Elementary questions about functions, notation, properties, and operations such as function composition.

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7
votes
1answer
146 views

$f(x)^2 ≥ f(x + y)(f(x) + y)$ for no $f$?

Prove that there is no function $f : \mathbb{R}^+ → \mathbb{R}^+$ such that $$f(x)^2 ≥ f(x + y)(f(x) + y)$$ for all $x, y > 0$. I can't think of a way of solving this.
7
votes
1answer
305 views

Can functions have multiple inputs?

Now bear with me here, I'm not the best at math. I'm just trying to find out something that I never really learned. I was wondering, can a function have multiple inputs such as this one below? ...
7
votes
2answers
225 views

Prove that between two roots of $f(x)$ there is a root of $g(x)$

Let $f(x),g(x)$ be differential functions, and $f'(x)g(x)\neq f(x)g'(x)$ for all $x\in\mathbb R$. Prove that between two roots of $f(x)$ there is a root of $g(x)$. I guess this has to do with Rolle's ...
7
votes
3answers
247 views

Category theory without codomains?

A surjection is a function whose range equals its codomain. Thus, the distinction between functions and surjections requires the notion of a codomain. Similarly, a bijection is an injection whose ...
7
votes
1answer
202 views

finding the value of $f(2001) $ if…

if $f (\frac{x}{y}) =\frac{f(x)}{y} $ and $f(2000)=1$ ; then what's the value of $f(2001)$. I tried hard but can't figured out anything. please help me, how can I proceed?
7
votes
4answers
249 views

Why does $\ln(x) = \epsilon x$ have 2 solutions?

I was working on a problem involving perturbation methods and it asked me to sketch the graph of $\ln(x) = \epsilon x$ and explain why it must have 2 solutions. Clearly there is a solution near $x=1$ ...
7
votes
1answer
504 views

Higher Order Trigonometric Function

Once in a time, I had to work with functions that have the following Taylor series expansion: $$ t_m(x)=1-\frac{x^m}{m!}+\frac{x^{2m}}{(2m)!}+\cdots =\sum_{k=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^k x^{km}}{(km)!}. $$ ...
7
votes
2answers
74 views

Prove that there exists a sequence $\{x_{n}\}$ such that for every $n\,\quad f_{n}$ has a global maximum

For every positive integer $n$ consider function $f_{n}(x)=n^{\sin x}+n^{\cos x},\ x \in \mathbb{R}$. Prove that there exists a sequence $\{x_{n}\}$ such that for every $n,\ f_{n}$ has a ...
7
votes
2answers
126 views

Continuous functions that satisfies $f(x) + f(1-x) + f(\sqrt{x^2+(1-x)}) = 0$ and $f(\frac12)=0$

$f:[0,1]\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is a continuous function which satisfies $$ f(x) + f(1-x) + f\left(\sqrt{x^2+(1-x)}\right) = 0 \text{ and } f\left(\tfrac12\right)=0. $$ Can someone give explicit ...
7
votes
3answers
255 views

Show that $\frac{(1-y^{-1})^2}{(1-y^{-1 -c})(1-y^{-1+c} )}$ is decreasing in $y > 1 $.

I am interested in the function $f(y) = \frac{(1-y^{-1})^2}{(1-y^{-1 -c})(1-y^{-1+c} )},$ for values of $c \in (0,1)$, and $y > 1$, and have been trying to show that the function is decreasing. I ...
7
votes
2answers
103 views

How to find period of $f$ if $f(x+13) + f(x+630) = 0$

Let $f:\Bbb{R}\to\Bbb{R}$ be a periodic function with period $T$. The question was to find the (fundamental) period given the following relation. $$ f(x+13) + f(x+630) = 0 $$ Now, the given method ...
7
votes
1answer
454 views

Can a function be increasing *at a point*?

From what I understand we say that a function is increasing on an interval $I$ if $$ x_1 < x_2 \quad\Rightarrow\quad f(x_1) < f(x_2). $$ for all $x_1,x_2\in I$. I understand that some might call ...
7
votes
2answers
242 views

Is the use of $\lfloor x\rfloor$ legitimate to correct discontinuities?

Is the use of $\lfloor x\rfloor$ legitimate to correct discontinuities? In functions like $\tan^{-1}(a \tan(x))$, the angle wraps and the result is discontinuous. Is it legitimate to redefine the ...
7
votes
1answer
227 views

When to create transcendental function to solve “unsolvable problem”?

$\int \frac{1}{x} dx$ is an unsolvable problem using standard laws of Calculus (power rule) without the use of the function $f(x) = \ln x$ which was handcrafted by mathematicians to solve such ...
7
votes
1answer
398 views

Find $f(5)$ of a non-constant polynomial function $f(x)$

Suppose $f(x)$ is a non-constant polynomial such that $f(x^ 3) − f(x ^ 3 − 2) = f( x )\cdot f(x) + 12$ for all $x$. Find $f(5)$? I find this problem on Quora just now, and I try to solve it but do ...
7
votes
3answers
111 views

How can we prove this function must be linear?

Let $f:[a,b]\to\mathbb{R}$ be continuous. Suppose for any sequence $(r_n)_{n=0}^{\infty}$ with $\lim_{n\to\infty}r_n=0$, and any $x\in(a,b)$: ...
7
votes
2answers
106 views

an injection into $\mathbb{N}$

Is that true that the map $f\colon \{(m,n)\in\mathbb N^2:m\le n\}\to\mathbb N$ defined by $(m,n)\mapsto (m+n)^{\max\{m,n\}}$ is an injection? If it is, how to prove that? I have asked a similar ...
7
votes
2answers
513 views

Proving Injectivity

The problem is to show the function $f:\mathbb{R}^2\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^2$ given by $$f(x,y)=(\tfrac{1}{2}x^2+y^2+2y,\,x^2-2x+y^3)$$ is injective on the set ...
7
votes
1answer
174 views

Determine an explicit expression for $f$.

Let $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ a continuous function, bounded such that the space $\mathrm{lin}\{f_k(x)=f(x+k)∣k ∈\mathbb{N}\}$ is finite-dimensional. Determine an explicit ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

Prove that there is a bijection between the set of all subsets of $X$, $P(X)$, and the set of functions from $X$ to $\{0,1\}$.

Given any set $X$, let $P(X)$ be the set of all subsets of $X$, and let $\{0,1\}^X$ be the set of all functions $X \rightarrow \{0,1\}$. Construct a bijection (and its inverse) between P(X) and ...
7
votes
1answer
203 views

A question about showing $f(x)=0$

Let $f$ be a function from the set of real numbers to itself that satisfies $f(x + y) ≤ yf(x) + f(f(x))$ for all real numbers $x$ and $y$. Prove that $f(x) = 0$ for all $x ≤ 0$. I tried to show that ...
7
votes
0answers
284 views

Does this calculation have a name, or a generic formulation?

Background I would appreciate help in identifying / explaining this operation: To calculate each of the $n$ values of $f(\Phi)$: sample from the distribution of each of $i$ parameters, $\phi_i$ ...
7
votes
0answers
204 views

When does the “Zetor function” converge?

Let $p_n$ be the n'th non-trivial zero of the Riemann zeta function. We define the Zetor function (acronym of 'zeta' and 'zero') as follows: $$\zeta \rho (s) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{(p_n)^s}. ...
6
votes
5answers
780 views

Do we have always $f(A \cap B) = f(A) \cap f(B)$?

Suppose $A$ and $B$ are subsets of a topological space and $f$ is any function from $X$ to another topological space $Y$. Do we have always $f(A \cap B) = f(A) \cap f(B)$? Thanks in advance
6
votes
10answers
1k views

how to see the logarithm as the inverse function of the exponential?

I saw here in math.stackexchange some proofs of how the log and exp functions are related to each other, but I want to get an intuition for that. In layman terms, how would you explain the connection ...
6
votes
10answers
427 views

Sanity check, is $\{(-9,-3),(2,-1),(7,7),(-1,-1)\}$ a function?

EDIT#2: Yes, I'm crazy! This IS a function. Thanks for beating the correct logic into me everyone! I'm using a website provided by my algebra textbook that has questions and answers. It has the ...
6
votes
7answers
1k views

Function that is non-zero only at one point.

I am searching for, if there exists, a continuous function $f(x)$ such that $f(x) = 0$ for all values of $x$, with the exception of one point (say $\tilde x$) where $f(\tilde x)\neq0$.
6
votes
5answers
576 views

Why is there no function with a nonempty domain and an empty range?

Let $A$ to be a nonempty set and $B= \emptyset$; then $ A \times B$ is a set. And let $F$ be a function $A \to B$. Then $F \subseteq A \times B$. By the axiom of specification, $F$ must exists (if I ...
6
votes
5answers
480 views

Does $\sin(t)$ have the same frequency as $\sin(\sin(t))$?

I plotted $\sin(t)$ and below it $\sin(\sin(t))$ on my computer and it looks as if they have the same frequency. That led me to wonder about the following statement: $\sin(t)$ has the same ...
6
votes
4answers
459 views

Is a Bijection From a Group to Itself Automatically an Isomorphism If It Maps the Identity to Itself?

I am looking at $\operatorname{Aut}(V)$, where $V$ is the Klein 4-group. I noticed that $\operatorname{Aut}(V)$ is comprised of all the permutations of the elements of $V$ where $1$ is mapped to ...
6
votes
3answers
278 views

bijection between $\mathbb{N}$ and $\mathbb{N}\times\mathbb{N}$ [duplicate]

I understand that both $\mathbb{N}$ and $\mathbb{N}\times\mathbb{N}$ are of the same cardinality by the Shroeder-Bernstein theorem, meaning there exists at least one bijection between them. But I ...
6
votes
4answers
305 views

Is there a bijection $f: \mathbb{Q} \to \mathbb{Q}_{>0}$?

For $\mathbb{R}$, we have the exponential function. Is there also a bijection $f: \mathbb{Q} \to \mathbb{Q}_{>0}$ or to $\mathbb{Q}_{\geq 0}$?
6
votes
4answers
365 views

Can the Identity Map be a repeated composition one other function?

Consider the mapping $f:x\to\frac{1}{x}, (x\ne0)$. It is trivial to see that $f(f(x))=x$. My question is whether or not there exists a continuous map $g$ such that $g(g(g(x)))\equiv g^{3}(x)=x$? ...
6
votes
2answers
217 views

Is There A Function Of Constant Area?

If I take a point $(x,y)$ and multiply the coordinates $x\times y$ to find the area $(A)$ defined by the rectangle formed with the axes, then is there a function $f(x)$ so that $xy = A$, regardless of ...
6
votes
3answers
537 views

Are injectivity and surjectivity dual?

Are injectivity and surjectivity dual in some sense? Their set-theoretic definitions are quite different. In particular, the injectivity is a property of a function's graph, while surjectivity is a ...
6
votes
5answers
507 views

Functional Notation.

I have some doubts regarding function notation: First If I present a function I write:$f(x)$ If I write it's inverse:$f^{-1}(x)$ So why doesn't$f(f(x))=f^2(x)$ Second If $\frac{df(x)}{dx}=f'(x)$ ...
6
votes
2answers
422 views

Find all $f(x)$ if $f(1-x)=f(x)+1-2x$?

To find one solution I assumed that $f$ is even and rewrote this as $f(x-1)-f(x)+2x=1.$ By just thinking about a solution, I was able to conclude that $f(x)=x^2$ is a solution. However, I am sure that ...
6
votes
4answers
614 views

$f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ satisfies $(x-2)f(x)-(x+1)f(x-1) = 3$. Evaluate $f(2013)$, given that $f(2)=5$

The function $f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ satisfies $(x-2)f(x)-(x+1)f(x-1) = 3$. Evaluate $f(2013)$, given that $f(2) = 5$.
6
votes
2answers
630 views

Existence of $\vee$ or $\wedge$ for non-monotonic functions

This question is inspired by a discussion in chat with wj32. We allow for equality in the definition of increasing and decreasing and call a function monotonic if it is increasing or decreasing. If ...
6
votes
4answers
278 views

Integral of a function defined in the set of Surreal Numbers

Given ${\{C}\}\ $ the set of all the $Surreal\ numbers$, is it possible to define the integral: $$\int_a^b{dxf(x)}$$where $$a\in{\{C}\},b\in{\{C}\},x\in{\{C}\}$$ Thanks
6
votes
2answers
38k views

Types of polynomial functions. Quadratic, cubic, quartic, quintic, …,?

I would very much like to have a complete list of the types of polynomial functions. I know that theres: ...
6
votes
4answers
1k views

Is it possible for the Lagrange multiplier to be equal to zero?

I would like to find the extrema of the function $f(x,y)=x^2+4xy+4y^2$ subject to $x^2+2y^2=4$ using Lagrange Multipliers. Is it possible to get for the Lagrange multipliers the value zero? I don't ...
6
votes
2answers
84 views

$f$ is twice differentiable, $f + 2 f^{'} + f^{''} \geq 0$ , prove the following

Let $ f : [0,1] \rightarrow R$. $f$ is twice diff. and $f(0) = f(1) = 0$ If $f + 2 f^{'} + f^{''} \ge 0$ , prove that $f\le 0$ in the domain. Don't give complete solution, only hints.
6
votes
2answers
110 views

Show that $f(x) = x$ if $f(f(f(x))) = x$.

If $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ and $f$ is strictly increasing, show that $f(x) = x$ if $f(f(f(x))) = x$. So this compulsorily ESTABLISHES that $f(x) = x$ only, and no other solution. So, merely ...
6
votes
3answers
150 views

Prove that $f(x)=x$ if the following holds true [closed]

Let $f\colon\mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ be a continuous odd function such that 1) $f(1+x)=1+f(x)$ 2) $x^2f(1/x)=f(x)$ for $x\ne0$. Prove that $f(x)=x$.
6
votes
2answers
277 views

Proving that if $|f''(x)| \le A$ then $|f'(x)| \le A/2$

Suppose that $f(x)$ is differentiable on $[0,1]$ and $f(0) = f(1) = 0$. It is also known that $|f''(x)| \le A$ for every $x \in (0,1)$. Prove that $|f'(x)| \le A/2$ for every $x \in [0,1]$. ...
6
votes
2answers
117 views

Continuation of strictly monotone functions on $\mathbb{R}$

While studying the properties of ordinal utility functions, I came across the following question. Given a strictly increasing function $f : D \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, where $D$ is an arbitrary ...
6
votes
3answers
591 views

What is the set-theoretic definition of a function?

I'm reading through Asaf Karagila's answer to the question What is the Axiom of Choice and Axiom of Determinacy, and while reading the explanation of Bertrand Russell's analogy ("The Axiom of Choice ...
6
votes
3answers
2k views

Are there parabolic and elliptical functions analogous to the circular and hyperbolic functions sin(h),cos(h), and tan(h)?

In matters of conic sections, are there other properties such that it helps to group the circle and hyperbola in one, and the parabola and ellipse in the other?
6
votes
5answers
3k views

Difference between kernel and function?

I have been looking around for this question, but all results I found only describe the definition and not the answer I seek. Is "kernel" basically a synonym of "function"? When should be the time we ...