For questions related to hyperbolic functions: $\sinh$, $\cosh$, $\tanh$, and so on.

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57
votes
2answers
2k views

Integral $\int_1^\infty\frac{\operatorname{arccot}\left(1+\frac{2\pi}{\operatorname{arcoth}x-\operatorname{arccsc}x}\right)}{\sqrt{x^2-1}}\mathrm dx$

Consider the following integral: $$\mathcal{I}=\int_1^\infty\frac{\operatorname{arccot}\left(1+\frac{2\,\pi}{\operatorname{arcoth}x\,-\,\operatorname{arccsc}x}\right)}{\sqrt{x^2-1}}\mathrm dx,$$ where ...
34
votes
2answers
506 views

Closed form for $\prod_{n=1}^\infty\sqrt[2^n]{\tanh(2^n)},$

Please help me to find a closed form for the infinite product $$\prod_{n=1}^\infty\sqrt[2^n]{\tanh(2^n)},$$ where $\tanh(z)=\frac{e^z-e^{-z}}{e^z+e^{-z}}$ is the hyperbolic tangent.
25
votes
4answers
549 views

Integral ${\large\int}_0^\infty\frac{dx}{\sqrt[4]{7+\cosh x}}$

How to prove the following conjectured identity? $$\int_0^\infty\frac{dx}{\sqrt[4]{7+\cosh x}}\stackrel{\color{#a0a0a0}?}=\frac{\sqrt[4]6}{3\sqrt\pi}\Gamma^2\big(\tfrac14\big)\tag1$$ It holds ...
23
votes
4answers
571 views

Closed form for $\int_{-\infty}^\infty\operatorname{sech}(x)\operatorname{sech}(a\, x)\ dx$

Let $$f(a)=\int_{-\infty}^\infty\operatorname{sech}(x)\operatorname{sech}(a\, x)\ dx,$$ where $\operatorname{sech}(z)=\frac2{e^z+e^{-z}}$ is the hyperbolic secant. Here are values of $f(a)$ at some ...
20
votes
6answers
317 views

What is the importance of $\sinh(x)$?

I stumbled across $\sinh(x)$. I am only a calculus uno student, but was wondering when this function comes into play, and what is its purpose? Last, does it have world applications, or is it a ...
14
votes
2answers
331 views

$\int_0^\infty(\log x)^2(\mathrm{sech}\,x)^2\mathrm dx$

Is there any closed-form representation for the following integral? $$\int_0^\infty(\log x)^2(\mathrm{sech}\,x)^2\mathrm dx,$$ where $\mathrm{sech}\,x$ is the hyperbolic secant, ...
13
votes
4answers
249 views

Prove that $\sinh(\cosh(x)) \geq \cosh(\sinh(x))$

Prove that $$\sinh(\cosh(x)) \geq \cosh(\sinh(x))$$ I tried to tackle this problem by integrating both lhs and rhs, in order to get two functions who show clearly that inequality holds. I've ...
11
votes
2answers
191 views

Closed form for ${\large\int}_0^\infty\frac{x\,\sqrt{e^x-1}}{1-2\cosh x}\,dx$

I was able to calculate $$\int_0^\infty\frac{\sqrt{e^x-1}}{1-2\cosh x}\,dx=-\frac\pi{\sqrt3}.$$ It turns out the integrand even has an elementary antiderivative (see here). Now I'm interested in a ...
11
votes
2answers
430 views

Series $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{\cosh(\pi n)}= \frac{1}{2} \left(\frac{\sqrt{\pi}}{\Gamma^2 \left( \frac{3}{4}\right)}-1\right)$

I was playing around with Mathematica and found that $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac1{\cosh(\pi n)} = \frac12\left(\frac{\sqrt{\pi}}{\Gamma \left(\tfrac34\right)^2}-1\right)$$ Does anybody know how to ...
11
votes
1answer
728 views

Can the real and imaginary parts of $\dfrac{\sin z}z$ be simplified?

I have calculated the real and imaginary parts of $\dfrac{\sin z}z.$ I've obtained $$\begin{eqnarray} \frac{\sin z}z&=&\frac{\sin(x+iy)}{(x+iy)}\\ &=& ...
10
votes
1answer
3k views

How were Hyperbolic functions derived/discovered?

Trig functions are simple ratios, but what does Cosh, Sinh and Tanh compute? How are they related to euler's number anyway?
8
votes
5answers
767 views

Geometric meanings of hyperbolic cosinus and sinus

In euclidean geometry, $\cos$ and $\sin$ are used for angles in trigonometry. Is there an equivalent for $\cosh$ and $\sinh$ the hyperbolic cosine and sine, and not cosinus and sinus ?
8
votes
2answers
195 views

Closed-form of $\int_0^\infty \frac{1}{\left(a+\cosh x\right)^{1/n}} \, dx$ for $a=0,1$

While I was working on this question by @Vladimir Reshetnikov, I've conjectured the following closed-forms. $$ I_0(n)=\int_0^\infty \frac{1}{\left(\cosh x\right)^{1/n}} \, dx \stackrel{?}{=} ...
8
votes
5answers
280 views
8
votes
3answers
620 views

Show $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{\sinh\pi}{\cosh(2n\pi)-\cosh\pi}=\frac1{\text{e}^{\pi}-1}$ and another

Show that : $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{\cosh(2nx)}{\cosh(4nx)-\cosh(2x)}=\frac1{4\sinh^2(x)}$$ $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{\sinh\pi}{\cosh(2n\pi)-\cosh\pi}=\frac1{\text{e}^{\pi}-1}$$
8
votes
2answers
129 views

Proving $~\prod~\frac{\cosh\left(n^2+n+\frac12\right)+i\sinh\left(n+\frac12\right)}{\cosh\left(n^2+n+\frac12\right)-i\sinh\left(n+\frac12\right)}~=~i$

How could we prove that $${\LARGE\prod_{\Large n\ge0}}~\frac{\cosh\left(n^2+n+\dfrac12\right)+i\sinh\left(n+\dfrac12\right)}{\cosh\left(n^2+n+\dfrac12\right)-i\sinh\left(n+\dfrac12\right)}~=~i$$ ...
8
votes
1answer
504 views

Geometric definitions of hyperbolic functions

I've learned in school that all the trigonometric functions can be constructed geometrically in terms of a unit circle: Can the hyperbolic functions be constructed geometrically as well? I know ...
7
votes
1answer
241 views

A conjecture $\int_{-\infty}^\infty\frac{\arctan e^x}{\cosh x}\cdot\frac{\tanh\frac{x}2}{x}dx\stackrel?=\frac\pi2\ln2$

I need to find a closed form for this integral: $$\mathcal{I}=\int_{-\infty}^\infty\frac{\arctan e^x}{\cosh x}\cdot\frac{\tanh\frac{x}2}{x}dx.$$ A numerical integration results in an approximation ...
7
votes
2answers
175 views

Asymptotics of $\int_{0}^{+\infty}\!\!\frac{dx}{\sinh^2(\epsilon \sqrt{x^2+1}) } $ for $\epsilon$ near $0$

How to find an asymptotic expansion, for $\epsilon$ near $0$, of the following integral $$ I(\epsilon):=\int_{0}^{+\infty}\frac 1{\sinh^2 (\epsilon \sqrt{x^2+1}) } {\rm d}x. $$ As $\epsilon ...
7
votes
2answers
138 views

Proof $1 -\frac{1}{5} + \frac{1}{9} - \frac{1}{13} + … = \frac{\pi + 2\ln(1+\sqrt2)}{4\sqrt2}$

I'm trying to show that $$1 -\frac{1}{5} + \frac{1}{9} - \frac{1}{13} + \cdots = \frac{\pi + 2\ln(1+\sqrt2)}{4\sqrt2}.$$ I thought of using the power series for $\tanh^{-1}z$ which I found was ...
7
votes
2answers
306 views

An alternating series identity with a hidden hyperbolic tangent

How does one use the inverse Mellin transform to prove that the following identity holds? $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^n}{n(e^{n\pi} + 1)} = \frac{1}{8}(\pi - 5\log(2))$$ The identity follows ...
7
votes
1answer
219 views

A problem of Ramanujan's interest: closed form of $1 + 2\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\cosh(n\theta)}{\cosh(n\pi)} $

I am Brian Diaz, and I am new to the math.stackexchange community. I have been struggling with attempting to find a closed form of the following series: $$ \varphi(\theta) = 1 + 2\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} ...
7
votes
1answer
210 views

Finding taylor expansion for $\tanh(x)$

I am a high school student and am trying to find the taylor expansion of $\tanh(x)$ in terms of a summation form. I have gotten this far, and am aware it might get complicated very quickly. If someone ...
6
votes
2answers
226 views

Why is $\sinh$ often pronounced “shine”?

I talked to some guys from the UK and they told me that they would pronounce $\sinh$ as "shine". I am not a native English speaker so I don't know, but in my country we call this function "sintsh" ...
6
votes
1answer
180 views

Weierstrass $ \tanh \frac{\theta}{2} $ substitution confusion.

I'm already familiar with the trigonometric version of this substitution $ t = \tan \frac{\theta}{2} $ and it's geometrical derivation involving the unit circle found here. However, I'm not sure how ...
6
votes
1answer
323 views

Integral of the ratio of two exponential sums

I am trying to find a lower bound on the following integral \begin{align*} \int_{y=-\infty}^{y=\infty} \frac{ (\sum_{n=[-N..N]/\{0\}}n e^{-\frac{(y-cn)^2}{2}})^2} {\sum_{n=[-N..N]/\{0\}} ...
6
votes
0answers
82 views

Can these two indefinite integrals be evaluated in closed form?

I'm wondering whether any of these two indefinite integrals $$\int \frac{1}{\sqrt{1+\alpha \sinh(x)^{-4/3}}}dx$$ $$\int \frac{\sinh(x)^{-4/3}}{\sqrt{1+\alpha\sinh(x)^{-4/3}}}dx$$ can be evaluated in ...
6
votes
2answers
634 views

Geometric interpretation of hyperbolic functions

When proving identities like $$\cosh(2x)=\cosh^2(x)+\sinh^2(x)$$ $$\cosh^2(x)=\sinh^2(x)+1$$ algebraically, I am beset by the feeling that there should be a geometrical interpretation that makes them ...
5
votes
5answers
671 views

Prove that $\lim\limits_{x \to 0} \sinh(x)/x =1$. [closed]

Prove that $ \lim\limits_{x \to 0} \frac{\sinh x}{x} =1.$ I am having some trouble proving this without derivative. Some help would be much appreciate!
5
votes
3answers
149 views

Find $\int \sinh^{-1}x\hspace{1mm}dx$

Find $\int \sinh^{-1}x\hspace{1mm}dx$ $ $ I am asked to use the following Equation: $$\int \tan^{-1}x\hspace{1mm}dx= x\tan^{-1}x-\ln(\sec(\tan^{-1}x))+C$$ $ $ The confusing part is : What has ...
5
votes
4answers
241 views

What is the use of hyperbolic trigonometric functions if they are easily expressible algebraically?

I get that there are uses for $\sin(x)$ and $\cos(x)$ because they are defined with imaginary exponents which aren't as easily worked with but the hyperbolic functions are simply $\frac12(e^x\pm ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Geometric construction of hyperbolic trigonometric functions

If we have a circle we can geometrically construct the trigonometric functions as shown. The functions all derive from sin and cos. If we say that the circle is a conic section and imagine it on the ...
5
votes
1answer
569 views

fourier expansion of $\coth$ and justifying an identity

The problem: Justify the following equalities: $$\cot x = i\coth (ix) = i \sum^\infty_{n=-\infty} \frac{ix}{(ix)^2+(n\pi)^2}=\sum^\infty_{n=-\infty}\frac{x}{x^2+(n\pi)^2}$$ I am trying to figure ...
5
votes
1answer
195 views

Integral with hyperbolic cosine squared

Does anyone can give me a hint how to integrate the following: $$\int_0^\infty{\frac{x^2 {\rm d}x}{\mathrm{cosh}^2(x)}}.$$ The answer is $\frac{\pi^2}{12}$ (taken from the book). I've started with ...
5
votes
0answers
123 views

Inverse Fourier transform using Residues for a ratio of hyperbolic functions.

I'm new and glad to be here. I have a problem relating to an inverse Fourier transform. I have $$g(w)= \frac{\sinh{w(a-b)}}{w \cosh{wa}}$$ and want to find $$G(t)$$. I cannot find this in tables so I ...
4
votes
5answers
267 views

Evaluating the following integral: $ \int \frac{x^2}{\sqrt{x^2 - 1}} \text{ d}x$

For this indefinite integral, I decided to use the substitution $x = \cosh u$ and I've ended up with a $| \sinh u |$ term in the denominator which I'm unsure about dealing with: $$\int ...
4
votes
4answers
170 views

Evaluating $\int_0^1 x \sinh (x) \ \mathrm{dx}$

I am looking to evaluate $$\int_0^1 x \sinh (x) \ \mathrm{dx}$$
4
votes
2answers
158 views

Evaluating $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty } 2^{-n} \tanh (2^{-n})$

Reading in some tables pages I found $$\sum _{n=0}^{\infty } 2^{-n} \tanh \left(2^{-n}\right)=\tanh (1) \left(1+\coth ^2(1)-\coth (1)\right)$$ I try to split in two sum using the roots of the ...
4
votes
2answers
44 views

Proving $\ln \cosh x\leq \frac{x^2}{2}$ for $x\in\mathbb{R}$

It seems to me that $\ln \cosh x\leq \frac{x^2}{2}$ for $x\in\mathbb{R}$, as suggested by graphing the difference between both functions as well as the fact that the Taylor series expansion of ...
4
votes
2answers
194 views

Why are hyperbolic functions significant?

I'm currently covering Stewart's Early Transcendentals, and there is a whole section dedicated to defining and differentiating hyperbolic functions. The same amount of space is used to cover other ...
4
votes
1answer
43 views

What has “$\delta$ Gromov hyperbolic space” got to do with $\mathbb{H}_n$?

The start of section $2$ of this paper, http://homes.cs.washington.edu/~jrl/papers/kl06-neg.pdf defines something called a ``$\delta$ Gromov hyperbolic space". Can someone explain what has this at ...
4
votes
1answer
47 views

Why is $\arg(i\cosh x)=\frac{\pi}{2}$?

I was told $\arg(i\cosh (x))=\frac{\pi}{2}$ and $\arg(\cosh (x))=0$ but I can't figure out why. Could someone explain it to me?
4
votes
1answer
82 views

solving $2\cosh2x = 13\cosh x - 12$

I've been asked to solve: $2\cosh2x = 13\cosh x - 12$ I showed earlier in the question that $\cosh2x = 2\cosh^2x -1$ So I can say that: $2(2\cosh^2x -1) = 13\cosh x - 12$ $\therefore 4\cosh^2x ...
3
votes
4answers
411 views

If $f$ is holomorphic and $\,f'' = f$, then $f(z) = A \cosh z + B \sinh z$

Suppose $f$ is holomorphic in a disk centered at the origin and $f$ satisfies the differential equation $$f'' = f.$$ Show that $f$ is of the form $$f(z)=A \sinh z + B \cosh z,$$ for suitable constants ...
3
votes
4answers
2k views

Calculate cosh(x) given sinh(x)

Given the value of sinh(x) for example sinh(x) = 3/2 How can I calculate the value of cosh(x) ?
3
votes
4answers
129 views

Inverse of $(e^x - e^{-x})/2$

What is the inverse of the function $f(x)=\frac{e^x - e^{-x}}2$? I tried replacing $e^x$ by a variable but I still can't get it.
3
votes
3answers
176 views

Find the limit of $S_n=\sum_{i=1}^n \big\{ \cosh\big(\!\!\frac{1}{\sqrt{n+i}}\!\big) -n\big\}$, as $n\to\infty$?

$S_n=\sum_{i=1}^n\big\{ \cosh\big(\frac{1}{\sqrt{n+i}}\!\big) -n\big\}$ as $n\to\infty$ I stumbled on this question as an reading about Riemannian sums as in $$ \int_a^b f(x)\,dx =\lim_{x\to ...
3
votes
3answers
69 views

Integrating $\frac{1}{(x^2+b)^{3/2}}$?

How to integrate $$\int\frac{1}{(x^2+b)^{3/2}}dx$$ using the hyperbolic sine substitution ?
3
votes
1answer
45 views

a hyperbolic summation

Find the value of $$\lim_{n\to\infty} \sum_{k=1}^{n}\frac{1}{\sinh 2^k}$$ Numerical approximations gives me a value of $\frac{2}{e^2-1}$. I tried to write the sum as ...
3
votes
2answers
42 views

Does the identity ${|\cosh z|}^2={\cos}^2x+{\sinh}^2y$ given in my text hold?

In my text book I saw that ${|\cosh z|}^2={\cos}^2x+{\sinh}^2y$ But when I tried deriving it myself I got this: $${|\cosh z|}^2={\cos}^2y+{\sinh}^2x$$ See my working below: $$\cosh ...