Elementary questions about functions, notation, properties, and operations such as function composition.

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10
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2answers
224 views

Is function $f:\mathbb C-\{0\}\rightarrow\mathbb C$ prescribed by $z\rightarrow \large \frac{1}{z}$ by definition discontinuous at $0$?

Is function $f:\mathbb C-\{0\}\rightarrow\mathbb C$ prescribed by $z\rightarrow \large{\frac{1}{z}}$ by definition discontinuous at $0$? Personally I would say: "no". In my view a function can only ...
10
votes
2answers
982 views

Finite groups of functions under function composition

Over the years I have done many questions along the lines of the following: "Given functions $\phi, \theta$ (usually defined on $\mathbb{R}$ or $\mathbb{C}$, or a suitable subset of $\mathbb{R}$ or ...
10
votes
1answer
1k views

If a function is Riemann integrable, then it is Lebesgue integrable and 2 integrals are the same?

Is is true that if a function is Riemann integrable, then it is Lebesgue integrable with the same value? If it's true, how to prove it? If it's false, what is a counterexample?
10
votes
1answer
1k views

Show f is uniformly continuous on $(a,b)$ if it is continuous and $\lim\limits_{x\to a^+}f(x)$ and $\lim\limits_{x\to b^-}f(x)$ exist

Let $f:(a,b)\to\mathbb{R}$ be continuous at all $x\in(a,b)$. If $\lim\limits_{x\to b^-}f(x)$ and $\lim\limits_{x\to a^+}f(x)$ exist in $\mathbb R$, how can we prove that $f$ is uniformly continuous on ...
10
votes
2answers
382 views

How to find $f$ and $g$ if $f\circ g$ and $g\circ f$ are given?

The question is: Let $f:\mathbb R\rightarrow \mathbb R$ and $g:\mathbb R\rightarrow \mathbb R$ be two functions such that $(f\circ g)(x)=4x^2+4x+1$ and $(g\circ f)(X)=x^2+2x+2$. Find $f(x)$ and ...
10
votes
1answer
463 views

A question from the dreams realm

Let $\phi:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ be a function (not necessarily continuous). Let $\phi_0(x)=\phi(x)$ and $\forall k\in\mathbb{N},\phi_{k+1}(x)=\phi(x\cdot\phi_k(x))$. 1. Let ...
10
votes
2answers
493 views

Why are fractal curves nowhere differentiable?

I am a highschool student who stumbled upon fractals when doing a math project. In my research about fractals, I have found that they are nowhere differentiable. Can someone explain this in simple ...
10
votes
3answers
1k views

Infinitely differentiable function with given zero set?

For each closed set $A\subseteq\mathbb{R}$, is it possible to construct a real continuous function $f$ such that the zero set, $f^{-1}(0)$, of $f$ is precisely $A$, and $f$ is infinitely ...
10
votes
3answers
163 views

Not every function on $[0,1]$ is a pointwise limit of continuous functions on $[0,1]$

How to show that not every $\mathbb{R}$-valued function on $[0,1]$ is a pointwise limit of continuous $\mathbb{R}$-valued functions on $[0,1]$? There is a theorem that states that the set of points ...
10
votes
1answer
166 views

If $f:X \to X$ is a continuous bijection and every point has finite orbit, is $f^{-1}$ continuous?

If $f:X \to X$ (codomain and domain have the same topology) is a continuous bijection and every point has finite orbit, is $f^{-1}$ continuous? Note that the orbit being finite and $f$ being a ...
10
votes
2answers
353 views

Find all functions $f:\mathbb{R}^+\to \mathbb{R}^+$ such that for all $x,y\in\mathbb{R}^+$, $f(x)f(yf(x))=f(x+y)$

Find all functions $f:\mathbb{R}^+\to \mathbb{R}^+$ such that for all $x,y\in\mathbb{R}^+$$$f(x)f(yf(x))=f(x+y)$$ A start: set y=0 to get $f(x)f(0)=f(x)$. So $f(0)=1$ unless $f$ is identically zero.
10
votes
2answers
147 views

Does equation $f(g(x))=a f(x)$ have a solution?

Suppose $g: [0,1] \to [0,1]$ is a strictly increasing, continuously differentiable function with $g(0)=0$ and $g(1) < 1$, and $a \in (0,1)$. Is there a function $f:[0,1] \to \mathbb{R}$ such that ...
10
votes
2answers
159 views

Existence and uniqueness of a function generalizing a finite sum of powers of logarithms

I hope to find a proof of the following conjecture: $(1)$ For every $a>0$ there is a convex analytic function $f_a:\mathbb R^+\to\mathbb R$ such that: $f(1)=0$ and $\forall x>1,\ ...
10
votes
1answer
123 views

Simple true/false statement about function composition

Given the functions $f,g$ from $\mathbb{R}$ to $\mathbb{R}$ is it true that If $f \circ g$ is strictly increasing and $f$ is injective then $g$ is monotonic I believe this is false but I can't ...
10
votes
1answer
212 views

Exercise about continuous functions

Consider a continuous function $f \, : \, [0,1] \, \longrightarrow \, [0,+\infty)$ such that $f(0)=f(1)=0$ and : $\forall x \in (0,1), \; f(x) > 0$. I would like to prove that there exist ...
10
votes
0answers
250 views

Functional equation $f(x)=\frac{1}{1+f(\frac{1}{1+f(x)})}$

Problem: Find all continuous real-valued functions $f$ such that $$f(x)=\frac{1}{1+f(\frac{1}{1+f(x)})}.\tag{1}$$ Here $f$ is allowed to be defined only on a subset of $\mathbb{R}$. The only ...
10
votes
2answers
151 views

Example of function with a hundred minima

Find a function $f\colon\mathbb{R}^2 \to\mathbb{R}$, $f \in C^{\infty}$, such that $\nabla f = 0$ for exactly $100$ points and in these points there are only local minima.
10
votes
1answer
286 views

Approximating the area below average of a concave function

Given a non-decreasing concave function $f:[0,1]\rightarrow \mathbb{R}^+$. Define \begin{align*} F(n)=\displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^n \min\left\{\frac{1}{n},\frac{f\left(\frac{i}{n+1}\right)}{n+1}\right\} ...
9
votes
8answers
2k views

“Integer average” of two integer numbers

Suppose two arbitrary integer numbers $a$ and $b$. I'm looking for some function $f(a,b)$ with the following properties: $f(a,b)\in\mathbb{Z}$. $f(a,a)=a$. $f(a,b)=f(b,a)$. $\min\{a,b\}< ...
9
votes
5answers
1k views

Is it possible to combine two integers in such a way that you can always take them apart later?

Given two integers $n$ and $m$ (assuming for both $0 < n < 1000000$) is there some function $f$ so that if I know $f(n, m) = x$ I can determine $n$ and $m$, given $x$? Order is important, so ...
9
votes
5answers
686 views

Is there a way to prove this exponential inequality?

I came across this proposition while trying to prove that a function was injective: if $a>b$ then $a^a>b^b$, where $a$ and $b$ are real numbers bigger than 1 . Intuitively it (somehow) makes ...
9
votes
4answers
826 views

If a function can only be defined implicitly does it have to be multivalued?

What is the general reason for functions which can only be defined implicitly? Is this because they are multivalued (in which case they aren't strictly functions at all)? Is there a proof? ...
9
votes
3answers
877 views

Must all Lebesgue integrable functions really be invertible?

I am studying Lebesgue integration after a course on Riemann integration, and the definition of measurable function is given as follows: $f:{\mathbb R}\rightarrow {\mathbb R}$ is measurable if the ...
9
votes
3answers
329 views

Finding a pair of functions with properties

I need to find a pair of functions $f$, $g$ such that $f$ is not differentiable at $x = 0$ $g$ is not differentiable at $f(0)$ $g \circ f$ is differentiable at $x = 0$ I've tried a lot of ...
9
votes
5answers
1k views

Is every injective function invertible?

Is every injective function invertible? How could I prove such thing? (Or is it just a necessary but not sufficient condition?) If $f:A\rightarrow B$ is injective then $f(a) = f(b) \Rightarrow a = b$ ...
9
votes
5answers
833 views

Why do we limit the definition of a function? [duplicate]

Why do we limit the definition of a function to only one y per x? For example, the square root function. We only allow the principal square root of a number, rather than, say, the square root of 9 ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

Draw graph of $\frac{1}{f(x)}$ from graph of $f(x)$

If I know the graph of $f(x)$, how do I draw the graph of $\frac{1}{f(x)}$?
9
votes
3answers
604 views

For how many functions $f$ is $f(x)^{2}=x^{2}$?

How many functions $f$ are there that satisfy $f(x)^{2}=x^{2}$ for all $x$? My text (Spivak's Calculus; chapter 7 problem 7) asks this question for continuous $f$, for which the answer is, of course ...
9
votes
3answers
380 views

$f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ that takes each value in $\mathbb{R}$ twice

Does there exist a continuous function $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ that takes each value in $\mathbb{R}$ exactly two times?
9
votes
2answers
444 views

Proving that if $|f''(x)| \le A$ then $|f'(x)| \le A/2$

Suppose that $f(x)$ is differentiable on $[0,1]$ and $f(0) = f(1) = 0$. It is also known that $|f''(x)| \le A$ for every $x \in (0,1)$. Prove that $|f'(x)| \le A/2$ for every $x \in [0,1]$. ...
9
votes
2answers
7k views

Example of a function continuous at only one point. [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Find a function $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ that is continuous at precisely one point? I want to know some example of a continuous function which is continuous at ...
9
votes
4answers
263 views

injection $\mathbb{N}\times\mathbb{N}\to\mathbb{N}$

Today a friend of mine told me a nice fact, but we couldn't prove it. The fact is that there is an injection $\mathbb{N}\times\mathbb{N}\to\mathbb{N}$ defined by the fomula $(m,n)\mapsto ...
9
votes
4answers
1k views

Is this proof correct for : Does $F(A)\cap F(B)\subseteq F(A\cap B) $ for all functions $F$?

Is this proof correct? To prove $F(A)\cap F(B)\subseteq F(A\cap B) $ for all functions $F$. Let any number $y\in F(A)\cap F(B)$. We want to show $y\in F(A\cap B).$ Therefore, $y\in F(A)$ and ...
9
votes
2answers
517 views

Why doesn't this converge?

Why doesn't $$\int_{-1}^1 \frac{1}{x}~\mathrm{d}x$$ converge? I mean you would think that because of symmetry the area from the negative side and positive side cancel out, resulting in the integral ...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

Why are even/odd functions called even/odd?

Bit of a silly question, someone told me that the reason even functions are called 'even' and odd functions are called 'odd' is that all (single-variable) monomials with even powers are even functions ...
9
votes
3answers
2k views

chain rule using tree diagram, why does it work?

In multivariable calculus, I was taught to compute the chain rule by drawing a "tree diagram" (a directed acyclic graph) representing the dependence of one variable on the others. I now want to ...
9
votes
1answer
234 views

finding the value of $f(2001) $ if…

if $f (\frac{x}{y}) =\frac{f(x)}{y} $ and $f(2000)=1$ ; then what's the value of $f(2001)$. I tried hard but can't figured out anything. please help me, how can I proceed?
9
votes
1answer
366 views

Proving the existence of a point with a certain property for a continuous function

Let $f:[0,1]\to\mathbb{R}$ a continuous function and $\int_0^1xf(x)dx=0$. Show that there exists a point $c\in(0,1)$ so that $f(c)=(\int_c^1f(x)dx)^2$. As a potential solution, I tried assuming that ...
9
votes
3answers
272 views

Why is this proof of $\mathbb{N}\times\mathbb{N}$ being countable not formal?

My copy of Introduction to Real Analysis: Bartle and Sherbert gives: Theorem: The set $\mathbb{N}\times\mathbb{N}$ is countable. Informal Proof: Recall that $\mathbb{N}\times\mathbb{N}$ ...
9
votes
3answers
324 views

Solve the functional equation $f(x)=f\left({x\over 3}\right)+f\left({2x\over 3}\right)$ with $f : [0,\infty) \to \mathbb R$ continuous

Solve the functional equation $$f(x)=f\left({x\over 3}\right)+f\left({2x\over 3}\right)\qquad \forall x\geq 0$$ with $f : [0,\infty) \to \mathbb R$ continuous. I can't manage to get this one ...
9
votes
1answer
198 views

Fourier Series involving the Jacobi Symbol

We know that the Fourier Series $$s(x)=\sum_{k\neq0}\frac{1}{k}\exp\left(2\pi ik x\right)$$ corresponds to the sawtooth function, $s(x)=\left\{x\right\} -\frac{1}{2}$. Suppose that ...
9
votes
1answer
85 views

If a set $S$ has a choice function, does $\bigcup S$ have one too?

I have an exercise in a book that asserts that if a set $S$ has a choice function on it, then so does the union of all its elements $\bigcup S$ (without assuming the axiom of choice). I, however, have ...
9
votes
2answers
431 views

if $|f(n+1)-f(n)|\leq 2001$, $|g(n+1)-g(n)|\leq 2001$, $|(fg)(n+1)-(fg)(n)|\leq 2001$ then $\min\{f(n),g(n)\}$ is bounded

The following question was proposed at MOP 2001 A function $f:\mathbb{N}\to\mathbb{N}$ is called cautious if $|f(n+1)-f(n)|\leq 2001$ for all $ n\in\mathbb{N} $. Suppose that $f,g,h$ are ...
9
votes
3answers
320 views

Determining the maximum value for the solution of this delay differential equation?

I am working on the following delay differential equation $$\frac{df}{dt}=f-f^3-\alpha f(t-\delta)\tag{1},$$ where $\frac{1}{2}\leq\alpha\leq 1$ and $\delta\geq 1$. I know that there are three ...
9
votes
1answer
65 views

if $f(x + y) = f(x)f(y)$ is continuous, then it has to be injective.

Let $f$: $\Bbb R$ $\rightarrow$ $\Bbb R$ be a non-constant function such that $f(a + b) = f(a)f(b)$ for all real numbers $a$ and $b$. Prove that if $f(x + y) = f(x)f(y)$ is continuous, then it has ...
9
votes
2answers
309 views

$ \sum\limits_{i=1}^{p-1} \Bigl( \Bigl\lfloor{\frac{2i^{2}}{p}\Bigr\rfloor}-2\Bigl\lfloor{\frac{i^{2}}{p}\Bigr\rfloor}\Bigr)= \frac{p-1}{2}$

I was working out some problems. This is giving me trouble. If $p$ is a prime number of the form $4n+1$ then how do i show that: $$ \sum\limits_{i=1}^{p-1} \Biggl( ...
9
votes
1answer
149 views

Counting number of mathematical objects and structures

Regarding the numbers of certain mathematical objects and structures, especially sets, relations and functions, I've compiled a list of the counts from various sources: Partitions of a set with $k$ ...
9
votes
1answer
130 views

Non-computable function having computable values on a dense set of computable arguments

A rational complex number is a complex number whose both real and imaginary parts are rational numbers. Note that a rational complex number is a finitary object that can be an input or an output of an ...
9
votes
1answer
95 views

Interesting properties of the function $(a,b)\mapsto a/(a-b)$

Consider the extremely simple function $$f(a,b)=\frac a{a-b}.$$ This gives the coordinate where the line through $(0,a)$ and $(1,b)$ meets the $x$-axis. I noticed that the function $f$ has some ...
9
votes
2answers
184 views

What is the name of this property of a function

I'm trying to find the right vocab word to describe a concept: In computational geometry, there's a concept of a polygon "monotone" with respect to a line. Which means that the polygon intersects ...