For questions about geometric shapes, congruences, similarities, transformations, as well as the properties of classes of figures, points, lines, angles.

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331
votes
10answers
358k views

Is this Batman equation for real?

HardOCP has an image with an equation which apparently draws the Batman logo. Is this for real?
266
votes
16answers
22k views

Is value of $\pi = 4$?

What is wrong with this? SOURCE
116
votes
14answers
18k views

What's the intuition behind Pythagoras' theorem?

Today we learned about Pythagoras' theorem. Sadly, I can't understand the logic behind it. $A^{2} + B^{2} = C^{2}$ $C^{2} = (5 \text{ cm})^2 + (7 \text{ cm})^2$ $C^{2} = 25 \text{ cm}^2 + 49 ...
109
votes
3answers
15k views

Why can a Venn diagram for 4+ sets not be constructed using circles?

This page gives a few examples of Venn diagrams for 4 sets. Some examples: Thinking about it for a little, it is impossible to partition the plane into the $16$ segments required for a complete ...
104
votes
10answers
14k views

How can a piece of A4 paper be folded in exactly three equal parts?

This is something that always annoys me when putting an A4 letter in a oblong envelope: one has to estimate where to put the creases when folding the letter. I normally start from the bottom and on ...
96
votes
6answers
134k views

How many sides does a circle have?

My son is in 2nd grade. His math teacher gave the class a quiz, and one question was this: If a triangle has 3 sides, and a rectangle has 4 sides, how many sides does a circle have? My first ...
93
votes
3answers
7k views

Can someone explain the math behind tessellation?

Tessellation is fascinating to me, and I've always been amazed by the drawings of M.C.Escher, particularly interesting to me, is how he would've gone about calculating tessellating shapes. In my ...
92
votes
4answers
2k views

Hyperbolic critters studying Euclidean geometry

You've spent your whole life in the hyperbolic plane. It's second nature to you that the area of a triangle depends only on its angles, and it seems absurd to suggest that it could ever be otherwise. ...
89
votes
8answers
3k views

Probability that a stick randomly broken in five places can form a tetrahedron

Edit (March. 2014) This question has been moved to mathoverflow; see here. Randomly break a stick in five places. Question: What is the probability that the resulting six pieces can form a ...
86
votes
11answers
9k views

How can I find the surface area of a normal chicken egg?

This morning, I had eggs for breakfast, and I was looking at the pieces of broken shells and thought "What is the surface area of this egg?" The problem is that I have no real idea about how to find ...
83
votes
3answers
12k views

Slice of pizza with no crust

The following question came up at a conference and a solution took a while to find. Puzzle. Find a way of cutting a pizza into finitely many congruent pieces such that at least one piece of pizza ...
82
votes
18answers
8k views

How to distinguish walking on a sphere or on a torus?

Imagine that you're a flatlander walking in your world. How could you distinguish if the world is a sphere or a torus ? I can't see the difference from this point of view. If you are interested, this ...
77
votes
4answers
4k views

What is the smallest number of $45^\circ-60^\circ-75^\circ$ triangles that a square can be divided into?

What is the smallest number of $45^\circ-60^\circ-75^\circ$ triangles that a square can be divided into? The image below is a flawed example, from http://www.mathpuzzle.com/flawed456075.gif ...
75
votes
21answers
39k views

Software for drawing geometry diagrams

What software do you use to accurately draw geometry diagrams?
70
votes
7answers
6k views

Are non-circular manholes possible?

Circular manholes are great because the cover can not fall down the hole. If the hole were square, the heavy metal cover could fall down the hole and kill some man working down there. Circular ...
66
votes
1answer
4k views

Gerrymandering on a high-genus surface/can I use my powers for evil?

Somewhat in contrast to this question. Let's say the Supreme Court has just issued a ruling that the upper and lower roads of an overpass need not be in the same congressional district. This makes ...
57
votes
6answers
4k views

Area covered by a constant length segment rotating around the center of a square.

This is an idea I have had in my head for years and years and I would like to know the answer, and also I would like to know if it's somehow relevant to anything or useless. I describe my thoughts ...
56
votes
4answers
6k views

Why is a circle in a plane surrounded by 6 other circles

When you draw a circle in a plane you can perfectly surround it with 6 other circles of the same radius. This works for any radius. What's the significance of 6? Why not some other number? I'm ...
53
votes
10answers
10k views

What's a proof that the angles of a triangle add up to 180°?

Back in grade school, I had a solution involving "folding the triangle" into a rectangle half the area, and seeing that all the angles met at a point. However, now that I'm in university, I'm not ...
53
votes
14answers
7k views

Why is the volume of a sphere $\frac{4}{3}\pi r^3$?

I learned that the volume of a sphere is $\frac{4}{3}\pi r^3$, but why? The $\pi$ kind of makes sense because its round like a circle, and the $r^3$ because it's 3-D, but $\frac{4}{3}$ is so random! ...
53
votes
1answer
2k views

About Euclid's Elements and modern video games

Update (6/19/2014) $\;$ Just wanted to say that this idea that I posted more than a year ago, has now become reality at: http://euclidthegame.com/ 12.292 users have played it in 96 different ...
51
votes
3answers
1k views

Volumes of n-balls: what is so special about n=5?

The volume of an $n$-dimensional ball of radius $1$ is given by the classical formula $$V_n=\frac{\pi^{n/2}}{\Gamma(n/2+1)}.$$ For small values of $n$, we have $$V_1=2\qquad$$ $$V_2\approx 3.14$$ ...
50
votes
4answers
5k views

How far can one see over the ocean?

Since Earth is a sphere, one has only a limited visibility radius. How far is that, actually? This Q&A was inspired by this question, about whether or not Legolas can see the 24km distant Riders ...
49
votes
9answers
19k views

Why is Pi equal to 3.14159…?

Wait before you dismiss this as a crank question :) A friend of mine teaches school kids, and the book she uses states something to the following effect: If you divide the circumference of any ...
48
votes
2answers
1k views

Geometry problem involving infinite number of circles

What is the sum of the areas of the grey circles? I have not made any progress so far.
45
votes
6answers
4k views

Why is a full turn of the circle 360°? Why not any other number?

I was just wondering why we have 90° degrees for a perpendicular angle. Why not 100° or any other number? What is the significance of 90° for the perpendicular or 360° for a circle? I didn't ever ...
44
votes
7answers
5k views

What is the oldest open problem in geometry?

Geometry is one of the oldest branches of mathematics, and many famous problems have been proposed and solved in its long history. What I would like to know is: What is the oldest open problem in ...
43
votes
15answers
13k views

What is the most elegant proof of the Pythagorean theorem?

The Pythagorean Theorem is one of the most popular to prove by mathematicians, and there are many proofs available (including one from James Garfield). What's the most elegant proof? My favorite ...
42
votes
6answers
5k views

How come $32.5 = 31.5$?

Below is a visual proof (!) that $32.5 = 31.5$. How could that be?
41
votes
14answers
5k views

Do two right triangles with the same long hypotenuse have the same area?

I watched computer monitors and I asked myself, do two monitors with the same display diagonal have the same display area? I managed to find out that the answer is yes, if two right triangles with ...
41
votes
9answers
13k views

What is the meaning of the third derivative of a function at a point

(Originally asked on MO by AJAY.) What is the geometric, physical, or other meaning of the third derivative of a function at a point? If you have interesting things to say about the meaning of the ...
41
votes
4answers
3k views

Do circles divide the plane into more regions than lines?

In this post it is mentioned that $n$ straight lines can divide the plane into a maximum number of $(n^{2}+n+2)/2$ different regions. What happens if we use circles instead of lines? That is, what ...
40
votes
17answers
2k views

How to create circles and or sections of a circle when the centre is inaccessible

I am doing landscaping and some times I need to create circles or parts of circles that would put the centre of the circle in the neighbours' garden, or there are other obstructions that stop me from ...
40
votes
3answers
1k views

Where to build a bridge to cross a river in the shape of an annulus

There is a river in the shape of an annulus. Outside the annulus there is town "A" and inside there is town "B". One must build a bridge towards the center of the annulus such that the path from A ...
38
votes
4answers
2k views

A circle rolls along a parabola

I'm thinking about a circle rolling along a parabola. Would this be a parametric representation? $(t + A\sin (Bt) , Ct^2 + A\cos (Bt) )$ A gives us the radius of the circle, B changes the frequency ...
37
votes
11answers
3k views

What is a hexagon?

Having a slight parenting anxiety attack and I hate teaching my son something incorrect. Wiktionary tells me that a Hexagon is a polygon with $6$ sides and $6$ angles. Why the $6$ angle requirement? ...
37
votes
3answers
2k views

Cutting up a circle to make a square

We know that there is no paper-and-scissors solution to Tarski's circle-squaring problem (my six-year-old daughter told me this while eating lunch one day) but what are the closest approximations, if ...
37
votes
4answers
1k views

How to identify surfaces of revolution

Given a surface $f(x,y,z)=0$, how would you determine whether or not it's a surface of revolution, and find the axis of rotation? The special case where $f$ is a polynomial is also of interest. A ...
37
votes
1answer
791 views

Why does this ratio of sums of square roots equal $1+\sqrt2+\sqrt{4+2\sqrt2}=\cot\frac\pi{16}$ for any natural number $n$?

Why is the following function $f(n)$ constant for any natural number $n$? $$f(n)=\frac{\sum_{k=1}^{n^2+2n}\sqrt{\sqrt{2n+2}+{\sqrt{n+1+\sqrt ...
36
votes
3answers
1k views

Putting many disks in the unit square

Consider a square of side equal to $1$. Prove that we can place inside the square a finite number of disjoint circles, with different radii of the form $1/k$ with $k$ a positive integer, such that ...
35
votes
9answers
24k views

Why is the volume of a cone one third of the volume of a cylinder?

The volume of a cone with height $h$ and radius $r$ is $\frac{1}{3} \pi r^2 h$, which is exactly one third the volume of the smallest cylinder that it fits inside. This can be proved easily by ...
34
votes
3answers
4k views

Why is the Möbius strip not orientable?

I am trying to understand the notion of an orientable manifold. Let M be a smooth n-manifold. We say that M is orientable if and only if there exists an atlas $A = \{(U_{\alpha}, \phi_{\alpha})\}$ ...
34
votes
7answers
14k views

Why is the derivative of a circle's area its perimeter (and similarly for spheres)?

When differentiated with respect to $r$, the derivative of $\pi r^2$ is $2 \pi r$, which is the circumference of a circle. Similarly, when the formula for a sphere's volume $\frac{4}{3} \pi r^3$ is ...
34
votes
2answers
1k views

Geometric intuition for the tensor product of vector spaces

First of all, I am very comfortable with the tensor product of vector spaces. I am also very familiar with the well-known generalizations, in particular the theory of monoidal categories. I have ...
32
votes
6answers
4k views

Pythagorean Theorem Proof Without Words (request for words)

I was intrigued by a book I saw called Proofs without Words. So I bought it, and discovered that the entire book doesn't have any words in it. I figured at least it would have some words explaining ...
31
votes
6answers
6k views

Proof that Pi is constant (the same for all circles), without using limits

Is there a proof that the ratio of a circle's diameter and the circumference is the same for all circles, that doesn't involve some kind of limiting process, e.g. a direct geometrical proof?
31
votes
3answers
534 views

Are there surfaces with more than two sides?

I'm watching a naive introduction to the Möbius band, the lecturer asks if it's possible to construct a one sided surface and then she says that there is one of these surfaces, namely the Möbius band. ...
31
votes
5answers
1k views

Ambiguous Curve: can you follow the bicycle?

Let $\alpha:[0,1]\to \mathbb R^2$ be a smooth closed curve parameterized by the arc length. We will think of $\alpha$ like a back track of the wheel of a bicycle. If we suppose that the distance ...
30
votes
6answers
15k views

How many triangles are there?

The question is how many triangles are there in the following picture? I have thought to solve it by creating a formula based on the angles of the lines starting from the bottom of each side. I ...
29
votes
7answers
2k views

Quotient geometries known in popular culture, such as “flat torus = Asteroids video game”

In answering a question I mentioned the Asteroids video game as an example -- at one time, the canonical example -- of a locally flat geometry that is globally different from the Euclidean plane. It ...