The study of symmetry: groups, subgroups, homomorphisms, group actions.

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Cardinality of $m\Bbb Z_n = \{\overline {ma} : a \in \Bbb Z_n\}$

Let $m,n \in \Bbb Z^+$ such that m divides n. I'm trying to find the cardinality of $m\Bbb Z_n = \{\overline {ma} : a \in \Bbb Z_n\}$. So, I think #$(m\Bbb Z_n)= \frac n m = k$. I tried to prove by it ...
2
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1answer
35 views

Classification of the decomposable primitive permutation groups

It is seen in comments here that the diagonal subgroup of the finite group $G \times G$ is core-free maximal iff $G$ is a nonabelian simple group. This gives examples of decomposable primitive ...
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2answers
57 views

homomorphism $\phi$ : $\mathbb Z$ $\rightarrow$ $\mathbb Z$ using $\phi(n)$=$2n$

A question from Visual group theory says : consider the homomorphism $\phi$ : $\mathbb Z$ $\rightarrow$ $\mathbb Z$ by $\phi(n)$=$2n$,where the group operation on $\mathbb Z$ is '+'. Would $\phi$ be ...
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1answer
38 views

Why $|G|$ even implies $|A(G)|$ also even?

Let $G$ be finite group with even order. Why has the set $A(G)=\{g\in G: g\neq g^{-1}\}$ an even number of elements?
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0answers
17 views

Why don't semi-direct products determine a group uniquely?

While reading some group theory notes I came up to this fact: Proposition: If $G$ is the inner semi direct product of $H,K$ ($G=HK$, $H\cap K=\left\{1\right\}$ and $H\unrhd G$) then $G\cong ...
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2answers
78 views

Prove that $a^n \cdot a^m = a^{n+m}$

Let $a$ be an element of a group $G$. Prove that $a^n \cdot a^m = a^{n+m}$ for any integers $m,n \in \Bbb Z$.
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2answers
48 views

Does there exists a homomorphism for any groups $G$ and $H$

This is a question from Exercise 8.2 of Visual Group Theory which says:determine whether true or false. For any group $H$ and $G$,there is some homomorphism from $H$ to $G$. For any groups $H$ and ...
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1answer
28 views

Symmetries on sets of strings

My question is a reference request about symmetries on sets of strings. I'm not a mathematician, so the terminology I use below is probably very non-standard. My apologies. Terminology. Let $[n] = ...
4
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1answer
67 views

Map from real numbers to real numbers as abelian groups

What is an example of an abelian group homomorphism from $\mathbb{R}$ to $\mathbb{R}$, respecting addition, that is NOT a linear transformation? I'm trying to understand to what extent the scaling ...
3
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1answer
42 views

Is $\cos \frac{5\pi}{8}+i\sin\frac{5\pi}{8}$ in $U_8$, the multiplicative group of the $8$th roots of unity in $\mathbb{C}$?

I encountered this problem while reading Fraleigh, A First Course in Abstract Algebra, 4/e. (p.60 #19) Let $U_8$ be the multiplicative group of the $8$th roots of unity in $\mathbb{C}$. The question ...
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0answers
49 views

Is a primitive permutation group, indecomposable?

Is a primitive permutation group, indecomposable?
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0answers
34 views

Is every finite group of isometries a subgroup of a finite reflection group?

Is every finite group of isometries in $d$-dimensional Euclidean space a subgroup of a finite group generated by reflections? By "reflection" I mean reflection in a hyperplane: the isometry fixing a ...
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90 views

A group of order $120$ has a subgroup of index $3$ or $5$ (or both)

What I have tried that number of $2$-sylow subgroup can be $1,3,5$ or $15$.I have solved the problem when the number of $2$-sylow subgroup is $1,3,5$. But I am not able to solve it for $15$. Any help ...
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1answer
66 views

What is the number of subgroups of order $7$?

$G$ be a simple group of order $168$. What is the number of subgroups of order $7$?
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1answer
32 views

Left Cosets of Cyclic Subgroup

Question from a GRE Math book that I'm having trouble understanding: Find the number of left cosets of the cyclic subgroup generated by (1, 1) of $$Z_{2} \times Z_{4}$$ where Zn denotes the cyclic ...
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2answers
126 views

Software or tool for investigating groups

I'm interested in software that has the ability to investigate finite groups. In particular, I'd like to be able to ask it questions like "What are the solutions to $x^3 = 1$?" (i.e. find cube roots ...
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1answer
32 views

Amalgams of two nontrivial group is trivial

I got this question in the book Tree by Serre. Let A=$Z$. $G_1=PSL(2,Q)$ and $G_2=Z/2Z$. We take $f_1: A\rightarrow G_1$ to be an injective (I do not know what is this injective map ?) and ...
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Homology group of 3-fold sum of projective planes

I want to calculate the homology group of the 3-fold sum of projective planes defined by the labelling scheme $aabbcc$. For this I will use the following corollary from Munkres: Corollary 75.2: Let ...
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1answer
31 views

Homology group of space $X$ given by the labelling scheme $aabcb^{-1}c^{-1}$

I have to calculate the homology group of the quotient space $X$ given by the labelling scheme $aabcb^{-1}c^{-1}$ and then determine to which of the following spaces it is homeomorphic: $S^2, ...
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4answers
55 views

Calculate quotients of $\mathbb S_3$ and $\mathbb D_4$

Problem Calculate all the quotients by normal subgroups of $\mathbb S_3$ and $\mathbb D_4$,i.e., charactertize all the groups that can be obtained as quotients of the mentioned groups. For the case ...
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External semidirect product application

I am trying to find all normal subgroups of $\mathbb D_n$. I've read here Normal subgroups of dihedral groups that one could show the external semidirect product $(\mathbb Z/n\mathbb Z) \rtimes ...
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1answer
18 views

Alternative way of proving the subgroup of rotations is normal in $\mathbb D_4$

I've just solved a basic group theory exercise which is: decide if $\{1,r,r^2,r^3\}$ is a normal subgroup of $\mathbb D_4$ (I mean the dihedral group of $8$ elements, not the one of $4$). I've used ...
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2answers
44 views

$G=\{f_n(x):n\in \mathbb{Z}\}$ is cyclic

Define $f_n(x)=x+n \;\;\forall n \in \mathbb{Z}$. Let $G=\{f_n:n\in \mathbb{Z}\}$. I proved that $G$ is a subgroup of $S_\mathbb{R}$ ($f_n$ is a permutation of $\mathbb{R}$), and now I am trying to ...
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2answers
60 views

Proving certain groups are normal

Given the following subgroup of $\mathbb S_4$: $$K=\{\mathrm{id},(12)(34),(13)(24),(14)(23)\}$$ prove that $K \unlhd \mathbb A_4$, $K \unlhd \mathbb S_4$ I am trying to solve this problem doing as ...
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0answers
15 views

When do two configurations of points belong to the same Euler Equivalence Class?

When can I say, of two or more configurations of points in a plane, that they belong to the same Euler Equivalence Class? From Euler's rotation theorem, I gather that two configurations of points are ...
2
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1answer
28 views

left regular representation of a group thru group action

Let G be a group and let $g\cdot:G\to G$(i.e.$g\cdot g'=gg'$) . This induces a permutation representation of the group. I was trying to walk thru the problems in dummite and foote. One of the problem ...
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47 views

Number of non isomorphic groups of order $122$, My attempt through Sylow theory.

$|G|=122 = 2 . 61$ No. of sylow $2$ subgroups $= 1$ or $61 = n_2$ No. of sylow $61$ subgroups $= 1 = n_{61}$ Let the group of order $61$ be $H_{61}$ and the group of order $2$ be $H_2$ Then : ...
2
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1answer
62 views

What can you say about the order of this element?

I am self-studying algebra and encountered the following problem: If $b^{-1}ab=a^2$ and $c^{-1}ac=a^3$ and $b,c$ has orders $4$ and $3$ respectively, what can you say about the order of $a$? In ...
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1answer
21 views

homomorphism between diedral group $D_3$ triangle isometries and $S_3$ identification problem

My question deals with the dihedral group $D_3$ of equilateral triangle 123 (1 top vertex, 2 bottom right vertex, 3 bottom left vertex). R1 is the counterclockwise rotation of 120 degrees. R2 is the ...
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1answer
272 views

Why should I consider the components $j^2$ and $k^2$ to be $=-1$ in the search for quaternions?

I'm reading a paper about Hamilton's discovery of quaternions and it explains why he failed in his 'theory of triplets' where he tried to make a vector with $3$ dimensions, as an analogy to the ...
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1answer
42 views

Explain rings and is [S, /, -] a ring?

Okay, so we are going to use the base set of numbers [i], which contains all possible cases of ai, where a is any real number. Here are 4 possible groups on this set --> [i,*]... [i,+]... [i,/] ...
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23 views

Series of multi sets

Given that a set of numbers $K = \{n_1, n_2, n_3, ... \}$. Multiple subsets are formed by randomly extracted numbers from $K$. Then series are formed by extracting numbers from the subset orderly. ...
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1answer
119 views

Cardinality of $\text{Aut}(G\times G) $

Let $G$ be a finite group. If $|\text{Aut}(G)|$ is known, what can we say about $|\text{Aut}(G\times G)|$ ?
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1answer
27 views

Solvable implies quotient group is solvable: Proof check.

I'd like to check the veracity of my proof. I've seen several proofs using different methods (some I'm allowed to use with lots of element-pushing and others using ideas I'm not allowed), but none ...
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2answers
55 views

Checking understanding on proving uniqueness of identity and inverse elements of a group.

Sorry for such a trivial question, but just wanted to check my understanding. When proving a statement, for example, that the inverse of a group element is unique (in elementary group theory) one ...
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20 views

Coprime Commutators in locally finite groups

Let $G$ be a locally finite group. Let $X = \{[a,b] \mid (\mid a \mid, \mid b \mid) =1, a,b \in G\},$ where $(m,n)$ denotes the greatest common divisor of the elments $m$ and $n$. Let $K = ...
2
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0answers
49 views

Conditions for a group to be isomorphic to semidirect product of its subgroups

Let $G$ a group and $N$ a normal subgroup of $G$. If $G$ it have a subgroup $H$ s.t. $H \cap N $ is the trivial subgroup and $H$ is isomorphic to $G/ N$ then $G$ is isomorphic to $N\rtimes H$. Could ...
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29 views

No proper subgroup of finite index [duplicate]

Show that $(\mathbb{Q},+)$, the group of rational numbers under addition, has no proper subgroup of finite index. Can someone please provide a proof!
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0answers
22 views

Proving $|G|=pq$ and $p>q$ , $q$ does not divide $p-1$ $\implies$ $G$ is cyclic , without using Cauchy's and Sylow's theorems [duplicate]

Without using Cauchy's or Sylow's theorems , can we give a proof of the result that "If $ p,q$ are primes such that $p>q$ and $q$ does not divide $p-1$ , then any group of order $pq$ is cyclic " ? ...
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divisible subgroup without axiom of choice

the theorem asserting that the divisible subgroup of an Abelian group is a direct summand depends on Zorn's lemma. in ZF without AC is there a construction which yields a model of an Abelian group ...
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0answers
13 views

Compounding unary operators

I am working with the symmetric group $S_5$. I have 3 unary operators defined: $R$, $T$, and $O$, and I'm writing about their composition. Suppose I want to denote the compound operation of "$T$, ...
3
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1answer
49 views

Something that is true for every element of $\text{Sym}(\Bbb{N})$

I'm trying to prove that: Every element of $\text{Sym}(\Bbb{N})$ can be written as $f\circ g$ for some $f,g\in \text{Sym}(\Bbb{N})$ with $f^2=g^2$. But I can't even prove this for ...
3
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1answer
134 views

Proof that group is commutative if every element is its inverse (feedback wanted)

This is one of my first proofs about groups. Please feed back and criticise in every way (including style & language). Axiom names (see Wikipedia) are italicised. $e$ denotes the identity element. ...
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1answer
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every Abelian group is a converse lagrange theorem group

Let $G$ be a finite abelian group, then $G$ has a subgroup of order $n$ if and only if $n\mid G$. Proof: by Lagrange if $H\leq G$ then $|H|$ divides $|G|$ so this proves one of the implications. We ...
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For an associative binary operation with identity, the set of invertible elements forms a group

Let $S$ be a set, and $*$ an associative binary operation on $S$. Suppose there is an element $e\in S$ such that ($1$) $e*x=x$ and $x*e=x$ for all $x\in S$. (a) Prove that there is a unique element ...
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2answers
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If $H$ is a normal subgroup of a finite group $G$ and $|H|=p^k$ for some prime $p$. show that $H$ is contained in every sylow $p$ subgroup of $G$

If $H$ is a normal subgroup of a finite group $G$ and $|H|=p^k$ for some prime $p$. show that $H$ is contained in every sylow $p$ subgroup of $G$ Attempt: $|H|=p^k \implies |G|=p^{n_1} q^{n_2} ...
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1answer
45 views

Groups - Prove that every element equals inverse of inverse of element

This is my first proof about groups. Please feed back and criticise in every way (including style & language). Axiom names (see Wikipedia) are italicised. We use $^{-1}$ to denote inverse ...
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1answer
38 views

Defining a group from edge set of graph

I consider three islands represented by vertices V and the travel routes by ship are represented by the edges E. Here G=(V,E). I consider the non-empty set E and define the binary operation ...
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1answer
33 views

How to generate a point cloud with known symmetry?

So I would like to know if there are any published algorithms to generate point clouds with known symmetry groups, such as $D_{3h}$ or $O_h$ and stuff like that. I know lots and lots of point clouds ...
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38 views

Show that if $G$ is a group of order $168$ that has a normal subgroup of order $4$ , then $G$ has a normal subgroup of order $28$

Show that if $G$ is a group of order $168$ that has a normal subgroup of order $4$ , then $G$ has a normal subgroup of order $28$. Attempt: $|G|=168=2^3.3.7$ Then number of sylow $7$ subgroups in $G ...