A group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements together with an operation that satisfies four conditions: closure, associativity, identity and invertibility. Group theory studies groups.

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Prove that the center of a group is a normal subgroup

Let $G$ be a group. We define $H$ where $H$ is the center of/centralizer of $G$: $$H=\{h\in G| \forall g\in G: hg=gh\}.$$ Prove that $H$ is a (normal) subgroup of $G$.
34
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4answers
2k views

Does every set have a group structure?

I know that there is no vector space having precisely $6$ elements. Does every set have a group structure?
21
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2answers
806 views

Which finite groups are the group of units of some ring?

Motivated by this question: Which finite groups are the group of units of some ring? Which finite groups are the group of units of some finite ring? Which finite abelian groups are the group of ...
18
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6answers
5k views

Union of the conjugates of a proper subgroup

Let G be a finite group and H be a proper subgroup. Prove that the union of the conjugates of H is not the whole of G. Thanks for any help
9
votes
2answers
517 views

A Particular Two-Variable System in a Group

Suppose $a$ and $b$ are elements of a group $G$. If $a^{-1}b^{2}a=b^{3}$ and $b^{-1}a^{2}b=a^{3}$, prove $a=e=b$. I've been trying to prove but still inconclusive. Please prove to me. Thanks very ...
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3answers
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Let $G$ be a group of order $2m$ where $m$ is odd. Prove that $G$ contains a normal subgroup of order $m$

I searched in the existing post and didn't find this problem. I am sorry if someone else have already posted. Let $G$ be a group of order $2m$ where $m$ is odd. Prove that $G$ contains a normal ...
11
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3answers
709 views

For what $n$ is $U_n$ cyclic?

When can we say a multiplicative group of integers modulo $n$, i.e., $U_n$ is cyclic? $$U_n=\{a \in\mathbb Z_n \mid \gcd(a,n)=1 \}$$ I searched the internet but did not get a clear idea.
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4answers
3k views

Need to prove that (S,*) defined by the binary operation a*b = a+b+ab is an abelian group on S = R \ {1}

So basically this proof centers around proving that (S,*) is a group, as it's quite easy to see that it's abelian as both addition and multiplication are commutative. My issue is finding an identity ...
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vote
2answers
422 views

Showing that $G$ is a group under an alternative operation.

Let $G$ be a group and let $c$ be a fixed elements of $G$. Now, I'm going to define a new operation "*" on $G$ by $a*b=ac^{-1}b$ How do I prove that the set $G$ is a group under *. Thanks for ...
213
votes
29answers
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Nice examples of groups which are not obviously groups

I am searching for some groups, where it is not so obvious that they are groups. In the lectures script there are only examples like $\mathbb{Z}$ under addition and other things like that. I ...
28
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14answers
12k views
16
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2answers
865 views

Has this “generalized semidirect product” been studied?

If $G$ is a finite group with subgroups $H$ and $K$ such that $HK = G$ and $H\cap K = \{1\}$ we get that every element of $G$ can be written uniquely as $hk$ with $h\in H$ and $k\in K$. This then ...
13
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1answer
3k views

Centralizer of a given element in $S_n$?

It is known that any two disjoint cycles in $S_n$ commutes. Therefore, any $\pi\in S_n$ which is disjoint with $\sigma$ is in the centralizer of $\sigma$: $C_{S_n}(\sigma)$. Also $$ \sigma^i\pi\in ...
25
votes
7answers
4k views

Product of all elements in an odd finite abelian group is 1

This should be an easy exercise: Given a finite odd abelian group $G$, prove that $\prod_{g\in G}g=e$. Indeed, using Lagrange's theorem this is trivial: There is no element of order 2 (since the order ...
12
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4answers
765 views

Elementary isomorphism between $\operatorname{PSL}(2,5)$ and $A_5$

At this Wikipedia page it is claimed that to construct an isomorphism between $\operatorname{PSL}(2,5)$ and $A_5$, "one needs to consider" $\operatorname{PSL}(2,5)$ as a Galois group of a Galois cover ...
9
votes
4answers
404 views

If $[G:H]=n$, is it true that $x^n\in H$ for all $x\in G$?

Let $G$ be a group and $H$ a subgroup with $[G:H]=n$. Is it true that $x^n\in H$ for all $x\in G$? Remarks. The answer is positive whenever $H$ is normal, e.g., for $n=2$. In general, by using ...
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3answers
1k views

Classifying the irreducible representations of $\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}\rtimes \mathbb{Z}/n \mathbb{Z}$

I need help with the following problem: Suppose $n$ is some positive integer, and $n|p-1$. Classify all irreducible representations of $$\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}\rtimes \mathbb{Z}/n \mathbb{Z}.$$ ...
7
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3answers
1k views

Show group of order $4n + 2$ has a subgroup of index 2.

Let $n$ be a positive integer. Show that any group of order $4n + 2$ has a subgroup of index 2. (Hint: Use left regular representation and Cauchy's Theorem to get an odd permutation.) I can easily ...
12
votes
3answers
2k views

Is a semigroup $G$ with left identity and right inverses a group?

Hungerford's Algebra poses the question: Is it true that a semigroup $G$ that has a left identity element and in which every element has a right inverse is a group? Now, If both the identity and the ...
3
votes
3answers
831 views

Cancellation of Direct Products

Given a finite group $G$ and its subgroups $H,K$ such that $$G \times H \cong G \times K$$ does it imply that $H=K$. Clearly, one can see that this doesn't work out for all subgroups. Is there any ...
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2answers
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An element of a group has the same order as its inverse

If $a$ is a group element, prove that $a$ and $a^{-1}$ have the same order. I tried doing this by contradiction. Assume $|a|\neq|a^{-1}|$ Let $a^n=e$ for some $n\in \mathbb{Z}$ and ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Show that a finite group with certain automorphism is abelian

Let $G$ be a finite group and $f:G\to G$ an isomorphism. If $f$ has no fixed points (i.e., $f(x)=x$ implies $x=e$) and if $f\circ f$ is the identity, then $G$ is abelian. (Hint: Prove that every ...
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5answers
487 views

If $P \leq G$, $Q\leq G$, are $P\cap Q$ and $P\cup Q$ subgroups of $G$?

$P$ and $Q$ are subgroups of a group $G$. How can we prove that $P\cap Q$ is a subgroup of $G$? Is $P \cup Q$ a subgroup of $G$? Reference: Fraleigh p. 59 Question 5.54 in A First Course in ...
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4answers
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Center-commutator duality

I'm reading this article by Keith Conrad, on subgroup series. I'm having trouble with a statement he does at page 6: Any subgroup of $G$ which contains $[G,G]$ is normal in $G$. He says this as ...
79
votes
2answers
6k views

More than 99% of groups of order less than 2000 are of order 1024?

In Algebra: Chapter 0, the author made a remark (footnote on page 82), saying that more than 99% of groups of order less than 2000 are of order 1024. Is this for real? How can one deduce this result? ...
62
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4answers
2k views

How is a group made up of simple groups?

I've read more than once the analogy between simple groups and prime numbers, stating that any group is built up from simple groups, like any number is built from prime numbers. I've recently started ...
60
votes
4answers
8k views

The direct sum $\oplus$ versus the cartesian product $\times$

In the case of abelian groups, I have been treating these two set operations as more or less indistinguishable. In early mathematics courses, one normally defines $A^n := A\times A\times\ldots\times ...
25
votes
2answers
2k views

Yoneda-Lemma as generalization of Cayley`s theorem?

I came across the statement, that Yoneda-lemma is a generalization of Cayley`s theorem which states, that every group is isomorphic to a group of permutations. How exactly does generalizes ...
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3answers
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No simple group of order $300$

So I've been trying to prove that there's no simple group of order $300$. This is what I did and I was wondering if it was enough. $|G|=2^2 \cdot 3 \cdot 5^2$. Suppose $G$ is simple. Then there ...
14
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1answer
626 views

Does $gHg^{-1}\subseteq H$ imply $gHg^{-1}= H$? [duplicate]

Let $G$ be a group, $H<G$ a subgroup and $g$ an element of $G$. Let $\lambda_g$ denote the inner automorphism which maps $x$ to $gxg^{-1}$. I wonder if $H$ can be mapped to a proper subgroup of ...
15
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5answers
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How can you show there are only 2 nonabelian groups of order 8?

It's often said that there are only two nonabelian groups of order 8 up to isomorphism, one is the quaternion group, the other given by the relations $a^4=1$, $b^2=1$ and $bab^{-1}=a^3$. I've never ...
23
votes
1answer
642 views

“Efficient version” of Cayley's Theorem in Group Theory

I'm considering finite groups only. Cayley's theorem says the a group $G$ is isomorphic to a subgroup of $S_{|G|}$. I think it's interesting to ask for smaller values of $n$ for which $G$ is a ...
12
votes
1answer
247 views

Problem on abelian group

Let $G$ be an abelian group, and $\Phi:G\to \mathbb{R}$ is a function with the following property: $$\forall a,b\in G,~~ |\Phi(a+b)-\Phi(a)-\Phi(b)|<c$$ The problem asks to prove the existence of ...
15
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2answers
3k views

Is every quotient of a finite abelian group $G$ isomorphic to some subgroup of $G$?

I'm having difficulty with exercise 1.43 of Lang's Algebra. The question states Let $H$ be a subgroup of a finite abelian group $G$. Show that $G$ has a subgroup that is isomorphic to $G/H$. ...
12
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4answers
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A kind of converse of Lagrange's Theorem

Let $G$ a finite group. If $a\in G$, a consequence of the Lagrange's Theorem is that the order of $a$ divides the order of $G$. Let $p=|G|$. If $p$ is prime, it is well known that $G$ is cyclic, and ...
10
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4answers
4k views

Automorphism group of the quaternion group

Let $Q_8$ be the quaternion group. How do we determine the automorphism group $Aut(Q_8)$ of $Q_8$ algebraically? I searched for this problem on internet. I found some geometric proofs that $Aut(Q_8)$ ...
7
votes
2answers
416 views

Does $G\times K\cong H\times K$ imply $G\cong H$?

Let $G\times K$ be a finite group. Suppoose $G\times K\cong H\times K$. Is this sufficient to imply $G\cong H$?
25
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2answers
3k views

Finite number of subgroups $\Rightarrow$ finite group

I'm trying to prove that any group $G$ of infinite order has an infinite number of subgroups. I think that if the group has an element of infinite order, then it's easy because I can take the groups ...
17
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5answers
3k views

Prove that this is a group

Let $G$ be a finite, nonempty set with an operation $*$ such that $G$ is closed under $*$ and $*$ is associative Given $a,b,c \in G$ with $a*b=a*c$, then $b=c$. Given $a,b,c \in G$ with $b*a=c*a$, ...
9
votes
1answer
255 views

Isomorphism between $I_G/I_G^2$ and $G/G'$

Ok, this has been bugging me for a while, and I'm sure there's something obvious I'm missing. The references I've looked at for this result in an effort to resolve the issue didn't address it. $G$ is ...
6
votes
2answers
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Nonabelian semidirect products of order $pq$?

I just constructed the semidirect product in Lang, and I'm trying to tie some facts together. From Ash's Algebra, I know that if $p\lt q$ are distinct primes, if $q\not\equiv 1\pmod{p}$, then any ...
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1answer
489 views

When a semigroup can be embedded into a group

Under what assumptions can a semigroup $(S,*)$ be embedded into a group?
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2answers
663 views

free groups: $F_X\cong F_Y\Rightarrow|X|=|Y|$

I'm reading Grillet's Abstract Algebra. Let $F_X$ denote the free group on the set $X$. I noticed on wiki the claim $$F_X\cong\!\!F_Y\Leftrightarrow|X|=|Y|.$$ How can I prove the right implication ...
8
votes
2answers
252 views

Which groups are derived subgroups?

Let $G$ be a group. When is there a group $H$ such that $G$ is isomorphic to its derived subgroup $H'$? I only know that there is not always such a $H$; for instance, no group has its derived ...
7
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1answer
591 views

What is $\operatorname{Aut}(\mathbb{R},+)$?

I was solving some exercises about automorphisms. I was able to show that $\operatorname{Aut}(\mathbb{Q},+)$ is isomorphic to $\mathbb{Q}^{\times}$. The isomorphism is given by $\Psi(f)=f(1)$, but ...
8
votes
6answers
985 views

In what sense of “structure” do group homomorphisms “preserve structure”?

It is commonly said that group homomorphisms "preserve the structure of the group", e.g., from Wikipedia: The purpose of defining a group homomorphism as it is, is to create functions that ...
2
votes
1answer
427 views

Another point of view that $\mathbb{Z}/m\mathbb{Z} \times\mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z}$ is cyclic.

I was thinking that the product of groups $\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z} \times\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}$ is not cyclic, but $\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z} \times\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$ is cyclic if p is an odd prime. ...
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vote
1answer
113 views

Center of dihedral group

I am trying to solve the following exercise about the dihedral group and its center: If $g\in Z(D_{2n})\Leftrightarrow ga=ag, bg=gb$, where $a,b$ are generators of $D_{2n}$. We have defined the ...
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vote
3answers
236 views

An example of a residually finite group which is not Hopf

trying to think of any residually finite group which is not Hopf. Any help?
31
votes
8answers
2k views

Is symmetric group on natural numbers countable?

I guess it is too difficult a question to ask about the cardinality of $S_{\mathbb{N}}$ so I would like to ask whether it is countable or not. I tried to prove it is uncountable somewhat mimicking ...