Everything involving general topological spaces: generation and description of topologies; open and closed sets, neighborhoods; interior, closure; connectedness; compactness; separation axioms; bases; convergence: sequences, nets and filters; continuous functions; compactifications; function spaces; ...

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A question involving continuity with respect to the product topology

Let H be a nonempty set, $\cdot$ a binary operation on H, $\Gamma$ a topology on H and $$\varphi : H \times H \to H, \;\; \varphi(x, y) = x y, \;\; \forall x, y \in H$$ continuous with respect to the ...
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0answers
13 views

Idempotent ideal in ring of continuous functions

Is there any equivalence conditions under which an ideal $I$ in ring of continuous functions be an idempotent ideal?
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2answers
27 views

Homeomorphism on the Hilbert space

We can consider two different topologies on the Hilbert space ; $l^{2}(\mathbb{N})$. One is the topology deduced from the norm $\|f\|=\sqrt{\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} f(n)^{2}}$, and the other one is a ...
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1answer
37 views

Does every continuous map between compact metrizable spaces lift to the Cantor set?

I'm interested in the universal properties of the Cantor set. It is well-know that the Cantor set $2^\mathbb{N}$ is "universal" in the category of metrizable compact spaces, in the sense that every ...
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2answers
103 views

$\epsilon$-dense subsets on $\mathbb R/\mathbb Z$.

Let $\langle M, d\rangle$ be a metric space. We say that $A \subset M$ is $\epsilon$-dense if every open ball of radius $\epsilon$ contains a point of $A$. Now let $T=\mathbb R/\mathbb Z$, the ...
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2answers
15 views

A countable Tychonoff space is normal?

I am trying to prove a countable tychonoff space must be normal but I cannot. Here is my work so far: We take two disjoint closed sets $F_1$ and $F_2$. Since $F_1$ is countable and $F_2$ is closed ...
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1answer
34 views

Explicit homeomorphism between open and closed rational intervals?

Sierpiński's theorem states that every countable metric space without isolated points is homeomorphic to $\mathbb{Q}$. (A proof can be found here and a discussion here). An immediate corollary is ...
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0answers
35 views

What's the most general geometry branch?

What is the most general geometry of curves and surfaces? For example, at curves, we define in differential geometry the tangent vector as the derivative of a regular curve, but visually many other ...
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1answer
26 views

$\mathbb{R}^{2}$ and $\mathbb{R} \times [0, +\infty]$ are homotopy equivalent, but not homeomorphic

So, let's consider $M=\mathbb{R}^{2}$ and $N= \mathbb{R} \times [0, +\infty]$ - two topological spaces. Since $\pi_{1}(M)=\pi_{1}(\mathbb{R}) \times \pi_{1} (\mathbb{R}) = \{0 \}$ (since $\mathbb{R}$ ...
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1answer
24 views

Topology: nowhere dense set

I need to prove that empty set is the only nowhere dense set in these topologies: $\{X,P(X)\}$, $\{\emptyset,X\}$, $(\{1,2\},P(\{1,2\}))$. Tanks
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0answers
18 views

Does total order imply linearisation

Suppose $X$ is a totally ordered set. Does this mean that $X$ can always be linearised? I mean can $X$ be always written in a linear order like $\mathbb{R}$ ? I came across this question when I was ...
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2answers
36 views

Group homomorphism on unit circle

For $n\in \mathbb{Z}$, define the map $f_n:S^1\to S^1$ as $f_n(z)= z^n$, where the unit circle $S^1$ is observed as the subspace $\{z\in\mathbb{C}|\ |z|=1\}$. How would one compute the induced group ...
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2answers
24 views

Extreme value theorem, without Heine Borel.

I was wondering, if there are any mistakes, in this proof of the extreme value theorem: Theorem. Let $X$ be a compact set and $f:X\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$, s.t. $f$ is continuous. Then there exists ...
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1answer
49 views

The union of a sequence of closed sets with empty interiors has empty interior in a compact Hausdorff space?

This is problem 5 in section 27 of Munkres' TOPOLOGY, 2nd ed Let $X$ be a compact Hausdorff space; let $\{A_n\}_{n\in \mathbb{N}}$ be a countable collection of closed sets of $X$. If each set $A_n$ ...
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1answer
38 views

Does proper map $f$ take discrete sets to discrete sets?

Suppose $f:X \to Y$ is a continuous proper map between locally compact Hausdorff spaces. Are the following results true? $1$. The map $f$ takes discrete sets to discrete sets. $2$. If $f$ is ...
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1answer
42 views

Prove that the convergent sum of a real sequence is a metric

I want to show that $$ \varrho(\{a_n\},\{b_n\})=\left(\sum_{n=0}^\infty{(a_n-b_n)^2}\right)^{1/2} $$ is a metric, where $\{a_n\}_{n\in\Bbb N}\in \ell_2$, and $\ell_2$ is the set of all real sequences ...
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1answer
50 views

Questions about a topological proof of the FTA

I'm a high school student, curious about proofs of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra. Specifically, I've been thinking about one of the topological proofs of the theorem, given in Courant's book, ...
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1answer
30 views

Non-empty intersection of specific sets

For any set Y (to begin with, it may be countable), given a collection of relations $$R = \{R_y \subseteq \{0,1\}^Y \mid y \in Y\},$$ having the finite intersection property and such that for ...
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1answer
23 views

Every nontrivial linear functional is open

Let $X$ be a normed linear space and let $f:X\to \mathbb K$ be a nontrivial linear functional. I want to prove that $f$ is open. I tried as follows: Let $E$ be an open set in $X$ and let $y\in f(E)$. ...
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1answer
34 views

does the closure of interior of a set equal to closure of this set?

Does the $\text{Cl}(\text{Int} A)=\text{Cl}(A)$? Here "Cl" denotes closure, "Int" denotes interior. I have a problem when trying to understand the Sanov's theorem in ...
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3answers
51 views

Does there exist a surjective continuous map $D^2 \to S^1$?

By considering the induced homomorphism on the fundamental groups, we know that there is no retract $D^2 \to S^1$. But is there any continuous surjection from $D^2$ to its boundary? It seems unlikely ...
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2answers
48 views

Topological proof that the interval $[a,b)\subset \mathbb{R}$ is not closed

I want to prove that the interval $[a,b)\subset \mathbb{R}$ is not closed using the definition that a set $A$ in a topological space $X$ is closed iff its complement $X-A$ is open. Here, the topology ...
3
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1answer
43 views

In $\mathbb Q_p$, proving every open ball is the disjoint union of more than one open ball

I'm reading the Foundations chapter of Gouvea's p-adic Numbers: An Introduction, and I'm trying to solve the following problem he poses to the reader: Take the $p-$adic absolute value on $\mathbb ...
3
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1answer
32 views

Remove one ring of Borromean rings in 3-sphere: linked or unlinked?

We know Borromean rings in a 3-sphere $S^3$ can be unlinked if we remove one of the three rings. Here let us consider a slight different procedure. If we remove the neighbored solid torus $B^2 \times ...
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0answers
33 views

Homeomorphism from unit ball to unit sphere

Consider the unit sphere in $\Bbb R^3$ given by $\{(x,y,z) \in \Bbb R^3|x^2+y^2+z^2 =1\}$. Let $p$ be a point in this unit sphere. Question: How can I construct an open set U within this unit sphere ...
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2answers
37 views

proving f is continuous iff it takes limits to limits [on hold]

How to show that iff $x_i\to x$ implies $f(x_i)\to f(x)$ then f is continous? For metric Spaces. Continuit definition the standard epsilon delta
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0answers
18 views

Mollifiers and smooth path connetction

Generaly it is about smooth path connection. I have a two smooth paths f,g and a points x,y,z of open subset of $R^n$ such that f is smooth path from a to y and g is smooth path from y to z. I define ...
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1answer
18 views

Can a point $z$ which belongs to a closed set be a limit point of an open set which is disjoint from the closed set in topological space $X$?

Say $X$ be a topological space, and $U$ and $V$ are open and closed sets respectively. Furthermore, $U$ and $V$ are disjoint. Now there is a point $z \in V$. Is it possible for the point $z$ to be a ...
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1answer
37 views

Point-set topology

I am about to begin a self-study project in point-set topology. I am a final year undergraduate. I am looking for suitable resources, I have so far come across Munkres' textbook and would like to find ...
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1answer
36 views

Prob. 3 (b), Sec. 27 in Munkres' TOPOLOGY, 2nd ed: How does the $K$-topology on $\mathbb{R}$ differ from the usual topology?

Let $$ K \colon= \left\{\ \frac{1}{n} \ \colon \ n \in \mathbb{N} \ \right\},$$ and let the $K$-topology on $\mathbb{R}$ be the one having as basis all open intervals $(a,b)$ and all sets of the form ...
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1answer
32 views

Showing the attractor of an IFS is either connected or totally disconnected

I came across this execise in a problem set about Iterated Function System (IFS) and fractals: "Show that the attractor of an IFS of the form $\{\mathbb{R};~ax+b, cx+d\}$ where $a,b,c,d \in ...
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0answers
25 views

The Coproduct of two spaces is the same as the disjoint union and is homeomorphic to the union when the spaces are disjoint

Let $X$ and $Y$ be two topological spaces. Consider the set $$X \cup Y = \{ x\; |\; x \in X \text{ or } x \in Y\}$$ In all the following I suppose that $X$ and $X$ are disjoint. I want to ...
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3answers
73 views

What are some simple examples illustrating the definition of “cover”

In my class the word "cover" is used very informally such as this set covers another set (this is for a class in PDE not topology by the way). Can someone provide a trivial example of cover to get ...
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9answers
455 views

What is the mathematical distinction between closed and open sets?

If you wanted me to spell out the difference between closed and open sets, the best I could do is to draw you a circle one with dotted circumference the other with continuous circumference. Or I would ...
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2answers
34 views

A base generates an unique topology?

I was confused by this. Let $X$ be {$a,b,c$}, Let $\mathcal{B}$ be {{$a$},{$b$},{$c$}}. Let $ \mathcal{T}$ be {$X, \emptyset$, {$a$}, {$b$}, {$a,b$}}. Let $ \mathcal{T'}$ be {$X, \emptyset$, ...
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0answers
16 views

Disjoint Union of Completely Regular Spaces

I am trying a new approach to an already-solved problem, but I need help to see if I'm on point. Munkres Chapter 53, question 6 [abridged] asks, given a covering map $p: E \to B$: Show that "if $B$ ...
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2answers
62 views

Decomposing 2-sphere into two homeomorphic subspaces [on hold]

Can a 2-dimensional sphere be decomposed into two disjoint homeomorphic subspaces? If yes, can these subspaces be non-discrete / connected / have some other good properties?
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0answers
23 views

Construction of a Radon measure from a certain family of compact subsets

Let $X$ be a locally compact Hausdroff space. Let $\Gamma$ be a family of compact subsets of $X$ with the following properties. 1) $\emptyset \in \Gamma$. 2) $K\cup L \in \Gamma$ whenever $K ...
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1answer
39 views

simplicial homology definition

I am revising for my algebraic topology exam based on Hatchers 2nd chapter of algebraic topology and I have this question regarding the definition of simplicial homology on pages 104-105: Hatcher ...
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1answer
27 views

Limit vs interior definition of continuity

Suppose I have two topological spaces $X$ and $Y$ whose topologies are defined by interior operators $\text{int}_X$ and $\text{int}_Y$ respectively, as well as a function $f$ with domain $I$ (for ...
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1answer
24 views

Boundary preserving map

Let $K\subseteq\mathbb{R}^2$ be a compact set. Is it true that for a continuous map $p:K\to\mathbb{R}^2$ we have: $p(\partial K)=\partial p(K)$? Are there any generalizations? P.S. Note that ...
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0answers
26 views

Pro-completion of finite algebras as Stone algebras

Recall that a profinite algebra (e.g. group, monoid, or whatsoever) is a cofiltered/inverse limit of finite algebra. In Johnstone's Stone space, he showed that finite discrete algebras are finitely ...
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1answer
29 views

Show that if $(X,d)$ is compact then, every open covering of $X$ has a Lebesgue number.

Let $(U_i)_{i \in I}$ be an open cover of a metric space $(X,d)$, a number $\epsilon >0$ is called a Lebesgue number of $(U_i)_{i \in I}$ if for all $x \in X$ exist $j \in I$ such that ...
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2answers
46 views

An infinite dimensional normed linear space is the union of two disjoint convex sets

Let $X$ be an infinite dimensional normed linear space. I want to show that there exist two disjoint convex sets $C_1$ and $C_2$ such that $X=C_1\cup C_2$ and both $C_1$ and $C_2$ are dense in $X$. I ...
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1answer
27 views

Continuous function between two topological spaces: an ELEMENTARY property. [duplicate]

I'm reading the first chapter of a book on general topology. It has a lot of small, simple exercises on almost all pages and I try to do them all to fully understand the subject. This one I did not ...
3
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0answers
39 views

If a set is Hausdorff relative to one topology, can it be compact relative to a strictly finer topology?

Let $\tau_1$ and $\tau_2$ be two topologies on set $X\neq\phi$ such that $(X, \tau_1)$ is Hausdorff and $\tau_1 \subsetneq \tau_2$. Can $(X, \tau_2)$ be compact? My effort: Suppose that $(X, ...
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2answers
63 views

Is this condition on continuity extraneous or troublesome?

I was trying to motivate the use of open sets for defining continuity (as in topology or metric spaces). I came to formulate the following definition of continuity for a function $f: X \rightarrow ...
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20 views

Metric spaces and compactness [on hold]

Let $X$ be a metric space. If for all compact $K$, the set $K\cap F $ is closed, then $F$ is closed.
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3answers
34 views

Statment concerning open sets and closures

I found the following line in a proof (from a good book) concerning locally compact spaces: Since $A$ and $B$ are both open and $A \cap B = \varnothing$, it follows that $\bar{A} \cap B = ...
3
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1answer
93 views

Maximum $C$ such that every shape in $\Bbb R^2$ with area $<C$ can be placed to avoid $\Bbb Z^2$

For $C=1$, it has been proved here that every shape in the plane having area less than $1$ can be translated and rotated so that it does not touch any element of $\mathbb Z^2$. (In fact, for $C=1$, ...