Elementary questions about functions, notation, properties, and operations such as function composition.

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3answers
22 views

Is there a function that can reproduce this simple pattern?

input: 0, 1, 2, 3, 0, 1, 2, 3... output: 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0... I'm trying to resolve a function that takes the input and produces the corresponding output ...
7
votes
3answers
130 views

How to make a “function”?

I dropped out of school early when I was still a teenager and now I'm trying to take my GED. I'm really close to passing but I'm still having trouble understanding some concepts. In the pre-test, ...
0
votes
1answer
10 views

Range, Domain, Inverse of a Function

Define a function on the real numbers by: $f(x)=\frac{x+1}{x-1}$ and calculate the following: $\text{Dom }f=(-\infty, 1)\cup(1,\infty)$ $\text{Range }f=\text{Dom ...
3
votes
0answers
19 views

How many expressions can be formed with two commutative and associative functions?

Suppose we have two binary functions $f,g$ which are commutative and associative, i.e., satisfying $$ f(a,b) = f(b,a) \qquad g(a,b) = g(b,a)$$ $$ f(a,f(b,c)) = f(f(a,b),c) \qquad g(a,g(b,c)) = ...
3
votes
1answer
17 views

Problem with the type of equation $\sqrt{x}+\sqrt{y} = \sqrt{a}$ and vertices?

I am asked to find the type equation $\sqrt{x}+\sqrt{y} = \sqrt{a}$ , represents ? i.e a parabola , or hyperbola or ellipse or circle by squaring twice? Now , what I have done is like this ...
0
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1answer
35 views

Can we claim that $f(x)$ is an increasing function and its stationary point is $x = \infty$ (in this specific case)?

If $f(x)$ is concave and its first derivative $f'(x) \rightarrow 0$ when $x\rightarrow \infty$, can we claim that $f(x)$ is an increasing function and its (only) stationary point is $x = \infty$ ? ( ...
0
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1answer
16 views

Shifting Curves: Is this the correct way of doing it?

Say I am given a sketch of some function $y=f(x)$, and were to draw $y=f(2x-3)$ based on the given diagram. Would I be correct in saying this? Shift the curve to the right by 3 units, thereby ...
0
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0answers
13 views

What is a parametrized function?

I am readimg this article: Stochastic Gradient Descent Tricks and I would like some precisions: Each example $z$ is a pair $(x, y)$ composed of an arbitrary input $x$ and a scalar output $y$. We ...
0
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0answers
14 views

Can this multivariable function exist?

(3) Is there a function of two variables whose z = 0 level curve consists exactly of the circles $x^2$ + $y^2$ = 4 and $x^2$ + $y^2$ = 10? If so, what is an example? If not, why not? I initially ...
0
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0answers
24 views

Can't Understand Graphing this Function

I'm graphing a function, $1/2(4-2x)^{1/2} + 1$, and I'm establishing the following: My parent function: $x^{1/2}$ $(x, f(x))\longrightarrow(-(1/2)x - 4, (1/2)y + 1)$ I don't understand why when I ...
2
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1answer
43 views

Equivalent of $\int_0^{\pi/2}\cos^n(\sin(x))dx$

Let $\displaystyle u_n=\int_0^{\pi/2}\cos^n(\sin(x))dx$. How can I find an equivalent of $u_n$ when $n\to\infty$ ?
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Equivalent of the sum $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{x^n}{\sqrt{n}}$

Let's consider $\displaystyle f(x)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{x^n}{\sqrt{n}}$. Where $f$ is defined, can we find a closed form for $f(x)$ ? What would be an equivalent of $f$ near $1^-$ ?
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Sense of the graph of a function

What makes it necessary to define the graph of a function $f:A\rightarrow B$ as $$\{(x,f(x))\mid x\in A\}$$ which makes it a subset of $A\times B$, when this is equal to the function itself, which is ...
1
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0answers
26 views

Topology over $C^0(\mathbb{R})$

Let $C^0(\mathbb{R})$ be the set of continuous functions $f: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, For any continuous function $h > 0$ consider $B_f(h) = \{ g \in C^0(\mathbb{R}) : |f(x) - g(x) ...
2
votes
1answer
17 views

how to calculate this logarithmic function?

Im having trouble in graphing this log function: $y=\log _{1/4}\left|x^2-5x+6\right|$ I found the intervals: $(-\infty, 2)$, $(2,3)$, $(3,\infty)$ Should I just give $x$ values and find $y$ to graph ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Prove that enumerable set of complex exponentials is linear independent

Define $f_j(p) = e^{i u_j \cdot p}$ for $j=1,2,3,...$, $u_j, p \in \mathbb{C}^N$, $i = \sqrt{-1}$ and $\cdot$ is the scalar product. I need help to prove that the set $\{f_j : j=1,2,...\}$ is linearly ...
-1
votes
0answers
23 views

Inverse function of given statement

we have: $h(x)=(1/2)f(3x)$ what is Inverse function of h(x)? I try this: $3x=t$ $x=t/3$ $h(t/3)=(1/2)f(t)$
0
votes
1answer
50 views

what is going on here?

Suppose we have a function $f(x), D:( -\infty,0)\cup (0,\infty)$ and for which $$f'(x) = \frac{x^3-1}{x^3} $$ Apparently there is only one point of extremum here, $x=1$, however upon reviewing the ...
0
votes
2answers
22 views

Finding maximum of convex function (appliance of derivatives)

The task goes as following: Divide the length of $14$ into parts $a$ and $b$, in a way that the sum of surfaces of two squares (which sizes are $a$ and $b$), is minimal. $14=a+b => b=14-a$ ...
2
votes
2answers
34 views

Uniform convergence to 0

Let $(f_n)_\mathbb{N}$ be a sequence of continuous functions $[0,1]\to\mathbb{R}$ converging to $0$. The functions are such that for all $x$, $(f_n(x))_\mathbb{N}$ is decreasing. How can one show ...
1
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1answer
15 views

Derivative of a distribution

$\DeclareMathOperator{\vp}{v.p.}$ We define $\vp \frac 1x \in \mathcal D'(\mathbb R)$ (the principal value of $\frac 1x$) as $$\left\langle \vp \frac 1x, \varphi \right \rangle = \lim_{\varepsilon ...
0
votes
2answers
28 views

Why is $f(x,y) = 1/(x^2 + y^2 + 1)$ undefined for the y axis?

I was told that $f(x,y) = 1/(x^2 + y^2 + 1)$ is undefined for the y axis. I.e $x=0$ At first this made sense, but wouldn't the function simply be $f(0,y) = 1/( y^2 + 1)$ which the denominator is not ...
0
votes
2answers
42 views

Finding all continuous functions so that $f^n(x)=x$ for some $n$.

I came up with this problem in class but I can't seem to solve it. I need to find all the functions $f$ with domain and codomain $\mathbb R$ such that there is an $n$ such that $f^n(x)=x$ for all $x$, ...
0
votes
1answer
14 views

How to verify if this is a autocovariance function?

Is this$$γ(h) = 1(h = 0) − 0.5 · 1(|h| = 2) − 0.25 · 1(|h| = 3)$$an autocovariance function? How to check this? Is there a method one can use to check if a given function is an autocovariance ...
2
votes
1answer
35 views

Differents between $lnx^2$ and $ln(x^2)$ Find derivative

I have this problem Find derivative for $lnx^2$. It seems that $lnx^2 \neq ln(x^2)$ since the derivative are differents using Wolfram Alpha. I don't understand how to calculate the derivative for ...
7
votes
0answers
71 views

Olympiad-style question about functions satisfying condition $f(f(f(n))) = f(n+1) + 1$

QN: What functions (from non-negative integers to non-negative integers) satisfy the condition $$f(f(f(n))) = f(n+1) + 1$$ Comment: Evidently $f(n) = n+ 1$ is one solution. Equally evidently no ...
1
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1answer
17 views

nth derivative of a troublesome function

I don't know where to start on this problem. I'm trying to get the 2015th derivative(at x = 0) of f(x) = x^2 * arctan(x). Doing the derivatives one by one seems a little troublesome... What do you ...
6
votes
1answer
29 views

Let $A$ be any subset of $\mathbb R^{+}$ , then there exist a metric space $(X,d)$ such that $d:X \times X \to A \cup \{0\}$ is a surjection?

Let $A$ be any subset of the set of positive real numbers $\mathbb{R}_+$ ; then does there exist a metric space $(X,d)$ such that $d\colon X \times X \to A\cup\{0\}$ is a surjection ?
1
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2answers
43 views

Prove that $f$ is NOT surjective

Let $f: Z \times Z \to Z \times Z$ defined like this: $f(x,y) = (x+y, x-y)$ Prove that $f$ is injective, and not surjective. For injectivity I did that: Let $(a,b) \in Z\times Z$ and $(c,d) \in ...
0
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2answers
35 views

If $|B\times A| = 15$ ,evaluate: $|A\cap B|$

If $|B\times A| = 15$ and $|A\times B \backslash B \times B| = 12$. Evaluate: $|A\cap B|$ I tried for myself and got to the conclusion that $|A\times B \cap B \times B| = 3 $ I couldn't get by ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

What are spatial functions?

I was reading Einstein's paper 'Concerning an Heuristic Point of View Toward the Emission and Transformation of Light' and read came across this segment: "While we consider the state of a body to be ...
1
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2answers
27 views

Find the general expression from the antiderivative

I am having trouble computing the original function. Question states: Let $f$ be a differentiable, positive function, such that $$f'(x)=x*f(x)$$ for all real numbers x. A) Find the general ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Need help understanding onto function

Let function $g$ from $V = \{1,2,3,4\}$ into V be defined by: $g(n)=3$. I'm having trouble understanding why $g$ is not onto. I understand why it is not one-to-one but, since all the $y$ in $Y$, are ...
0
votes
0answers
4 views

Order of Dilated horizontally and translated horizontally

I have a parent function $f(x) = x^2$, and $g(x) = (6[x-2]))^2$ is a transformation from $f(x)$. The question is: $g(x)$ is from $f(x)$ by Dilated horizontally by a factor of 1/6, then translated ...
0
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0answers
19 views

Get a function (equation) from data points?

Is there a way to get a function (equation) from data points? For example, we have this famous Google's 'Batman' function: ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

How do I specify a function without a defined argument?

A function $f$ with the argument $x$ is commonly written $f_x : A\to B, x\mapsto f(x)$, or $f_x : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}, x\mapsto x^2$, but say I don't want to specify the argument, how would I ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Proving the existence of a Bijection between Cartesian Products of Sets by Induction

Prove by induction that for any sets $A_1, \ldots , A_n$, there is a bijection from $(((A_1 \times A_2) \times A_3) \times \ldots \times A_n)$ to $A_1 \times (A_2 \times ( \ldots (A_{n-1} \times A_n) ...
1
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2answers
90 views

Why is it that $\frac{\sin 30}{\sin 18}$ is equal to the golden ratio?

If you calculate $\frac{\sin 30}{\sin 18}$, where $18$ and $30$ are in degrees, the result is $\phi$, or alternately $\frac{1 + \sqrt{5}}{2}$. I know that these numbers add up, but is there any ...
0
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0answers
11 views

Find a cyclic rational function such that…

I'm looking for a function of the form $\frac{f(a,b,c)}{f(b,c,a)}$ (or close to this form, e.g. $\frac{(a+b)^2}{b^2+bc+c^2}$) which is roughly equal to $\frac{b^3-a^2-b^2-a^3-ab^2}{b^2c+a^2b+b^3}$ (I ...
-2
votes
1answer
34 views

Question about Aaronson Scott Quantum Computing Since Democritus

In the chapter on sets: Equality rules: $x=x, x=y$ implies $y=x, x=y$ and $y=z$ implies $x=z$, and $x=y$ implies $f(x)=f(y)$ are all valid. where $f$ is a function. But how do we know for ...
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0answers
59 views
+50

Analyze the variation of this function $f(x)=x \exp[a+b(x-1)] \, E_1[a+b (x-1)]$ w.r.t. $x$

Please, I need to analyse the variation of the following function w.r.t. $x$ : $f(x)=x \exp[a+b(x-1)] \, E_1[a+b (x-1)]$, where $E_1[a+b (x-1)]$ is the exponential integral, $b>a$, $a>0$, ...
-2
votes
1answer
38 views

Functions : Injective, surjective or bijection? [on hold]

I have been asked a question in one of my test. Question : Consider the relation R is a subset of X * Y where X = [a, b] and Y = [c, d] defined by R = {(x,y): x^2 + y^2 = 1}. For each of the ...
0
votes
1answer
17 views

Generalizing 1D function to higher dimensions

I have a function in 1D given by $f(x) = \tanh(x-x_1) + \tanh(x-x_2)$. I want to generalize this to two dimensions, such that it describes a circle. The function $f(x,y)$ has to have a form such that ...
0
votes
2answers
24 views

Help with proof about functions and subsets

Problem: let $f: A \rightarrow B$. Prove that $f$ is injective if and only if for all $D \subset A$ we have that $f^{-1}(f(D)) = D$. Proof: => Suppose $f$ is injective. Let $x \in f^{-1}(f(D))$. ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

How to tell if a function is continuous at (0,0)

I have to decide if the following function is continuous at (0,0). it's f(x,y) = x^2 + y^2 if (x,y) does not = 0, and f(x,y) = 2 if (x,y) = (0,0) so for the first one, I assume it is continuous, ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

Probability generating function and a discrete random variable

A discrete random variable $X$ has probability generating function $G_X(t)$. If $Y=aX+b$ show that the probability generating function of $Y$ is given by $G_X(t)=t^bG_X(t^a)$. Hence prove that ...
1
vote
2answers
101 views

Proving a function is onto?

Let $f: \mathbb{R}\setminus \{3\} \to \mathbb{R}\setminus \{1\}$ be defined by $f(x)=\dfrac{x+3}{x-3}$ Prove that $f$ is onto: Okay, here is the deal. I just started my first abstract algebra ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Continuous and additive function is linear [duplicate]

Let $f:\mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}$ be a continuous function and $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$, show that $f(x)=kx$, $k\in \mathbb{R}$. I tried to define $g(x)=f(x)-kx$ and $g(0)=0 $ but don't know how to ...
0
votes
1answer
10 views

Why is the CT system $y(t)=x(2t)$ invertible but its DT counterpart non-invertible?

Just for clarity, a system is invertible if distinct inputs lead to distinct outputs. That said, I have two systems, a continuous time system and a discrete time system: (1) $y(t) = x(2t)$ ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Functions that preserve equivalence relations

Quick question: Let $X$ and $Y$ bet two sets and $\sim$ an equivalence relation on $X$. I was wondering what it means to say that a function $f$: $X\to Y$ 'preserves' $\sim$ in this case. Does it ...