Homework questions are welcome as long as they are asked honestly, explain the problem, and show sufficient effort. Please do not use this as the only tag for a question. For the answers on homework questions, helpful hints or instructions are preferred to a complete solution. Please do not add ...

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71
votes
18answers
7k views

Is there another simpler method to solve this elementary school math problem?

I am teaching an elementary student. He has a homework as follows. There are 16 students who use either bicycles or tricycles. The total number of wheels is 38. Find the number of students using ...
54
votes
12answers
6k views

How to prove that $\lim\limits_{x\to0}\frac{\sin x}x=1$?

How can one prove the statement $$\lim\limits_{x\to 0}\frac{\sin x}x=1$$ without using the Taylor series of $\sin$, $\cos$ and $\tan$? Best would be a geometrical solution. This is homework. In my ...
51
votes
12answers
3k views

Is it morally right and pedagogically right to google answers to homework? [closed]

This is a soft question that I have been struggling with lately. My professor sets tough questions for homework (around 10 per week). The difficulty is such that if I attempt the questions entirely ...
51
votes
1answer
2k views

Simplicial homology of real projective space by Mayer-Vietoris

Consider the $n$-sphere $S^n$ and the real projective space $\mathbb{RP}^n$. There is a universal covering map $p: S^n \to \mathbb{RP}^n$, and it's clear that it's the coequaliser of $\mathrm{id}: S^n ...
50
votes
12answers
5k views

How can I evaluate $\sum_{n=0}^\infty (n+1)x^n$

How can I evaluate $$ \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{2n}{3^{n+1}} $$ I know the answer thanks to Wolfram Alpha, but I'm more concerned with how I can derive that answer. It cites tests to prove that it is ...
45
votes
4answers
2k views

Showing that $\int\limits_{-a}^a \frac{f(x)}{1+e^{x}} \mathrm dx = \int\limits_0^a f(x) \mathrm dx$, when $f$ is even

I have a question: Suppose $f$ is continuous and even on $[-a,a]$, $a>0$ then prove that $$\int\limits_{-a}^a \frac{f(x)}{1+e^{x}} \mathrm dx = \int\limits_0^a f(x) \mathrm dx$$ How can I ...
43
votes
8answers
3k views

The last digit of $2^{2006}$

My 13 year old son was asked this question in a maths challenge. He correctly guessed 4 on the assumption that the answer was likely to be the last digit of $2^6$. However is there a better ...
35
votes
3answers
12k views

Construct a function which is continuous in $[1,5]$ but not differentiable at $2, 3, 4$

Construct a function which is continuous in $[1,5]$ but not differentiable at $2, 3, 4$. This question is just after the definition of differentiation and the theorem that if $f$ is finitely ...
33
votes
6answers
2k views

Is $2^{218!} +1$ prime?

Prove that $2^{218!} +1$ is not prime. I can prove that the last digit of this number is $7$, and that's all. Thank you.
33
votes
5answers
2k views

Finding the limit of $\frac {n}{\sqrt[n]{n!}}$

I'm trying to find $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{n}{\sqrt[n]{n!}} .$$ I tried couple of methods: Stolz, Squeeze, D'Alambert Thanks! Edit: I can't use Stirling.
33
votes
7answers
2k views

What are some good math specific study habits?

What are/ were some of your good mathematician's study habits that you found really worked for you? I'm a CS major at a respected school and have a solid GPA... However, I definitely lack when it ...
30
votes
7answers
1k views

Pi Estimation using Integers

I ran across this problem in a high school math competition: "You must use the integers $1$ to $9$ and only addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and exponentiation to approximate the ...
28
votes
2answers
580 views

Very curious properties of ordered partitions relating to Fibonacci numbers

I came across some interesting propositions in some calculations I did and I was wondering if someone would be so kind as to provide some explanations of these phenomenon. We call an ordered ...
27
votes
4answers
5k views

Prove that $\gcd(a^n - 1, a^m - 1) = a^{\gcd(n, m)} - 1$

For all $a, m, n \in \mathbb{Z}^+$, $$\gcd(a^n - 1, a^m - 1) = a^{\gcd(n, m)} - 1$$
25
votes
9answers
4k views

Why is empty set an open set?

I thought about it for a long time, but I can't come up some good ideas. I think that empty set has no elements,how to use the definition of an open set to prove the proposition. The definition of an ...
25
votes
3answers
2k views

31,331,3331, 33331,333331,3333331,33333331 are prime

31,331,3331, 33331,333331,3333331,33333331 are prime. This law can continue it? Will there emerge a composite number? Without using a computer how to judge.
24
votes
2answers
1k views

Tricky contour integral

I am trying to evaluate the definite integral $$\int_0^\infty \frac{\sin ax\ dx}{x^2+b^2}$$ where $a,b>0$. This is a problem on an assignment for a class in complex variables. I understand the ...
24
votes
0answers
668 views

Computing the Chern-Simons invariant of SO(3)

I am an undergraduate learning about gauge theory and I have been tasked with working through the two examples given on pages 65 and 66 of "Characteristic forms and geometric invariants" by Chern and ...
23
votes
3answers
6k views

How to find the Galois group of a polynomial?

I've been learning about Galois theory recently on my own, and I've been trying to solve tests from my university. Even though I understand all the theorems, I seem to be having some trouble with the ...
23
votes
3answers
2k views

Norms on C[0, 1] inducing the same topology as the sup norm

This is an old homework problem of mine that I was never able to solve. The solution may or may not involve the Baire category theorem, which I am terrible at applying. Let $C[0, 1]$ denote the ...
23
votes
2answers
1k views

When is a sum of consecutive squares equal to a square?

We have the sum of squares of $n$ consecutive positive integers: $$S=(a+1)^2+(a+2)^2+ ... +(a+n)^2$$ Problem was to find the smallest $n$ such, that $S=b^2$ will be square of some positive integer. I ...
23
votes
2answers
618 views

How to prove that $\frac{(5m)!(5n)!}{(m!)(n!)(3m+n)!(3n+m)!}$ is a natural number?

How to prove that $$\frac{(5m)! \cdot (5n)!}{m! \cdot n! \cdot (3m+n)! \cdot (3n+m)!}$$ is a natural number $\forall m,n\in\mathbb N$ , $m\geqslant 1$ and $n\geqslant 1$? Thanks in advance.
23
votes
1answer
1k views

$\sum_{k=0}^{100} a_k x^{k}=0, a_i \in \mathbb{Z}$ How many equations?

Let $x^{100}+a_{99} x^{99}+a_{98} x^{98}+ \dots +a_{1}x +a_{0}=0, \ \ a_{100}=1, a_i \in \mathbb{Z}$, is an algebraic equation with integer coefficients. Assume that all (100 with multiplicity) ...
22
votes
3answers
2k views

The set of differences for a set of positive Lebesgue measure

Quite a while ago, I heard about a statement in measure theory, that goes as follows: Let $A \subset \mathbb R^n$ be a Lebesgue-measurable set of positive measure. Then we follow that $A-A = \{ ...
21
votes
10answers
12k views

How to show $\det(AB) =\det(A)\det(B)$

Given two square matrices $A$ and $B$. How do you show $\det(AB) = \det(A)\det(B)$ where $\det(\cdot)$ is determinant of the matrix
21
votes
5answers
9k views

If $a^2$ divides $b^2$, then $a$ divides $b$

Let $a$ and $b$ be positive integers. Prove that: If $a^2$ divides $b^2$, then $a$ divides $b$. Context: the lecturer wrote this up in my notes without proving it, but I can't seem to figure out ...
21
votes
4answers
2k views

Showing that $\frac{\sqrt[n]{n!}}{n}$ $\rightarrow \frac{1}{e}$

Show:$$\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{\sqrt[n]{n!}}{n}= \frac{1}{e}$$ So I can expand the numerator by geometric mean. Letting $C_{n}=\left(\ln(a_{1})+...+\ln(a_{n})\right)/n$. Let the numerator be called ...
21
votes
2answers
729 views

Surprising but simple group theory result on conjugacy classes

I have read that for any group $G$ of order $2m+1$ (odd) with $n$ conjugacy classes, it is always the case that $16$ divides the value $(2m+1)-n = |G|-n$. This seems to me like an astonishing ...
21
votes
3answers
745 views

If $\sum a_n b_n <\infty$ for all $(b_n)\in \ell^2$ then $(a_n) \in \ell^2$

I'm trying to prove the following: If $(a_n)$ is a sequence of positive numbers such that $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_n b_n<\infty$ for all sequences of positive numbers $(b_n)$ such that ...
20
votes
12answers
3k views

$ \lim\limits_{n \to{+}\infty}{\sqrt[n]{n!}}$ is infinite

How do I prove that $ \displaystyle\lim_{n \to{+}\infty}{\sqrt[n]{n!}}$ is infinite?
20
votes
3answers
9k views

The sum of irrationals is irrational?

If $x$ and $y$ are irrational, is $x + y$ irrational? Is $x - y$ irrational? Thanks for your help
20
votes
9answers
3k views

Prove that $\lim \limits_{n \to \infty} \frac{x^n}{n!} = 0$, $x \in \Bbb R$.

Why is $$\lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{2^n}{n!}=0\text{ ?}$$ Can we generalize it to any exponent $x \in \Bbb R$? This is to say, is $$\lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{x^n}{n!}=0\text{ ?}$$ This is ...
20
votes
5answers
7k views

Integral of $\frac{1}{(1+x^2)^2}$

I am in the middle of a problem and having trouble integrating the following integral: $$\int_{-1}^1\frac1{(1+x^2)^2}\mathrm dx$$ I tried doing partial fractions and got: $$1=A(1+x^2)+B(1+x^2)$$ I ...
20
votes
2answers
1k views

Is there a continuous bijection from $\mathbb{R}$ to $\mathbb{R}^2$

I need a hint. The problem is: is there a continuous bijection from $\mathbb{R}$ to $\mathbb{R}^2$ I'm pretty sure that there aren't any, but so far I couldn't find the proof. My best idea so far is ...
20
votes
1answer
598 views

Convergence of the series $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(\sin n)^n}{n}$.

Please determine whether the series $\displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(\sin n)^n}{n}$ converges. (Note: In Mathematica, the result tends to converge. Moreover, this is a problem mis-copied from ...
20
votes
0answers
853 views

How can I calculate $\int \frac{\sec x\tan x}{3x+5}\,\mathrm dx$

How can I calculate $$ \int{\sec\left(x\right)\tan\left(x\right) \over 3x + 5}\,{\rm d}x $$ My Try:: $\displaystyle \int \frac{1}{3x+5}\left(\sec x\tan x \right)\,\mathrm dx$ Now Using Integration ...
19
votes
5answers
1k views

Approximation to $ \sqrt{2}$

I'm a first year Undergraduate student from India. Our professor is going to start a Real Analysis course in September and I was preparing for the initials. I tried and solved many problems, but this ...
19
votes
1answer
913 views

Does the series $\sum\limits_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{\sin(n-\sqrt{n^2+n})}{n}$ converge?

I'm just reviewing for my exam tomorow looking at old exams, unfortunately I don't have solutions. Here is a question I found : determine if the series converges or diverges. If it converges find ...
19
votes
2answers
3k views

Why is the ring of matrices over a field simple?

Denote by $M_{n \times n}(k)$ the ring of $n$ by $n$ matrices with coefficients in the field $k$. Then why does this ring not contain any two-sided ideal? Thanks for any clarification, and this is ...
19
votes
4answers
579 views

Limit of series involving ratio of two factorials

$$ \sum^{\infty}_{j=0} \frac{(j!)^2}{(2j)!} = \frac{2 \pi \sqrt{3}}{27}+\frac{4}{3} $$ The above series is in a homework sheet. We're not expected to find the limit, just prove its convergence. ...
18
votes
2answers
2k views

The union of a strictly increasing sequence of $\sigma$-algebras is not a $\sigma$-algebra

The union of a sequence of $\sigma$-algebras need not be a $\sigma$-algebra, but how do I prove the stronger statement below? Let $\mathcal{F}_n$ be a sequence of $\sigma$-algebras. If the ...
18
votes
5answers
627 views

Show that $\mathbb{Q}$ is dense in the real numbers. (Using Supremum)

I am stuck on a homework the teacher gave us to hand in. It is stated as following: The set of rational numbers $\mathbb{Q}$ given by all $q = \frac{m}{n}$ for some $m, n \in \mathbb{Z}$ with $n ...
18
votes
1answer
369 views

Easy proof, that $\rm e\notin \mathbb Q$

$\def\e{{\rm e}}$ I recently had the task to explain the proof that $\e$ is irrational as a presentation to my classmates. To prepare this presentation, the teacher gave me a script with a proof that ...
18
votes
1answer
518 views

Seeking Fourier series solution on Laplace equation…still looking, am I on track?

Okay, I've been working at this a couple of days now, I will try to give relevant details but will omit some intermediate steps. The problem as given says: Consider the BVP for $u=u(x,y)$: ...
18
votes
1answer
401 views

A homotopy sphere

My question is part of an exercise in Hatcher's 'Algebraic Topology'. Consider a CW complex $X$, constructed from a circle and two 2-disks $e_2$ and $e_3$, attached to that circle by maps of degree 2 ...
17
votes
10answers
3k views

Proving $\sqrt 3$ is irrational.

There is a very simple proof by means of divisivility that $\sqrt 2$ is irrational. I have to prove that $\sqrt 3$ is irrational too, as a homework. I have done it as follows, ad absurdum: Suppose ...
17
votes
5answers
559 views

How to prove that $\frac{(mn)!}{m!(n!)^m}$ is an integer?

$\forall m,n\in\mathbb Z$ , $m\ge1$ and $n\ge1$ how to prove that $$\frac{(mn)!}{m!(n!)^m}$$ is an integer? Thanks in advance.
17
votes
4answers
853 views

A problem on Condition $\det(A+B)=\det(A)+\det(B)$

Let $A$ be a matrix $n\times n$ matrix that for any matrix $B$ we have $\det(A+B)=\det(A)+\det(B)$. If this imply that $A=0$? or $\det(A)=0$?
17
votes
2answers
2k views

Tensor products commute with direct limits

This is Exercise 2.20 in Atiyah-Macdonald. How can we prove that $\varinjlim (M_i \bigotimes N) \cong (\varinjlim M_i) \bigotimes N$ ? Atiyah gives a suggestion, he says that one should obtain a map ...
17
votes
2answers
2k views

Proving that the tensor product is right exact

Let $A\stackrel{\alpha}{\rightarrow}B\stackrel{\beta}{\rightarrow}C\rightarrow 0$ a exact sequence of left $R$-modules and $M$ a left $R$-module ($R$ any ring). I am trying to prove that ...