A group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements together with an operation that satisfies four conditions: closure, associativity, identity and invertibility. Group theory studies groups.

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Is the basis for $\mathbb{R}^n$ where the $\mathfrak{so}(n)$ Cartan elements are diagonal, necessarily complex?

This is a follow-up to this and this question. The elements of $\mathfrak{so}(n)$ are antisymmetric in the standard basis $(1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1)$. This means that we have no diagonal ...
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45 views

The relationship between subfields and subgroups of a finite field.

I am trying to get my head around the structure $GF(p^n)$ when viewed as a vector space of dimension $n$ over $GF(p)$ (mainly the relationship between the additive and multiplicative structures). I'm ...
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3answers
32 views

order and cycles of perfect shuffle of 52 cards

This is the shuffle: $$1,2,\cdots,52$$ is turned into $$1,27,2,28,\cdots,26,52$$ when I try to write the cycles of this shuffle, I get a LOT of cycles, for example: $$(2\ 3)(27 \ 2)(26\ ...
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4answers
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How to show that the cycle $(2 5) = (2 3) (3 4) (4 5) (4 3) (3 2)$

I generally do not have any problem multiplying cycles, but I've seen on Wikipedia that $$(2 5) = (2 3) (3 4) (4 5) (4 3) (3 2). $$ I started following the path of $2$ on the right: ...
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1answer
28 views

Partition of a group such that an operation can be defined

I'm struggling with Problem 43 of 3.1 of Dummit's algebra book. The problem is: Assume $P=\{A_i\}$ is any partition of $G$ with the property that a "quotient operation" is defined as follows: to ...
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1answer
51 views

Prove that for a group with even order $2k$, there is a subgroup $K$ with order $k$

I'm trying to understand the proof my teacher did: Consider a subgroup $H$ of $G$. If $H$ is not contained in $A_n$, then we can say that there exists at least one permutation in $H$ that is odd ...
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1answer
36 views

How many combinations in 10x10x10 Rubik's cube?

I was wondering how many possible combinations there is in the cubes greater than 3x3x3 (4x4x4, 5x5x5, ..., 10x10x10)? We know that in 3x3x3 there are about 4,3 * 10^19 combinations, what about bigger ...
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How to solve conjugation equations in group theory

Given the permutations $(12)(34)$ and $(56)(13)$ find $a$ such that $$a^{-1}xa = y$$ I just realized that I don't know how to solve this exercise. My book don't even give examples of how to solve ...
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Trouble understanding Latin squares and group theory

This is more of a theoretical question, but I'm having trouble understanding why it is that Latin squares are generalizations of a group? I kind of arrived at this question trying to figure out why ...
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3answers
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What does it means to multiply a permutation by a cycle? $\pi(x_1\cdots x_n)\pi^{-1}=(\pi(x_1)\cdots\pi(x_n))$

I have to prove that $$\pi(x_1\cdots x_n)\pi^{-1}=(\pi(x_1)\cdots\pi(x_n))$$ but I can't understand what this means. My book doesn't defines what a permutation and cycle product would be. So, for ...
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Finding Automorphisms of Irregular graph through Regular Sub-Graphs.

Objective : To find a set of permutations for a irregular graph which is also a set of automorphism. This finding process uses permutations of 2 regular subgraphs of the given graph. Description and ...
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1answer
49 views

Some questions about Banach Tarski proof

Banach-Tarski proof as been the topic of a video by the well-known Youtube channel VSauce but there were some parts that I didn't understand. So I went reading for the proof on Wikipedia, and I didn't ...
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50 views

A question about semidirect product

When we consider the classification of the group G by semidirect product, we need to consider all the homomorphisms from K to Aut(H), Where G=HK and H$\unlhd$G,H$\bigcap$K=1 But by the theorem: ...
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1answer
48 views

Insight about compact groups

I'm quite familiar with the general notion of compactness in math but I have some troubles with its extension to group theory. I'm not talking about definitions or theorems: I would like to have some ...
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1answer
18 views

If $s$ and $t$ are symmetries of a plane such that they agree on three non collinear points then show that $s=t$

This is a problem based on "Symmetry" of the plane $\mathbb{R^2}$. Suppose $A$, $B$, $C$ are the three points in plane which are after the corresponding actions by $s$ and $t$ are in the places $D$, ...
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1answer
49 views

Number of Automorphisms of a Irregular Graph.

I have been looking for results on number of graph automorphisms of irregular graph(upper and lower bound). I searched , but could not find anything which can be used directly. Say, $G$ is $k$ ...
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189 views

Why this $\sigma \pi \sigma^{-1}$ keeps apearing in my group theory book? (cycle decomposition)

I'm studying cycle decomposition in group theory. The exercises on my book keep saying things like: Find a permutation $\sigma$ such that $\sigma (123) \sigma^{-1} = (456)$ Prove that there is no ...
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2answers
44 views

Prove that there is no permutation $\gamma$ such that $\gamma (1 2) \gamma^{-1} = (1 2 3)$

I need to prove that there is no $\gamma$ such that: $$\gamma (1 2) \gamma^{-1} = (1 2 3)$$ First of all, I'll try to write $\gamma$ in a generic way: $$\gamma = (a b c) \implies \gamma^{-1} = ...
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0answers
52 views

Symplectic group and Quaternion Inner product

I have a problem understanding a passage from "Naive Lie theory"(by Stillwell), here is the passage from section $3.9$ ,page $71$: The idea of treating orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic groups ...
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1answer
33 views

Direct Limit of finitely generated groups

Is every group the direct limit of its finitely generated subgroups? This is true for abelian groups, I have not seen this statement for nonabelian groups, so i am wondering if this is true. Seems ...
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Show that $Nil(\mathbb{Z}_n) $ is a subgroup of $\mathbb{Z}_n$ [on hold]

Show that $\mathrm{Nil}(\mathbb{Z}_n) = \{\bar{x}\in \mathbb{Z}_n\mid \bar{x}\,^m=\bar{0}\text{ for some positive integer $m$}\}$ is a subgroup of $\mathbb{Z}_n$.
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1answer
27 views

Can two representations with different dimensions be isomorphic?

For a finite group G and two irreducible representations, with different dimensions. How would I show that they can not be isomorphic?
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1answer
72 views

If $g$ is a permutation, then what does $g(12)$ mean?

In Martin Lieback's book 'A Concise Introduction to Pure Mathematics', he posts an exercise(page 177,Q5): Prove that exactly half of the $n!$ permutations in $S_n$ are even. (Hint: Show that ...
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Curtains and groups

This picture is a copy of the pattern on my curtains. The points of a hexagonal lattice are each coloured with one of four possible colours. It has translational symmetry in two directions: a ...
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Proofs of Sylow Theorems [on hold]

‎let ‎‎$‎G‎$‎‏ ‎is a‎‎ ‎finite‎ group and ‎$‎‏p‎$‎ is prime. if ‎$‎P‎\in Sly‎_{p }(G)‎$‎‏‎‎ then ‎$‎O‎_{p}(G)=Core‎_{G}(P)‎$‎‏‎‎
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problem in meaning of symbol in commutator subgroup

i was reading paper "OUTER AUTOMORPHISMS IN NILPOTENT p-GROUPS OF CLASS 2, H. LlEBECK" in page 2 there is a symbol i dont get. if G is generated by a basis $a_λ, λ∈Λ$ and z∈Z⋂Φ(G) for σ(z,μ) be ...
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2answers
52 views

Permutations minus Transpositions

I want a formula that allows me to find all the permutations in $S_n$ (which is the set of all the integers from 1 to $n$) which don't contain a transposition. Attempt: Lets call $g(n)$ the ...
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1answer
71 views

What finitely generated amenable groups are known to be LERF?

I know that finitely generated nilpotent groups are LERF (LERF means "subgroup separated"). I'm looking for examples (many, if possible) of groups which are: Finitely generated, but infinite ...
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157 views

Why is reflection in a plane an automorphism?

I have not studied group theory, but would like to know in simple terms why reflection in a plane is an automorphism. Dr. Hermann Weyl gives the definition of automorphism in his book 'symmetry' as ...
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1answer
23 views

How is the distinction of left and right in space related to the orientation of screw?

In Dr. Hermann Weyl's book 'symmetry', he explains the difference between left and right as In space the distinction of left and right concerns the orientation of a screw. If you speak of turning ...
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1answer
32 views

Bijection from conjugacy class to the factor group by centralizer.

How different is $g^{-1}xg$ from $gxg^{-1}?$ Because proving a bijection from $g^{-1}xg$ type conjugacy class to the set of right cosets of the centralizer of $g$ in $G$ is as easy as proving it from ...
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2answers
47 views

Composition series and its number determine a group?

By Jordan-Holder thm, it is known that every finite group has a unique composition series.(Here, unique means that there is only one kinds of such series.) And it is known also that composition ...
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70 views

Zero-Sum Partitions of Nonzero Elements of a Ring

In this question, rings are not necessarily finite nor do they need to be unital (i.e., the multiplicative identity may not exist). Although I shall almost exclusively discuss finite commutative ...
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2answers
50 views

Ideals of non semi-simple group rings.

I worked for a long time on complex group rings and complex twisted group rings. In those cases the algebra is semi-simple and its structure is well understood from the decomposition to irreducible ...
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Given the basis vectors of a 10-dimensional representation of $SO(10)$, how can I compute the basis vectors of the 54-dimensional representation?

Because $10 \otimes 10 = 1_s \oplus 54_s \oplus45_a$ we can write each element of $54$ as a $10×10$ matrix. The usual basis vectors of the 10-dim rep are $$ \begin{pmatrix}1 \\0 \\ \vdots ...
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Simple example for Bilinear mapping

Notation : $\mathbb{G}$ is an additive group and $\mathbb{G}_T$ is multiplicative group of prime order $q$. Bilinear mapping $e: \mathbb{G} \times \mathbb{G} \rightarrow \mathbb{G}_T$ has to satisfy ...
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2answers
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Elements of $S_n$ which can not be product of $\leq n-2$ transpositions

It is well known that every element of $S_n$ can be written as a product of at most $n-1$ transpositions. This theorem is proved in all the books which discuss the permutation groups. But, I find that ...
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0answers
76 views

$Ker (f)$ is finite, then $G$ is finite. [on hold]

Let $G$ be a group with identity element $e$, $f: G → G$ a homomorphism for which there is a natural $n> 1$ such that $f^n (G)$ = {e}. i. Prove that if $Ker ...
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3answers
53 views

Does $G\times H\cong G'\times H'$ imply $G\cong G'$ and $H\cong H'$?

I know that $G\cong G'$ and $H\cong H'$ implies $G\times H\cong G'\times H'$. But is it true for reverse? I mean, does $G\times H\cong G'\times H'$ imply $G\cong G'$ and $H\cong H'$? If so, how to ...
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1answer
18 views

If a set $X$ contains three different elements $a,b,c$ describe $f:=t(a,b)∘t(b,c)$ and $g:=t(b,c)∘t(a,b)$. Are they equal?

The group of permutations of a set $X$ consists of all functions $f:X\to X$ that are one-to-one and onto. The group operation is the composition of functions. Of special importance are transpositions ...
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Why doesn't the “naive” scalar product for $SO(n)$ yield something invariant?

By definition, for $SO(n)$ we have $g^T g=1$ for $g \in SO(n)$. Given some vector $v \in V$ and some representation $R: SO(N) \rightarrow \mathrm{Lin}(V)$, the defining condition above tells us ...
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Under what conditions is a ZG-module torsion-free?

If we have a ZG-module A, I was wondering if there are known condition we may imply on either A or the group G to make A torsion-free?
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31 views

Number maximum of commutators required to generate an element of the derived subgroup

Let $G$ be a group for which the center $Z(G)$ is of index $n$. How to prove that an element of the derived subgroup $G^\prime$ is the product of at most $n^3$ commutators?
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1answer
64 views

Where does the ambiguity in choosing a basis for a Lie algebra come from?

This is a follow-up to this question. For matrix Lie algebras, we can define the Lie algebra $g$ of a group $G$ as the set $T_a \in g$ that yield an element of $G$ when put into the exponential map: ...
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2answers
87 views

The generators of $SO(n)$ are antisymmetric, which means there are no diagonal generators and therefore rank zero for the Lie algebra?

Okay, this may be a silly question but I can't figure it out myself right now. By definition $O \in SO(n)$ fulfils $O^T O=1$ and $\det(O)=1$. For the generators of the group $ T_a \in so(n)$, this ...
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1answer
47 views

On group with special properties

Is there a group $G$ with two the following properties:? i) $Aut(G)$ is not nilpotent, where $Aut(G)$ is the full automorphism group of $G$. ii) There exists an element $1\neq x\in G$ of order ...
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A normal subgroup of $ GL(n, K) $

Let $ F $ be a field and $ K $ be an extension of $ F $. Define the set, $$ E(n, K, F) := \{ M \in GL(n, K) , \det M \in F \} $$ Show that $ E(n, K, F) $ is a normal subgroup of $ G(n, K) $ and also ...
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Orbits of the symmetry group and the alternating group [on hold]

I have difficulties with these problems. Any solutions will be appreciated. 1) Compute the orbits of the symmetric group of the tetrahedron on the set of 6 pairs of vertices. 2) Compute the orbits ...
5
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1answer
46 views

Recognizing action of semidirect product

I've been looking at some texts in representation theory and I see instances where the symmetric group $S_n$ and some other group, e.g., $GL(V_1) \times \ldots \times GL(V_n)$, act on a space. The ...
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Orbits of the tetrahedron [on hold]

Compute the orbits of the symmetry group of the tetrahedron on the set of $6$ pairs of vertices. What if the tetrahedron was an icosahedron with 66 pairs?