Elementary questions about functions, notation, properties, and operations such as function composition.

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72
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0answers
2k views

Identification of a curious function

During computation of some Shapley values (details below), I encountered the following function: $$ f\left(\sum_{k \geq 0} 2^{-p_k}\right) = \sum_{k \geq 0} \frac{1}{(p_k+1)\binom{p_k}{k}}, $$ where ...
13
votes
0answers
201 views

How to find all functions $f$ such that $f(a)+f(b)$ is square number, if $a+b$ is square number.

Question: For any $a,b\in N^{+}$, if $a+b$ is square number, then $f(a)+f(b)$ is also a square number. Find all such functions. My try: It is clear that the function $$f(x)=x$$ satisfies the ...
8
votes
0answers
325 views

Multiplicative Identity analog for absolute value

Is there a standard name for the function: $$ f(x) = \begin{cases} x & \text{if |x|≤1;}\\ 1/x & \text{if |x|>1;}\\ \end{cases} $$ And is there a potential application of this ...
7
votes
0answers
328 views

Compositional “square roots”

Let $A$ be a set and $f\colon A\to A$ a function. The primary and general question is: What conditions are necessary so that there exists $g$ such that for each $x$ in $A$, $g(g(x))=f(x)$? This is a ...
7
votes
0answers
294 views

Does this calculation have a name, or a generic formulation?

Background I would appreciate help in identifying / explaining this operation: To calculate each of the $n$ values of $f(\Phi)$: sample from the distribution of each of $i$ parameters, $\phi_i$ ...
7
votes
0answers
205 views

When does the “Zetor function” converge?

Let $p_n$ be the n'th non-trivial zero of the Riemann zeta function. We define the Zetor function (acronym of 'zeta' and 'zero') as follows: $$\zeta \rho (s) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{(p_n)^s}. ...
6
votes
0answers
308 views

Extension of the Jacobi triple product identity

The Jacobi triple product identity is: $$\prod\limits_{n=1}^{ \infty }(1-q^{2n})(1+zq^{2n-1})(1+z^{-1}q^{2n-1})=\sum\limits_{n = - \infty }^ \infty z^n q^{n^2} $$ I would like to extend the idea for ...
6
votes
0answers
281 views

To determine if$f^{-1}(x)$ is periodic function or not? $f(x)=\int_1^{x} \frac{1}{\sqrt[m]{P(t)}}\;dt$

$$f(x)=\int_1^{x} \frac{1}{\sqrt[m]{P(t)}}\;dt$$ $P(x)$ is polynomial with degree $n$. $m$ is an positive integer and $m>1$ What is the algoritm to determine $f^{-1}(x)$ is periodic function ...
6
votes
0answers
250 views

expansion for $1-|t|$

Let $f$ be a continuous function on $\mathbb{R}$ with compact support with exactly one maximum. Form the functions $$ f_{m,k}(x)=f^m\left(x-\frac{k}{2^m}\right) $$ I am wondering if one can expand ...
6
votes
0answers
2k views

Finding general harmonic polynomial of form $ax^3+bx^2y+cxy^2+dy^3$.

I'm trying to find the most general harmonic polynomial of form $ax^3+bx^2y+cxy^2+dy^3$. I write this polynomial as $u(x,y)$. I calculate $$ \frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial x^2}=6ax+2by,\qquad ...
5
votes
0answers
38 views

$H^{1/2}$ function but not better

I am looking for an example of a function $f: [0, 1] \longrightarrow \mathbb{R}$ that is in the Sobolev space of order $1/2$, $H^{1/2}([0, 1])$, but not in the Sobolev space of order $1/2 + ...
5
votes
0answers
197 views

Decrease of $L_1$ norm of piecewise constant functions after some “averaging”

In the course of a project, I ended up looking at what happens to the $L_1$ of real-valued piecewise-constant functions after some particular king of smoothing — but am currently stuck at a particular ...
5
votes
0answers
96 views

Existence of smooth extension of a function defined on a closed interval

Suppose $ f: [0,1] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is a function such that derivatives of all orders exist ( at the end points of the interval the appropriate one-sided derivatives exist) and are continuous $ ...
5
votes
0answers
170 views

Terminology Question: Precompose vs Compose?

I was wondering if there was a standard convention on what 'precompose' means compared to 'compose', as I am often confused between the two when all sorts of text casually use both terminologies. For ...
5
votes
0answers
205 views

Is there some official name for this function?

$$\sqrt{1 - (-1 + x\bmod 2)^2}\cdot\operatorname{sign}(-2 + x\bmod 4)$$ Like half-circles connected to each other to look like waves: Its plot looks smooth, but the function is actually not ...
4
votes
0answers
22 views

Function in Lipschitz space

I'm looking for a function that is in $W^{1,1}(0,1)$ but only in the Lipschitz space $\mathrm{Lip} (\alpha, L_2(0,1))$ for $0<\alpha < 1$. $\mathrm{Lip}(\alpha, L_2(0,1))$ is defined as the set ...
4
votes
0answers
28 views

How to read an expression that is ambiguous?

(1) How should I parenthesize $\log n \log \log n$? Also: (2) What general rule/rationale is used to do this parenthesization? To elaborate; I see why $\log\log n$ is unambiguous, but $\log n \log ...
4
votes
0answers
73 views

How to efficiently calculate $ax+b$ once I know $a$ and $b$?

What's the cheapest way to calculate $ax+b$ several times once I know the values for $a$ and $b$? For instance, the cheapest way to calculate $a+b+x$ several times once I know the values for $a$ and ...
4
votes
0answers
63 views

How prove this $f=C$ if $4f(x,y)=f(x-1,y)+f(x,y-1)+f(x+1,y)+f(x,y+1)$

Question: if $f:\mathbb{Z}^2\to \mathbb{R}$ is bounded ,and for any $x,y\in \mathbb{Z}$,we have $$4f(x,y)=f(x-1,y)+f(x,y-1)+f(x+1,y)+f(x,y+1)$$ show that $$f\equiv C$$ where $C$ is constant. My ...
4
votes
0answers
132 views

Lower semicontinuous and discontinuous everywhere real bounded function?

Does there exist an $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ that is bounded such that for any $a$ then $f^{-1}(a,+\infty)$ is open but $f$ is discontinuous everywhere? Such a function seems too likely to ...
4
votes
0answers
49 views

Decomposability in the tensor product sense of functions of two variables

Let $S$ and $T$ be "nice" metric spaces, e.g. complete normed fields like $\Bbb R$, $\Bbb C$ or $\Bbb Q_p$. Let $F$ be a function $$ F:S\times T\longrightarrow K $$ where $K$ is a topological field ...
4
votes
0answers
157 views

How do zeros on the complex plane affect the real number line?

Let's say there is a real-valued "signal" that you can only measure at discrete points $f(x)$. You have a theory that this signal is the result of an analytic function $f(z)$ on the complex plane but, ...
4
votes
0answers
137 views

How can I Create an integral that can only be evaluated via complex contour integration?

In Richard Feynman's book, Surely You're Joking Mr. Feynman!, he says: One time I boasted, "I can do by other methods any integral anybody else needs contour integration to do." So Paul ...
4
votes
0answers
171 views

How to compare the similarity between functions?

I'm designing a web service that finds the regression function of a pattern within an image. I analyzed three images and found the following three regressions: 1) $f(x) = 74.7602 + 0.2005x - ...
4
votes
0answers
142 views

Finding a series of functions orthogonal to all $x^{2n}$ but one

We need to find a series of functions $f_m$ verifying the property $$\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty}\! x^{2n} f_m\!(x) \;{\text d}x=\delta_{nm}.$$ We already have found $$f_0(x) = ...
4
votes
0answers
138 views

What is this function called (looks like a variant of the exponential function)

We set (as usual) $\displaystyle{x \choose k} := \frac{x \cdot (x-1) \cdots (x-k+1)}{k!}$ for $x\in \mathbb{C}$. Now we can define a function $\displaystyle f(x) := \sum\limits_{k=0}^\infty {x ...
4
votes
0answers
110 views

What is the limit of the quotient of Stieltjes Constants?

What is the limit : $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty }\frac{\gamma_{n-1} }{\gamma_{n}} $ Here $\gamma_{n} $ is the $n$-th Stieltjes Constant.
4
votes
0answers
116 views

Why is this change of variables true?

I have an equation $F_{xx}+yF_{yy}+{1\over 2}F_y=0$ defined on $y<0$. I found that the characteristics are $\alpha={2\over 3}(-y)^{3\over 2}-x,\,\,\,\,\,\beta={2\over 3}(-y)^{3\over 2}+x$ and that ...
4
votes
0answers
50 views

Name of principal root function modified to return real values if possible

Is there a concise name for the function $f_n(x)\colon\mathbb{C}\to\mathbb{C}$ which returns the principal $n$th root of $x$, except in the case when $n$ is odd and $x$ is a negative real number, in ...
3
votes
0answers
39 views

Number of functions from domain to codomain

Let A and B be finite sets. Let a be the size of A. Let b be the size of B. Assume 0 < a < b. (a) How many functions are there with domain A and co-domain B? (b) How many one-to-one functions ...
3
votes
0answers
42 views

How many such functions are possible?

Let $f$ be a function from $\{1,2,3,\dots,10\}$ to $\Bbb{R}$ such that ...
3
votes
0answers
52 views

Fubini's theorem application proof check

I have proven a problem but I am unsure whether it is correct because the proof seems so simple that I think I might be mistaken. Please be kind to comment on my proof and tell me whats wrong with it. ...
3
votes
0answers
82 views

Functional inequalities involving cubing and incrementing

Consider the set $S$ of positive increasing invertible functions $f$ satisfying: $$f((x+1)^3-1)≤(f(x)+1)^3-1$$ $$f(x^3)≥(f(x))^³$$ $$f(x)+1≤f(x+1)$$ for all positive real $x$. Clearly the identity ...
3
votes
0answers
43 views

Why can't we generalize straight line equations for all curves?

Apologies, but I'm confused. Let $y = f(x)$ be curve such that at a point $(a,b)$ lying on it, the slope of the tangent kissing that point is $f'(x)$ Now, the equation of the tangent passing through ...
3
votes
0answers
54 views

Are there some functions that cannot be optimized using calculus?

I've been working on a project to maximize a functions output using a genetic algorithm. However, from the limited calculus I know I thought there were methods to find the maximum of a mathematical ...
3
votes
0answers
93 views

$\beta_a(n)=(a_1*\cdots(a_n*b))\setminus_* b$ and Iterations in right divisible magmas e representability by left translations.)

Let's consider the magma $(G,*)$ with infinite elements. Now I define $\operatorname{left}(G)$ the set of all the left translations $$\operatorname{left}(G):\{L_a:a \in G ,L_a(b)=a*b\}$$ And ...
3
votes
0answers
98 views

Why is the inverse of the Devil's Staircase not measurable?

I recently did an exercise to show that a monotone function $f:X→ℝ $ is Borel measurable (it even only asked for Lebesgue measurability). On the other hand, the inverse of the Devil's Staircase ...
3
votes
0answers
76 views

Is this a field of study?

Is there a name for an equation that takes the following form? $$F(f(x),f^{-1}(x),x)=0$$ A nice example being $$f(x)-f^{-1}(x)=0$$ because the solutions of this equation are their own inverses. ...
3
votes
0answers
80 views

Find generating function For sequences

Can anyone out here help? The exercise says: "Find the generating function for each of the sequences below (the general term is given)" Now, the question is how do you find one for those: a) $U_n = ...
3
votes
0answers
52 views

Wanted: simple invertible function with specified derivative properties

I'm looking for a positive function $F(x)$, defined for positive real numbers, with the following properties. $F(x)$ is expressible with the standard computer math library routines; $F(x)$ is ...
3
votes
0answers
32 views

Terminology Regarding Basic Properties of Functions

Is there a cultural difference between saying that a function is 1-to-1 or injective, onto or surjective and a 1-to-1 correspondence or bijective?
3
votes
0answers
61 views

Optimization problem (Sum of distances)

Given an ordered sequence $x_1 \leq x_2 \leq \cdots \leq x_n $ of length $n$ and a cost function $C(i) = \sum_{j}^{n}{\left|x_i-x_j\right|}$. The goal is to minimize the cost function. How do you ...
3
votes
0answers
99 views

What is the domain and range of this multivariable function?

What is the domain and range of the following multivariable function? $g(x,y,z) = {1\over \sqrt{(4 - x^2 - y^2 - z^2)}}$ g is real valued. So far I have that the domain is the set of a vectors ...
3
votes
0answers
132 views

Can the sigmoid function approximate any function (or relation) where 0<y<1

I'm studying Machine Learning and Artificial Neural Networks. Some basic principles of Machine Learning are linear regression, multivariate linear regression, and nonlinear regression. The last of ...
3
votes
0answers
893 views

Left inverse iff injective; right inverse iff surjective

For a function $f:A\to B$, the function $g:B\to A$ is called: a left inverse for $f$ if $g\circ f$ is the identity on $A$ (i.e., $g\circ f = {\rm id}_A$); and a right inverse for $f$ if ...
3
votes
0answers
86 views

Representation for a function that, when added/multiplied/composed with another function of the same form, yields a new function of the same form

I apologize for the possibly unclear wording of the title. I'm not well versed in math terminology. I'm after a concrete representation of a function, eg $y(x) = Ax^p$ (where $A$ and $p$ are ...
3
votes
0answers
146 views

How do I group unique pairs of sequential numbers in a grid?

Not sure if this SE site the best place to help find a solution for this problem. I am open to suggestions! It basically boils down to this: Given a grid of numbers where the numbers are ordered ...
3
votes
0answers
184 views

Let $f$ be twice differential function such that $f''(x)= -f(x)$ and $f''(x)=g(x)$.

Problem:Let $f$ be twice differential function such that $f''(x)= -f(x)$ and $f''(x)=g(x)$. If $h(x)=(f(x))^2 + (g(x))^2$ and $h(5)=3$. Find $h(10)$ Solution: let $f(x)= asinx$ ...
3
votes
0answers
56 views

What's the mathematical field called where functions create and delete functions?

Motivation In the field of modular, reconfigurable robotics there are some groups which use term rewriting, or specifically graph rewriting to describe the reconfiguration process of the modular ...
3
votes
0answers
47 views

Need $f:[0,\infty)\to[0,\infty)$ such that $f$ is not convex but $f(x^p)$ is for $p>1$.

To be more specific I need to find an $f:[0,+\infty)\to[0,+\infty)$ which satisfies the following: (somewhat trivial stuff) The function $f$ is continuous, nondecreasing, there exists $k>0$ such ...