For question involving Hilbert spaces, that is, complete normed spaces whose norm comes from an inner product.

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7
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761 views

Contexts For Bessel's Inequality?

Bessel's inequality appears to be about orthonormal sequences. But (in the context of inner product spaces), I've thought of this inequality as being a demonstration that the hypotenuse of triangles ...
7
votes
1answer
99 views

Tight Probability on Hilbert space

I am considering the following problem. Let $(X_j)$ be i.i.d. $N(0,1)$ random variables and $H$ a Hilbert space with orthonormal basis $(e_j)$. Let $$X:=\sum_j \frac{X_j e_j}{j}$$ And for any ...
7
votes
1answer
208 views

Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space is dense?

Let $E=C[0,1]$, space of all real-valued continuous functions on $[0,1]$, $\mathcal{E}$ be its Borel $\sigma$-algebra and $\mu$ a Gaussian measure on $E$. Let $E^*$ be a space of all continuous ...
6
votes
3answers
263 views

A complete orthonormal system contained in a dense sub-space.

Let H be a separable complex Hilbert space. Let A be a dense sub-space of H. Is it possible to find a complete orthonormal system for H that is contained in A?
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Weak Convergence implies boundedness and componentwise convergence

Let $\ell^2$ be the set of real number sequences $\{a_n\}$ such that $\sum a_n^2 <\infty$. Let $\langle a_n,y\rangle \rightarrow \langle a,y\rangle$ for some $a\in \ell^2$ and for all $y\in ...
6
votes
2answers
315 views

Question about positive operators on a Hilbert space

I have the following problem. Let $\Omega \subset R^n$ have finite measure, let $H = L^2(\Omega)$ and let $S: H \to H$ be a bounded linear operator. Then it is well known that $P = SS^*$ is a positive ...
6
votes
1answer
283 views

Trace class for operators

Let $ \mathcal{H} $ be a Hilbert space and $ T: \mathcal{H} \to \mathcal{H} $ a bounded linear operator. The $ n $-th singular number $ {\mu_{n}}(T) $ of $ T $ is defined as the distance from $ T $ ...
6
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1answer
1k views

Compactness of Multiplication Operator on $L^2$

Suppose we have an bounded linear operator A that operates from $L^2([a,b]) \mapsto L^2([a,b])$. Now suppose that $A(f)(t) = tf(t)$. Is A compact? Edit: I know $A = A^*$ but I'm not really sure ...
6
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1answer
519 views

A few questions about the Hilbert triple/Gelfand triple

I am attempting to fully understand Hilbert triples by reading Brezis' Function Analysis book. Consider $V \subset H \subset V^*$, where $V$ is Banach and $H$ is Hilbert. $V$ is dense in $H$. ...
6
votes
3answers
303 views

Why isn't it a Hilbert space

Let $X$ be the vector space of all the continuous complex-valued functions on $[0,1]$. Then $X$ has an inner product $$(f,g) = \int_0^1 f(t)\overline{g(t)} dt$$ to make it an inner product space. But ...
6
votes
2answers
241 views

Example of a non-algebraic $\ell^2$-function in two variables

Let's call an $\ell^2$-function $\mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{C}$ algebraic if it is in the image of the natural algebra homomorphism $\ell^2(\mathbb{N}) \otimes \ell^2(\mathbb{N}) \to ...
6
votes
1answer
104 views

Non-examples for the Kato-Rellich Theorem

The Kato-Rellich Theorem is a classical result stating that if $A,B$ are unbounded operators on a Hilbert space with $A$ self-adjoint, $B$ symmetric, $\mathcal D (A)\subset \mathcal D(B)$ and $$ ...
6
votes
1answer
48 views

Derive Fourier transform from what it should do?

I was wondering about the following: Imagine you want to figure out whether there is a transform that exchanges differentiation with multiplication and convoution with pairwise transformation for ...
6
votes
1answer
228 views

Approximating a Hilbert-Schmidt operator

Let $H$ be a separable Hilbert space. Recall that a bounded operator $A : H \to H$ is said to be Hilbert-Schmidt if $$\|A\|_{HS}^2 := \sum_{i=1}^\infty \|A e_i\|^2 < \infty$$ where ...
6
votes
1answer
191 views

Measure on a separable Hilbert space

Let $H$ be a real separable Hilbert space. Is it true that there exist a probability space $(\Omega, \mu)$ and a measurable function $\pi\colon \Omega \to H$ such that for any $h \in H$ we have $$ ...
6
votes
1answer
140 views

A complete eigenvector basis for the restricted operator

Let $X$ be a (not necessarily bounded) selfadjoint linear operator on a Hilbert space $H$ and let $M$ be a closed subspace such that $X(M) \subset M$. Suppose that $X$ admits an orthonormal basis ...
6
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1answer
252 views

Two different definitions of ellipticity

This is a question originating in another mathematics forum, matematicamente.it (in Italian). In literature one encounters the word elliptic in (at least) two different definitions. In what follows ...
6
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1answer
69 views

Show that an unbouned normal operator is closed

A linear operator $A$ is called nomal if $\mathcal{D}(A)=\mathcal{D}(A^{*})$ and $\lVert A\phi\rVert =\lVert A^{*}\phi\rVert$ for every $\phi\in \mathcal{D}(A)$. Show that normal operators are closed. ...
6
votes
0answers
387 views

On the weak and strong convergence of an iterative sequence

I have some difficulties in the following problem. I would like to thank for all kind help and construction. Let $H$ be an infinite dimensional real Hilbert space and $F: H\rightarrow H$ be a ...
6
votes
0answers
278 views

Is this question solvable? $2$ non-linear equations and the proof that the solution is unique (with asymmetric bounty option)

As mentioned in the title I want to show the uniqueness of the solution to $2$ non-linear equations. However, it seems that I can not solve this question with my current mathematical knowledge. More ...
5
votes
2answers
906 views

Elegant proof that $L^2([a,b])$ is separable

Is anybody aware of, or can provide at least an outline, of a proof that the Hilbert space of Lebesgue functions square-integrable on the closed real interval [a,b], equipped with the $L^2$ norm, is ...
5
votes
2answers
799 views

Relationship of Fourier series and Hilbert spaces?

I just read in a textbook that a Hilbert space can be defined or represented by an appropriate Fourier series. How might that be? Is it because a Fourier series is an infinite series that adequately ...
5
votes
4answers
527 views

An idempotent operator is compact if and only if it is of finite rank

Would you help me to solve this problem. Show that an idempotent operator on hilbert space is compact if and only if it has finite rank.
5
votes
2answers
159 views

Hilbert space with all subspaces closed

Does there exist an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space with all subspaces closed?
5
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3answers
385 views

Soft Question Hilbert Space Geometry

Just a quick question about the geometry of Hilbert spaces from an intuitive standpoint. Maybe just assuming we're working with $L^2$ would simplify the situation. Basically, in something like ...
5
votes
3answers
193 views

Sequences are Cauchy depending on the norm?

Assume that we have two Banach spaces $B_1, B_2$ with their underlying sets being identical. Is it possible that a Cauchy sequence in one of the spaces would fail to be Cauchy in the other? I am ...
5
votes
3answers
444 views

$f$ an isometry from a hilbert space $H$ to itself such that $f(0)=0$ then $f$ linear.

This question was on an exam and I am not sure how to answer it. I mostly tried writing zero in different ways and tried lots of algebra to get something out. I also tried to use the fact that $H$ is ...
5
votes
1answer
154 views

Homeomorphisms between infinite-dimensional Banach spaces and their spheres

As I know Cz. Bessaga has proved that an infinite-dimensional Banach space is homeomorphic to its unit sphere. Unfortunately I do not have his book but I want to know is this theorem true without ...
5
votes
2answers
176 views

Show that linear Operator on $\ell^2$ is unbounded

Currently, I am preparing for a next semester course and trying to figure out some basic concepts in functional analysis. Let $T:\mathcal{D}(T)\to \ell^2$ be defined by ...
5
votes
2answers
458 views

Norm inequality for sum and difference of positive-definite matrices

If $X_{1}$ and $X_{2}$ are positive definite matrices, how to show that $\left\Vert X_{1}-X_{2}\right\Vert \le\left\Vert X_{1}+X_{2}\right\Vert$ for the spectral norm? and how about for the nuclear ...
5
votes
1answer
288 views

Uniform mean ergodic theorem

I'm working in Einsiedler and Ward's book on Ergodic Theory and in Exercise 2.5.4 they want to prove the following $$\lim_{N - M \to \infty} \frac{1}{N - M} \sum_{n = M}^{N - 1} U_T^n f \to P_T f.$$ ...
5
votes
2answers
89 views

What's the spectrum of this operator in $\ell^2$?

Suppose that $\ell^2 = \biggl\{(x_n)_n \in \mathbb{K}^{\mathbb{N}_0} \biggm| \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}|{x_n}^2| < +\infty \biggr\}$ is a Hilbert-space with the inproduct $\langle\cdot,\cdot\rangle_2: ...
5
votes
2answers
106 views

Norm of a $2\times 2$ matrix as a Hilbert space operator

Work in the Hilbert space $\mathbb C^2$. Let $$A = \begin{bmatrix} a & b \\ c & d \\ \end{bmatrix} $$ be a matrix with entries in $\mathbb C$, and let $A$ ...
5
votes
2answers
288 views

Unit Ball of $\mathcal{l}_2$

Let $B(\mathcal{l}_2) :=\{x \in \mathcal{l}_2 : \|x \| \leq 1 \}$ and $S(\mathcal{l}_2) :=\{x \in \mathcal{l}_2 : \|x \| = 1 \}$ be the unit ball and the unit sphere of $\mathcal{l}_2$, respectively. ...
5
votes
2answers
995 views

Example that in a normed space, weak convergence does not implies strong convergence.

The book "Introductory Functional Analysis with Applications" (Kreyszig) presents the following definitions. A sequence $(x_n)$ in a normed space $X$ is said to be strongly convergent if there is ...
5
votes
2answers
530 views

Parallelogram law valid in banach spaces?

It is known that the parallelogram law $\|x-y\|^2+\|x+y\|^2 = 2(\|x\|^2 + \|y\|^2)$ holds in any space with an inner product (the norm being induced by this inner product). Is this formula valid in ...
5
votes
2answers
229 views

Why is the numerical range of a self-adjoint operator an interval?

I was reviewing for a test for functional analysis when I came across the following statement: Let $T$ be a bounded self-adjoint operator on a Hilbert space $H$. Then the numerical range of it is ...
5
votes
1answer
490 views

Exhibiting open covers with no finite subcovers.

How do I exhibit an open cover of the closed unit ball of the following: (a) $X = \ell^2$ (b) $X=C[0,1]$ (c) $X= L^2[0,1]$ that has no finite subcover?
5
votes
2answers
554 views

Recognition of an orthonormal complete set in an Hilbert Space

I recently came across this exercise: Let $u_n:[0,1]\to \mathbb R$ be the sequence of functions defined by: $$(u_n):=\text{sign }(\sin(2^n\pi x)),\qquad n=0,1,2,\dots$$ a)Prove that this set of ...
5
votes
1answer
366 views

Sum of Closed Operators Closable?

Let $A$ and $B$ be closed operators on a (separable complex) Hilbert space with dense domains $D(A)$ and $D(B)$ respecitvely. Then, we may define the operator $A+B$ on $D(A)\cap D(B)$. In general, ...
5
votes
1answer
146 views

Addition of Unbounded Operators

Let $H$ be a (separable complex) Hilbert space and let $A$ and $B$ be two densely-defined, maximally-defined linear operators on $H$ with domains $D(A)$ and $D(B)$ respectively. (By maximall-defined, ...
5
votes
1answer
282 views

Is this functional weakly continuous?

Take a $C^1$ function $G \colon \mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}$ and define a functional $$\mathcal{G}(u)=\int_0^1G(u(t))\, dt, \quad u \in H^1(0, 1).$$ We then have $\mathcal{G}\in C^1\big(H^1(0, 1)\to ...
5
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1answer
68 views

Nonseparable $L^2$ space built on a sigma finite measure space

Is it possible to have a nonseparable $L^2$ Hilbert space for which the underlying measure space is sigma finite? I appreciate any example but prefer one built on the Borel sigma algebra of some ...
5
votes
1answer
187 views

The sup norm on $C[0,1]$ is not equivalent to another one, induced by some inner product

Let $\mathrm{C}[0,1]$ be the space of continuous functions $[0,1]\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ endowed with the norm $||x||_{\infty}=\mathrm{max}_{t\in [0,1]}|x(t)|$. It is easy to verify that this norm is ...
5
votes
1answer
164 views

Matrix Representation of Trace Class Operators

Suppose we have a separable Hilbert space (thus with a countable basis) and that represent an operator in matrix form, i.e: $A: H \rightarrow H $$$x \;\rightarrow \sum_{j \in \mathbb{N}}\left(\sum_{k ...
5
votes
1answer
308 views

Weak Formulations and Lax Milgram:

I have a question on how to put a PDE into weak form, and more importantly, how to properly choose the space of test functions. I know that for an elliptic problem, we want to start with a problem ...
5
votes
1answer
68 views

Show that a subspace of l2 is not complete

I would like to know if this exercise is correct. Let $\Bbb R^\infty=\{x:\Bbb N\rightarrow \Bbb R: \exists n \text{ such that}\quad x(k)=0 \quad \forall k\geq n\}$. Show that $(\Bbb R^\infty, \| ...
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votes
1answer
84 views

Strong convergence of an “averaging” operator

Let $X$ be an Hilbert space and $S:X \rightarrow X$ be a bounded linear operator with $||S||=1 $ Define $$T_n= \frac{1}{n} \sum_{r=0}^{n-1} S^r$$ I want to show it converges strongly to some ...
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1answer
63 views

Duality mappings on finite-dimensional spaces

I have a few questions regarding some concepts in a book "nonlinear partial differential equations by Roubicek" I am studying. The following is from the text. "Let $V$ be a separable, reflexive ...
5
votes
1answer
331 views

Bounded operator and Compactness problem

Let $H$ be a Hilbert space with orthonormal basis $(e_{n})_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$. Furthermore, let $T\colon H\rightarrow C[a,b]$ be a bounded operator. a) Let $x\in [a,b]$. Show that there is a ...