The study of symmetry: groups, subgroups, homomorphisms, and group actions.

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Algorithm to write an element of $SL_2(\mathbb{Z})$ as a product of $S, T^n$

It is well-known that $SL_2(\mathbb{Z})$ is generated by $S = \left( \begin{array}{ccc}0 & -1 \\1 & 0 \end{array} \right), T = \left( \begin{array}{ccc}1 & 1 \\0 & 1 \end{array} ...
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145 views

Smallest normal subgroup making quotient abelian, nilpotent, solvable

Given a finite group $G$ that is not abelian, nilpotent, or solvable, what is the smallest normal subgroup $H$ in each case such that $G/H$ is abelian, nilpotent, or solvable (respectively)? In ...
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160 views

Normality of a subgroup

How is normality of a subgroup $H$ of $G$ reflected in the table that displays the operation on cosets ? What I did: Let $G$ is a group of $8$ elements as $G= \mathbb{Z}_8$ And let $H$ be the ...
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68 views

Is this proof that $|S_n|=n!$ correct?

I've always heard that it's trivial that $|S_n|=n!$ where $S_n$ is the symmetric group of degree $n$. Now, my proof was the following: consider $I_n=\{1,\dots,n\}$ and consider ...
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89 views

Embedding $\mathbb{G}_a$ into $GL_2$

Let $k$ be an algebraically closed field of characteristic $p$. I'd like to find interesting examples of closed embeddings $\mathbb{G}_a(k)\hookrightarrow GL_2(k)$, where $\mathbb{G}_a(k)$ is ...
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246 views

Show $G$ is isomorphic to the multiplicative group $\mathbb{R}^\times$

Let $G=\{x\in\mathbb{R}\mid x>0 \text{ and }x\neq 1 \}$ and define $*$ on $G$ by $a*b=a^{\ln b}$. Show $G$ is isomorphic to the multiplicative group $\mathbb{R}^{\times}$. I need to ...
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159 views

How many compatible group structures does a topological space admit?

Suppose I have a topological space $(G,\tau)$ and am interested in whether there exists a topological group $(G,*,\tau)$. In other words, can we assign a binary operation $*$ to $(G,\tau)$ which ...
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75 views

Haar measure on transversals

It is well known that there exists an invariant Haar measure on Locally compact group $G$. Haar measure on coset space and double coset space with respect to a closed subgroup $H$ and a compact ...
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121 views

Finitely Presented Group

Let the descending central series of a group $G$ be $$G=\Gamma^1\geq\Gamma^2\geq\cdots$$ where $\Gamma^{q+1}=[G,\Gamma^q]$ for which $\Gamma^q/\Gamma^{q+1}$ is an Abelian group. Suppose that $G$ is ...
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49 views

Generating A_n using involutions — minimum number of multiplications that are sufficient?

What is the smallest $k = k(n)$ for which the following holds? There is a set of involutions $I \subset A_n$ such that for every $a \in A_n$, there exist $i_1, \ldots, i_k \in I$ such that $i_1 i_2 ...
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55 views

Is $G_\Delta$ acting transitively on $\Delta$? ($\Delta$ is an imprimitive block )

Suppose $G$ acts imprimitively (but transitively) on set $X$ and let $\Delta$ be some block of imprimitivity. It should be clear, that $G_\Delta$ is acting transitively on $\Delta$, but I cannot see ...
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92 views

What is the smallest $n$ for which the usual “counting sizes of conjugacy classes” proof of simplicity fails for $A_n$?

A common proof of the simplicity of $A_5$ proceeds as follows. First, note that a normal subgroup is always a union of conjugacy classes. Also, a subgroup has order dividing the size of the group by ...
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54 views

Subgroup consisting of unipotent elements centralizes a flag

Is there a reasonably elementary and short proof that a subgroup of consisting of unipotent matrices over a field centralizes a flag? By elementary, I mean accessible to students who have had a ...
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75 views

Abelian group whose quotient is $p$-divisible

Let $G$ be an abelian group of finite torsion-free rank which has no $p$-divisible subgroup. The group $G$ has a free subgroup $F$ of finite rank and the quotient $G/F$ is $p$-divisible. Can be proved ...
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114 views

Icosahedral symmetry

Is there a clear and correct reference for full icosahedral symmetry that includes a presentation and its action on vertices, edges, and faces? The Wikipedia article for icoshedral symmetry gives ...
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73 views

Showing $\mathbb{Z}_{2} * \mathbb{Z}_{3} \cong\ (a, b\ |\ a^2 = b^3 = e)$

Let $G = (a, b\ |\ a^2 = b^3 = e)$. I recognize there must be an epimorphism $\phi : G \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}_{2} * \mathbb{Z}_{3}$ (the free product) by the Van Dyck theorem, but I must show an ...
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59 views

What is the structure of the Coxeter groups of type $\text{D}_n$

I am curious on the structure of the Coxeter group $G$ of type $\text{D}_n$. Here I let $\{e_1,\cdots,e_n\}$ be the standard basis of the vector space $\mathbb{R}^n$. Then I choose ...
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183 views

Generation of left ideals in group rings

This looks like an elementary exercise on group rings (I heard it somewhere), nonetheless it seems to be non-trivial to me. Any references much appreciated. Suppose that we are given an (infinite) ...
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200 views

What is the intuition of conjugacy classes?

How can I fully understand what are conjugacy classes are in groups? I know the definition, that $a$ and $b$ are conjugate if $gag^{-1}=b$ for some $g\in G$. But what is the intuition? Using a ...
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93 views

Find all the central extensions of $\Bbb{Z}_2$ by $\Bbb{Z}_2 \times \Bbb{Z}_2$.

Find all the central extensions of $\Bbb{Z}_2$ by $\Bbb{Z}_2 \times \Bbb{Z}_2$. At first I was going to say that, since central extensions mean a trivial homomorphism, there must be only one: ...
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83 views

Proof that if $H \triangleleft G$ and $G/H$ is abelian, then $G' \le H$

I'd like some input on one part of my attempted proof for the following result. The other part I feel good about. "If $H \le G$ is any subgroup, show that $G' \le H$ if and only if $H \triangleleft ...
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74 views

What about non finitely generated groups?

Finite groups and finitely generated groups are intensively studied, but are there interesting investigations on non finitely generated groups? I already know some references for abelian groups, so I ...
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445 views

Finding the dimension of the symplectic group

How do you find the dimension of the symplectic group $Sp(2n,\mathbb{R})$? $Sp(2n,\mathbb{R})\subset Gl(2n,\mathbb{R})$ is the group of invertible matrices $A$ such that $\omega = A^T\omega A$, where ...
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150 views

Irreducible representation of $S_4$

Could one please point out an irreducible representation of degree 2 of the group $S_4$. Thank you.
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96 views

Prime divisor in the Automorphism group

Suppose that $G$ is a non-abelian simple group and $r$ is a prime number such that $r$ not divide $|G|$. It is a question for me that whether $r$ can divide |Aut($G$)|?
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106 views

What is the relationship between solvable, nilpotent and transfer homomorphism?

I know some facts such as: Nilpotent groups are solvable, $p$-groups are nilpotent, a finite group whose order is a product of distinct primes is solvable, and finite groups are nilpotent if and only ...
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193 views

Problem 4.3, I. Martin Isaacs' Character Theory

Let $G=H\times K$ be the direct product of finite groups. Let $\varphi\in Irr(H)$ and $\eta\in Irr(K)$ be faithful. Show that $\varphi\times\eta$ is faithful if and only if $(|Z(H)|,|Z(K)|)=1$. Here, ...
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315 views

Semi-direct product isomorphic to direct product

I would like some help on the following problem from anyone who would like to help. Let $f: H \to G$ be a group homomorphism. For $h \in H$, define $\rho(h) = \phi_{f(h)} \in Aut(G)$. The situation ...
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111 views

Has every finite group a minimal presentation ?

For a finite group $G$ let $d(G)$ be the minimal number of generators of $G$ and let $r(G)$ be the minimal number $r$ such that $G$ has a finite presentation with $r$ relators. Call a presentation ...
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113 views

is a group that eliminates quantifiers in the group language Abelian?

Let $G$ be a group. Consider it as a structure in the language of groups $L=(e,\cdot, (-)^{-1})$. Suppose that $G$ eliminates quantifiers in this language. Is it true that $G$ must be Abelian then? ...
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194 views

Easy proof of trivial fusion implies normal p-complement

Theorem: Suppose G is a finite group with Sylow p-subgroup P. Then the following are equivalent: The set K of elements of G of order relatively prime to p (the p′-elements) form a subgroup If A and ...
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138 views

finitely presented groups of exponential growth

Does there exists a finitely presented group of exponential growth which does not contain free sub-semigroups (of rank $\geq 2$)?
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256 views

Matrix group as subgroup of $GL(n,\mathbb{R})$ or $GL(n,\mathbb{C}$)?

As far as I understand, one has (at least?) two choices to introduce infinite matrix groups: Either, one can say they are all subgroups of the general linear group over the complex numbers numbers ...
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85 views

Ways to think about one-relator groups

What are some intuitive ways to think about one-relator groups? I am aware of the Freiheitsatz, and Bass-Serre theory. What I'm interested in are ways people who work extensively with one-relator ...
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210 views

Clarification: intersection of a finite number of subgroups of finite index and Poincaré

From Scott's book Group Theory $1.7.10.$ (Poincaré) The intersection of a finite number of subgroups of finite index is of finite index. My question is: Did Poincaré prove the Theorem as stated ...
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138 views

Is there a formula for $|\langle H\cup K\rangle|$, if $H$ and $K$ are nonempty subsets of a finite group $G$?

I know that if $H$ and $K$ are subgroups of a finite group $G$, then $|HK|=\frac{|H||K|}{|H\cap K|}$. Is there a formula for $|\langle H\cup K\rangle|$, if $H$ and $K$ are nonempty subsets of a ...
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239 views

Exercise 6.3.16 from Scott, Group Theory

How to demonstrate that a simple non-abelian group of odd order has order divisible by the cube of its smallest prime divisor?
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140 views

F.g. groups with a finite index abelian subgroup

It is well known that a virtually cyclic group is either finite, or finite-by-(infinite cyclic) or finite-by-(infinite dihedral). I want to know if there is some similar description for f.g. ...
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104 views

Looking for: a subgroup of an uncountable simple group of countable index

Consider the simple group $A_\lambda$, the alternating group on the set $\lambda$, which I will assume has regular cardinality. Recall that this is the smallest subgroup of all permutations of ...
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170 views

Is $H^2$ weakly closed in $H$? Isaacs Finite Group Theory, exercise 8B.6

I'm trying to solve exercise 8B.6 on page 249 of Isaacs's Finite Group Theory textbook (the second question in a series; this is the third as question here). I have an idea, but it doesn't quite ...
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47 views

When does PSL(5,q) have order exactly divisible by a specific odd power of 5?

In a misguided attempt at answering a question on divisibility of simple group orders, I looked at $\newcommand{\PSL}{\operatorname{PSL}}v_p(|\PSL(p,q)|)$ which went smooth enough for $p=2$ and $p=3$, ...
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551 views

What does a Cayley table tell?

Other than showing if a group is abelian and the order of the group, what else does a Cayley table indicate?
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146 views

a split exact sequence of finite groups

Suppose G has a cyclic normal subgroup $\langle a\rangle$ of order $m$ and prime power index $s$ such that $m$ and $s$ are relatively prime. Then the following exact sequence splits: $$1 ...
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94 views

How do I find the orbits given the ring of invariants?

Suppose I have a group $G$ acting linearly on a vector space $V$ and I know the ring of invariants $K[V]^{G}$ (i.e., I know the subring of $K[V]$ which is fixed pointwise under the induced action). My ...
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306 views

Can “anti-groups” and “anti-manifolds” be constructed? (and other “anti-objects”)

Is it possible to create an "antigroup"? What I mean by this is, given some group G, and some "antigroup" H, then the "free product" of G and H, G*H will equal the "group" (vacuously a group) of no ...
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395 views

A finite length module is the direct sum of the image and kernel of a projection-like endomorphism

I have a question about abelian groups (or rather $X$-groups): Suppose $A$ is an abelian group (or rather an $X$-group) which is artinian and noetherian. $f$ is an endomorphism (or rather an ...
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29 views

Inner automorphisms as the kernel of a homomorphism

By a straightforward computation, it is not hard to show that the set $\operatorname{Inn}(G)$ of the inner automorphisms of a group $G$ is a normal subgroup of $\operatorname{Aut}(G)$, see for example ...
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Normal subgroup of General linear group

What is the list of all normal subgroups of general linear group $GL_n(q)$? (n*n invertible matrix on finite field with $q$ elements) It is well known $SL_n(q)$ and subgroups of $Z(GL_n(q))$ are ...
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72 views

Is $A_4$ isomorphic to $D_3\times \mathbb Z_2$?

Prove/Disprove that $A_4\cong D_3×\mathbb Z_2$: I can't seem to find a way to disprove it (Something in my mind it telling me it can't be true). But the order of both is 12, both are non cyclic, non ...
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26 views

Canonical Action of the Wreath Product on the Product Space.

This is essentially an exercise from Jacobson's Basic Algebra I. (p.79, ex.11) Exercise 11 says that the canonical action of the wreath product of $G$ and $H$ on the product space can be defined by ...