed under the usual inference rules of first order logic, and includes all true $\Sigma_1$ sentences and all true $\Pi_1$ ...
6
votes
4answers
265 views

Second order logic question.

I'm reading Michael Potter's book "Set Theory and its Philosophy" and where he's explaining why he chose to use first-order predicate calculus with identity instead of second order logic to reason ...
2
votes
3answers
154 views

If $\newcommand\PA{\mathrm{PA}}\newcommand\Con{\operatorname{Con}}\Con(\PA)$, then $\Con(\PA+\Con(\PA))$?

Assume that $\PA$ is consistent. Then we know that $\PA$ cannot prove $\Con(\PA)$. I was wondering. Can $\PA$ prove that $$\Con(\PA) \Rightarrow \Con(\PA + \Con(\PA))?$$
11
votes
5answers
1k views

Is there a proof of Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem without self-referential statements?

For the proof of Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem, most versions of proof use basically self-referential statements. My question is, what if one argues that Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem only matters ...
6
votes
1answer
809 views

Are Real Numbers axioms a consistent or complete system?

Do we know if the axioms of the real numbers are consistent, complete or neither of both? And if so, is it a consequence of Godel's theorem or of something else?
7
votes
2answers
279 views

Proof of Proposition/Theorem V in Gödel's 1931 paper?

Proposition V in Gödel's famous 1931 paper is stated as follows: For every recursive relation $ R(x_{1},...,x_{n})$ there is an n-ary "predicate" $r$ (with "free variables" $u_1,...,u_n$) such that, ...
4
votes
1answer
128 views

How many digits of Chaitin's $\Omega$ constant would we know if we had a $\Sigma_1$-Oracle?

According to Wikipedia (and it seems intuitive from the definition itself), $\Omega$ is Turing equivalent to the halting problem and thus at level $\Delta_2^0$ of the arithmetical hierarchy. Do this ...
6
votes
2answers
253 views

“Completeness modulo Godel sentences”?

So this has been bugging me for roughly four years. When I was an undergraduate, I attended a colloquium in which the speaker was a 'cheerleader' for AD (the axiom of determinacy- an alternative to ...
3
votes
2answers
126 views

Talking about Gödel's incompleteness theorems…

I will give a talk about Gödel's incompleteness theorems to a group of people consisting of undergraduates of mathematics, graduates of informatics and etc (they are not really familiar with the ...
4
votes
1answer
280 views

Understanding the syntactical completeness

A formal system is syntactically complete if for each sentence (closed formula) $\varphi$ either $\varphi$ or $\lnot \varphi$ is provable. A formal system is semantically complete if every ...
1
vote
1answer
77 views

One cannot know if a number could be written any shorter according to Gödel's incompleteness theorem

I am reading Tor Nørretranders (cannot find the English version, sry) and he states that Gödel's incompleteness theorem implies that we cannot know if we can write a number any shorter (e.g. ...
4
votes
1answer
270 views

System with infinite number of axioms

Assume we have a set of axioms $A_0$. There exists a statement that can be formulated with these axioms that cannot be proven to be true with this system. Assume we give such a statement axiomatic ...
0
votes
1answer
402 views

URM computable indicating RAM computability

How can we show that every URM computable function is RAM computable? I can see that that from Church's thesis, URM Computability iff p.r., but now sure how to get this claim above. Taking the hint ...
4
votes
1answer
301 views

Gödel Completeness theorem

I realized recently that I did not understand well the completeness theorem of Godel, and how it interacts with the incompleteness theorems. What I understand now (and you will see my understanding ...
0
votes
1answer
69 views

Completeness and consistency of system of calculus

It is widely held that ZFC cannot be shown to be self-consistent or complete. So, what happens to the system of calculus? Can it be shown to be complete or self-consistent? (Edit: Oops. So, two ...
7
votes
2answers
112 views

Is Goedel term (in incomleteness theorem) both true and unproveable?

In Goedel incompleteness theorem is Goedel term both true and unproveable, or just unproveable and truth neutral? Can we add Goedel term to the theory as axiom and get new theory? Can we add Goedel ...
11
votes
1answer
148 views

Is there a quicker argument from the HBL derivability conditions to the equivalence of fixed points of $\neg\Box$ to $\mathsf{Con}$?

I'm just about to send off the final, final corrected PDF of the second edition of my Gödel book, and the following (neurotic?!?) question occurs to me. In discussing matters around and about the ...
4
votes
2answers
235 views

Sequent calculus and first incompletness theorem

Wikipedia says that sequent calculus is sound and complete (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sequent_calculus#Properties_of_the_system_LK). Godel first incompleteness theorem says that system capable of ...
2
votes
1answer
114 views

When and why does the Lindenbaum extension construction fail for second order theories?

From any consistent set of first order sentences $\Gamma$, one may generate by an inductive process a unique set of sentences $\Delta(\Gamma)$ such that $\forall A, \Gamma \models A \implies A \in ...
9
votes
3answers
2k views

Consistency of Peano axioms (Hilbert's second problem)?

(Putting aside for the moment that Wikipedia might not be the best source of knowledge.) I just came across this Wikipedia paragraph on the Peano-Axioms: The vast majority of contemporary ...
15
votes
6answers
3k views

Why bother with Mathematics, if Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem is true?

OK, maybe the title is exaggerated, but is it true that the rest of math is just "good enough", or a good approximation of absolute truth - like Newtonian physics compared to general relativity? How ...
3
votes
1answer
135 views

Question about $\Sigma_n$-soundness

According to wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%A9-consistent_theory#Definition): "$\Sigma_n$-soundness has the following computational interpretation: if the theory proves that a program C ...
1
vote
2answers
204 views

I do not understand why the Turing computable sets of N are exactly the sets at level $\Delta_1^0$ of the arithmetical hierarchy

The reason I don't understand it is this. Take for example the twin primes conjecture, which is $\Pi_2^0$. The set of twin primes is computable right? (there is a Turing machine that enumerates all of ...
1
vote
1answer
97 views

Is there a mechanical procedure within PA to reduce any ϕ to its simplest (in terms of the arithmetical hierarchy) logically equivalent form?

The question is motivated because we know that the Turing computable sets of natural numbers are exactly the sets at level $\Delta_1^0$ of the arithmetical hierarchy. We also know that the finite ...