Harmonic analysis is the generalisation of Fourier analysis. Use this tag for analysis on locally compact groups (e.g. Pontryagin duality), eigenvalues of the Laplacian on compact manifolds or graphs, and the abstract study of Fourier transform on Euclidean spaces (singular integrals, ...

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Theorem of Steinhaus

The Steinhaus theorem says that if a set $A \subset \mathbb R^n$ is of positive inner Lebesgue measure then $\operatorname{int}{(A+A)} \neq \emptyset$. Is it true that also ...
11
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2answers
929 views

A net version of dominated convergence?

Let $G$ be a locally compact Hausdorff Abelian topological group. Let $\mu$ be a Haar measure on $G$, i.e. a regular translation invariant measure. Let $f$ be fixed in $\mathcal{L}^1(G, \mu)$. ...
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3answers
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Do discontinuous harmonic functions exist?

A function, $u$, on $\mathbb R^n$ is normally said to be harmonic if $\Delta u=0$, where $\Delta$ is the Laplacian operator $\Delta=\sum_{i=1}^n\frac{\partial^2}{\partial x_i^2}$. So obviously, ...
14
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1answer
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Criteria for swapping integration and summation order

I have a function (a potential from an electrostatic potential via a Fourier series) in the form of $$V(x, y, z)=\sum_n\sum_m \ a(x, n, m) b(y, n) c(z, m) \int\int f(u, v) d(u,n) e(v,m) du\, dv$$ ...
5
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1answer
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Young's inequality for discrete convolution

Young's inequality for convolution of functions states that for $f\in L^p(\mathbb{R}^d)$ and $g\in L^q(\mathbb{R}^d)$ we have $$\|f\star g\|_r\le\|f\|_p\|g\|_q$$ for $p$, $q$, $r$ satisfying ...
16
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1answer
785 views

Properties of Haar measure

Let $G$ be a locally compact group (but not discrete) and let $m$ be its left Haar measure. Is it true that $\forall \epsilon$ $\exists$ $C$ such that $C$ is a compact neighborhood of the identity and ...
4
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1answer
388 views

Asymptotic error of Fourier series partial sum of sawtooth function

In Iwaniec's book, Topics in Classical Automorphic Forms, pg. 4, he gives the statement: $$\{x\}=\frac{1}{2}-\sum_{n=1}^N\frac{\sin 2\pi nx}{\pi n}+O((1+||x||N)^{-1})$$ where $\{x\}$ denotes the ...
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2answers
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Bounded linear operators that commute with translation

I'm trying to read Elias Stein's "Singular Integrals" book, and in the beginning of the second chapter, he states two results classifying bounded linear operators that commute (on $L^1$ and $L^2$ ...
9
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2answers
498 views

Mean Value Property of Harmonic Function on a Square

A friend of mine presented me the following problem a couple days ago: Let $S$ in $\mathbb{R}^2$ be a square and $u$ a continuous harmonic function on the closure of $S$. Show that the average of ...
7
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1answer
915 views

Reference request: Fourier and Fourier-Stieltjes algebras

I would like to learn the basic theory of Fourier algebras and Fourier-Stieltjes algebras. In particular, I want to know how these two objects are defined in the case of not necessarily abelian ...
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How to show convolution of an $L^p$ function and a Schwartz function is a Schwartz function

We have the Schwartz space $\mathcal{S}$ of $C^\infty(\mathbb{R^n})$ functions $h$ such that $(1+|x|^m)|\partial^\alpha h(x)|$ is bounded for all $m \in \mathbb{N_0}$ and all multi-indices $\alpha$. ...
5
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1answer
2k views

Lower bound for the Hardy-Littlewood maximal function implies it is not integrable

I am working on the following problem from Stein and Shakarchi: Let $f$ be an integral function on $\mathbb{R}^d$ such that $\|f\|_{L^1} = 1$ and let $f^*$ by the Hardy-Littlewood maximal function ...
3
votes
1answer
387 views

Why unitary characters for the dual group in Pontryagin duality if $G$ is not compact?

In harmonic analysis, for any locally compact abelian group, one constructs the dual group as the group of homomorphisms into the unit circle with the compact open topology. In other words, unitary ...
6
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753 views

Derivatives distribution

Let $f$ be a distribution on $\mathbf{R}^n$ (in the Schwartz sense) such that $$\frac{\partial f}{\partial x_i} = 0 \text{ for $i = 1, \ldots, n$.}$$ Then how to prove that $f$ is a constant? I had ...
1
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1answer
40 views

prove that the pontryagin duality of $\mathbb{R}$ is $\mathbb{R}$.

from wikipedia: The group of real numbers $\mathbb{R}$, is isomorphic to its own dual; the characters on $\mathbb{R}$ are of the form $r \to e^{i\theta r}$. How can I prove this assertion?
3
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convolution of $f$ and $g$ is in $L^p$ where $f$ has compact support.

Suppose 1≤p≤∞ and $f∈L^1(G)$ and $g∈L^p(G)$. I know this is true $‖f*g‖_p ≤‖f‖_1 ‖g‖_q$ , Where ∗ is convolution of f and g. I want to prove that If G is not unimodular, we still have g∗f is in LP ...
3
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1answer
121 views

Is Steinhaus theorem ever used in topological groups?

Steinhaus theorem in $\mathbb{R}^d$ says that for $E\subset\mathbb{R}^d$ with positive measure, $E-E:=\{x-y:x,y\in E\}$ contains an open neighborhood of the origin. And for locally compact Hausdorff ...
2
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1answer
94 views

A simple question of Littlewood-Paley decomposition.

Let $\{f_k(x)\}_{k=0}^\infty$ be a Littlewood-Paley decompositon, that is, $$ f_k \in C_c^\infty $$ $$ \sum_{k=0}^\infty f_k (x) = 1,$$ $$ \text{supp} f_0 \subset \{ |x| \leq 2 \},$$ $$ \exists f ...
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1answer
148 views

Suppose G is unimodular. If f is in LP(G) and g is in Lq(G) where 1 < p,q < ∞ and 1/p+1/q=1, then f * g ∈Co(G) and ||f * g||sup ≤ ||f||p ||g||q

Suppose G is unimodular. If f is in LP(G) and g is in Lq(G) where 1 < p,q < ∞ and 1/p+1/q=1, then f * g ∈Co(G) and ||f * g||sup ≤ Ilfllp llgllq. * is convolution f and g. I read the ...
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1answer
793 views

What does the symbol $\subset\subset$ mean? [duplicate]

In some texts (mainly complex analysis or harmonic analysis) I sometimes see the following double subset symbol $\subset\subset$ for inclusion relation of two regions, e.g., $\Omega$ and $\Omega'$ are ...
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1answer
252 views

How to use Parseval' s( Plancherel' s) identity?

Let $f\in L^{2} (\mathbb R)$ with $\lim_{t\to \pm \infty} f(t)=0.$ Put, $F_{n} (x)= \frac{1}{2\pi} \int_{-n}^{n}e^{itx} f(t) dt, \ (n=1,2,...).$ Fix $\alpha \in (0, \infty)$ and we define $H_{n}(x)$ ...
121
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What do modern-day analysts actually do?

In an abstract algebra class, one learns about groups, rings, and fields, and (perhaps naively) conceives of a modern-day algebraist as someone who studies these sorts of structures. One learns about ...
29
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2answers
622 views

Prove or disprove a claim related to $L^p$ space

The following question is just a toy model: Let $f:[0,1] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be Lebesgue integrable, and suppose that for any $0\le a<b \le1$, $$\int_a^b |f(x)|dx \le \sqrt{b-a}$$ then prove ...
5
votes
1answer
191 views

Harmonic Analysis on the real special linear group

I would like to understand the representation theory and generalized Fourier transform of $SL(3, \mathbb{R})$ in as concrete a manner as possible. My ultimate goal is to develop an algorithm that can ...
12
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1answer
604 views

Plancherel formula for compact groups from Peter-Weyl Theorem

I'm trying to derive the following Plancherel formula: $$\|f\|^{2}=\sum_{\xi\in\widehat{G}}{\dim(V_{\xi})\|\widehat{f}(\xi)\|^{2}}$$ from the statement of the Peter-Weyl Theorem as given by Terence ...
11
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2answers
180 views

average of maximal function is less than its infimum?

Let M be the dyadic Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator. Prove the following: there is a constant $C$ such that for any $f$, $$ \inf_{x\in I}Mf(x)\le C 2^k\inf_{x\in J} Mf(x) $$ where $I$ and $J$ are ...
17
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1answer
303 views

A property of exponential of operators

Let $X$ be a Banach space. $A\in B(X)$ is a bounded operator. we can define $e^{tA}$ by $$e^{tA}=\sum_{k=0}^{+\infty}\frac{t^kA^k}{k!}$$ I am interested in this property: If $x\in X$, such that the ...
12
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1answer
635 views

What are the differences and relations of Haar integrals, Lebesgue integrals, Riemann integrals?

Are Riemann integrals special cases of Haar integrals? Why do we need the invariant property under some actions of groups in the definition of Haar integrals? For example, if we have a group of real ...
7
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2answers
528 views

Good book on topological group theory?

I'm looking for a good introduction to the theory of locally compact groups and their representations. It may assume the reader to be familiar with basic group theory, topology and measure theory.
2
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2answers
182 views

An integral$\frac{1}{2\pi}\int_0^{2\pi}\log|\exp(i\theta)-a|\text{d}\theta=0$ which I can calculate but can't understand it.

I have encountered this integral:$$\frac{1}{2\pi}\int_0^{2\pi}\log|\exp(i\theta)-a|\text{d}\theta=0$$ where $|a|<1$ in proving Jensen's formula. because I am stupid, I don't know why it is equal ...
13
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3answers
540 views

Rate of divergence for the series $\sum |\sin(n\theta) / n|$

In the following we consider the series $$ S(N;\theta)= \sum_{n = 1}^{N} \left| \frac{\sin n\theta}{n} \right| $$ parametrized by $\theta$. It is well known that this series (taking the limit ...
5
votes
2answers
224 views

equation involving the integral of the modular function of a topological group

Let $G$ be a locally compact topological group and $H$ a closed subgroup. Choose a left Haar measure $d\zeta$ for $H$, and let $d\mu$ be any measure for $G$. Also let $f$ and $g$ be continuous ...
4
votes
2answers
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Why are translation invariant operators on $L^2$ multiplier operators

For $m \in L^\infty$, we can define the multiplier operator $T_m \in L(L^2,L^2)$ implicitly by $\mathcal F (T_m f)(\xi) = m(\xi) \cdot (\mathcal F T_m)(\xi)$ where $\mathcal F$ is the Fourier ...
3
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2answers
112 views

Replicating Kolmogorov's Counterexample for Fourier Series in Context of Fourier Transforms

It is a famous result of Kolmogorov that there exists a (Lebesgue) integrable function on the torus such that the partial sums of Fourier series of $f$ diverge almost everywhere (a.e.). More ...
3
votes
1answer
121 views

$L^{p}$ Boundedness of Fourier Multiplier without Littlewood-Paley

Suppose $\zeta\in\mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R}^{n})$ is a Schwartz function such that $\widehat{\zeta}$ is compactly supported away from the origin (say in the annulus ...
9
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157 views

$L^{2}$ Approximation Error of Fourier Series of Union of Disjoint Arcs

Given $N$ disjoint arcs $\{I_{\alpha}\}_{\alpha=1}^{N}\subset\mathbb{T} $,set $f=\displaystyle\sum_{\alpha=1}^{N}\chi_{I_{\alpha}}$ show that $$\sum_{|v|>k}|\hat{f}(v)|^2\le\dfrac{CN}{k}$$ This ...
6
votes
1answer
464 views

$1/|x|^n$ is not integrable

Let $\mu $ be a positive Borel measure on $% %TCIMACRO{\U{211d} }% %BeginExpansion \mathbb{R} %EndExpansion ^{d}$ such that $\mu \left( B\left( a,r\right) \right) \leq Cr^{n}$ for some $n\in (0,d]$ ...
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1answer
655 views

Laplace equation Dirichlet problem on punctured unit ball.

Let $\Omega = \{ x \in \mathbb{R}^n: 0<|x|<1 \}$ and consider the Dirichlet problem \begin{align} \Delta u &= 0 \\ u(0) &= 1 \\ u &= 0 ~~~\text{if} ~~|x|=1 \end{align} By considering ...
5
votes
1answer
447 views

Harmonic functions on $\mathbf{Z}^2$

Problem 1: Find all functions $f:\mathbf{Z}^2 \to \mathbf{R}$ which are harmonic in the sense that $$f(x,y) = \frac{f(x+1,y) + f(x-1,y) + f(x,y+1) + f(x,y-1)}{4}$$for all $(x,y)\in\mathbf{Z}^2$, ...
4
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1answer
254 views

Surjective endomorphism preserves Haar measure

How to prove the following statement: Let $G$ be a compact topological group and let $m$ be the Haar measure on it. Let $\varphi$ be a continuous endomorphism of $G$ onto $G$, i.e., the map $\varphi$ ...
3
votes
1answer
623 views

Prove partial derivatives of uniformly convergent harmonic functions converge to the partial derivative of the limit of the sequence.

I think the title says it all. If you have a sequence of harmonic functions from a bounded complex domain to the real numbers, show that on a subset at a positive distance from the boundary of the ...
7
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1answer
208 views

Complete example of haar measure on compact groups like $GL(n,R)$

I am currently reading the proof of existence of haar measure, but I learn better mostly by examples so I would like examples of explicit computation of haar measure mainly on any $Gl(n,R)$ or any lie ...
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90 views

Criterion for Membership in Hardy Space $H^{1}(\mathbb{R}^{n})$

Let $H^{1}(\mathbb{R}^{n})$ denote the real Hardy space (I am agnostic about the choice of characterization). It is known that if $f:\mathbb{R}^{n}\rightarrow\mathbb{C}$ is a compactly supported ...
5
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1answer
234 views

Why are Haar measures finite on compact sets?

I'm working through the answer by t.b. to another user's question here: A net version of dominated convergence? because I am trying to work through a related problem and I think it will be ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Approximation of the identity and Hardy-Littlewood maximal function

The inequality seems to be simple but I could not find the right limits of integration. $$\sup_{\delta>0} |f*K_{\delta}|(x)\leq c f^*(x)$$ Where is some positive constant, $f$ is integrable, ...
4
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0answers
114 views

Functions Satisfying $u,\Delta u\in L^{1}(\mathbb{R}^{n})$

In this paper, the authors assert that ...the domain of realization of the Laplacian in $L^{1}(\mathbb{R}^{n})$ is not contained in $W^{2,1}(\mathbb{R}^{n})$ if $n>1$. However, it is ...
4
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0answers
168 views

Steinhaus theorem in topological groups

Let $(G,\cdot)$ be a locally compact Abelian topological group with Haar measure. It is known that if $B$ is a measurable subset of $G$ of finite and positive Haar measure then $int(B \cdot B)\neq ...
3
votes
1answer
103 views

Fourier Uniqueness Theorem: Proof?

I need this as lemma. Given the Borel space $\mathcal{B}(\mathbb{R})$. Consider a complex measure: $$\mu:\mathcal{B}(\mathbb{R})\to\mathbb{C}$$ Then one has: ...
3
votes
1answer
143 views

Pontryagin dual of the unit circle

Define the unit circle as $\frac{\mathbb{R}}{2\pi\mathbb{Z}}.$ I know the Pontryagin dual (looking at properties of the Fourier transform on locally compact Abelian groups) is $\mathbb{Z}$ but why? ...
3
votes
2answers
325 views

Which $f \in L^\infty$ are the Fourier transform of a bounded complex measure?

A measure on $\mathbb R$ is a set function $\mu,$ defined for all Borel sets of $\mathbb R,$ which is countably additive(that is, $\mu(E)=\sum \mu(E_{i})$ if $E$ is the union of the countable family ...