# Tagged Questions

A group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements together with an operation that satisfies four conditions: closure, associativity, identity and invertibility. Group theory studies groups.

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### Conjugate subgroup strictly contained in the initial subgroup?

Probably a very stupid question: Let $G$ be a group, $H\subset G$ a subgroup, $a\in G$ an element. Is it possible that $aHa^{-1} \subset H$, but $aHa^{-1} \neq H$? If $H$ has finite index or finite ...
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### Does $G\cong G/H$ imply that $H$ is trivial?

Let $G$ be any group such that $$G\cong G/H$$ where $H$ is a normal subgroup of $G$. If $G$ is finite, then $H$ is the trivial subgroup $\{e\}$. Does the result still hold when $G$ is infinite ? In ...
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### Is Lagrange's theorem the most basic result in finite group theory?

Motivated by this question, can one prove that the order of an element in a finite group divides the order of the group without using Lagrange's theorem? (Or, equivalently, that the order of the group ...
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### Normal subgroup of prime index

Generalizing the case $p=2$ we would like to know if the statement below is true. Let $p$ the smallest prime dividing the order of $G$. If $H$ is a subgroup of $G$ with index $p$ then $H$ is normal. ...
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### $|G|>2$ implies $G$ has non trivial automorphism

Well, this is an exercise problem from Herstein which sounds difficult: How does one prove that if $|G|>2$, then $G$ has non-trivial automorphism? The only thing I know which connects a group ...
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### If $G/Z(G)$ is cyclic, then $G$ is abelian

Continuing my work through Dummit & Foote's "Abstract Algebra", 3.1.36 asks the following (which is exactly the same as exercise 5 in this related MSE answer): Prove that if $G/Z(G)$ is cyclic,...
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### Group of order 15 is abelian

How do I prove group of order 15 is abelian? Is there any general strategy to prove that a group of particular order(composite order) is abelian?
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### The Center of $\operatorname{GL}(n,k)$

The given question: Let $k$ be a ﬁeld and $n \in \mathbb{N}$. Show that the centre of $\operatorname{GL}(n, k)$ is $\lbrace\lambda I\mid λ ∈ k^∗\rbrace$. I have spent a while trying to prove this ...
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### Examples and further results about the order of the product of two elements in a group

Let $G$ be a group and let $a,b$ be two elements of $G$. What can we say about the order of their product $ab$? Wikipedia says "not much": There is no general formula relating the order of a ...
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### Groups of order $pq$ without using Sylow theorems

If $|G| = pq$, $p,q$ primes, $p \gt q, q \nmid p-1$, then how do I prove $G$ is cyclic without using Sylow's theorems?
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### Reference request for tricky problem in elementary group theory

The following could have shown up as an exercise in a basic Abstract Algebra text, and if anyone can give me a reference, I will be most grateful. Consider a set $X$ with an associative law of ...
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### Are there real world applications of finite group theory?

I would like to know whether there are examples where finite group theory can be directly applied to solve real world problems outside of mathematics. (Sufficiently applied mathematics such as ...
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### Why are two permutations conjugate iff they have the same cycle structure?

I have heard that two permutations are conjugate if they have the same cyclic structure. Is there an intuitive way to understand why this is?
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### Normal subgroups of $S_4$

Can anyone tell me how to find all normal subgroups of the symmetric group $S_4$? In particular are $H=\{e,(1 2)(3 4)\}$ and $K=\{e,(1 2)(3 4), (1 3)(2 4),(1 4)(2 3)\}$ normal subgroups?
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### For what $n$ is $U_n$ cyclic?

When can we say a multiplicative group of integers modulo $n$, i.e., $U_n$ is cyclic? $$U_n=\{a \in\mathbb Z_n \mid \gcd(a,n)=1 \}$$ I searched the internet but did not get a clear idea.
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### Is every group the automorphism group of a group?

Suppose $G$ is a group. Does there always exist a group $H$, such that $\operatorname{Aut}(H)=G$, i. e. such that $G$ is the automorphism group of $H$? EDIT: It has been pointed out that the answer ...
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### Union of the conjugates of a proper subgroup

Let G be a finite group and H be a proper subgroup. Prove that the union of the conjugates of H is not the whole of G. Thanks for any help
Let $H$, $K$ be subgroups of $G$. Prove that $o(HK) = \frac{o(H)o(K)}{o(H \cap K)}$. I need this theorem to prove something.