For questions about proving and manipulating functional inequalities.

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-1
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0answers
13 views

integral of f continuous and convex function with two variables [on hold]

$\int_a^b((\alpha_{k+1}(b_{k+1}-a_{k+1})+\beta_{k+1}f(v_{k+1})))dv$ I have tried integration by parts but doesn't seem to work out.
0
votes
2answers
68 views

Need help in solving inequality of this type: $|ax + b| > -c$

This is the equation: $|3x+6|>-12$. I solved it under two cases ($3x+6>-12$) and ($3x+6<12$). More than the answer, what I need to know is - Have I rightly constructed those $2$ cases, if ...
0
votes
0answers
48 views

If $\|f\|_X\le c_1\|f\|_Y$ then do we have $\langle f,g\rangle_X\le c_2\langle f,g\rangle_Y$?

Let $X$ and $Y$ be two inner product spaces with inner products $\langle \cdot,\cdot\rangle_X$ and $\langle \cdot,\cdot\rangle_Y$, respectively. Suppose we have $\|f\|_X\le c_1\|f\|_Y$ for any $f\in ...
4
votes
1answer
47 views

Suppose that $g(x) = \frac{f(x+1)-f(1)}{f(x)-f(0)} \geq g(1)$, what do we know about $f$?

Suppose $f:\mathbb{R_+} \to \mathbb{R}$ is a continuous and strictly increasing function. Define $g(x) = \frac{f(x+1)-f(1)}{f(x)-f(0)}$. For which $f$ the function $g$ satisfies $g(x) \geq g(1)$ for ...
4
votes
3answers
112 views

How to show $ \Big\vert \frac{\sin(x)}{x} \Big\vert $ is bounded by $1$?

This may be a silly question, but I cannot figure it out. I want to prove that $ \Big\vert \frac{\sin(x)}{x} \Big\vert \leq 1 $ for $x\in[-1,0)\cup(0,1]$, but I don't even know where to start.
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Condition on the limit of the upper incomplete gamma function

I am trying to find a lower bound on $q$ such that $$\Gamma(2p,qt)=\int_{qt}^{\infty}{x^{2p-1}e^{-x}\,dx}>0$$ for all $t>0,p>0$, and $q<0$. At first, I tried expanding $\Gamma(2p,qt)$ ...
1
vote
2answers
38 views

Quadratic Absolute Value Inequality

Problem: Find all $x$ such that $|x^2-3x+1|<1$ I can't understand how to get started with this. I've never tried to solve quadratic Inequalities before. At first I thought of working with the ...
5
votes
2answers
44 views

Doubt with Absolute Value Inequality

Problem: Find all values of $x$ for which $\dfrac{|x-2|}{x-2}>0$ My incorrect attempt: Using the definition the Modulus, $|x-2|=x-2$ for all $x\ge2$ and $|x-2|=-x+2$ for all $x\le2.$ ...
1
vote
2answers
41 views

Prove that a functional is convex

Let $T$ be a self-adjoint bounded operator on a Hilbert space $H$. We define the functional $\Phi$ as: \begin{equation} \Phi(x)=\frac{1}{2}(Tx,x) \end{equation} My exercise says that $\Phi$ is ...
0
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0answers
16 views

Inequalities for Laguerre polynomials

The following inequality holds, $$ \Big( 4\int_0^\infty rdr \big|\mathcal{L}_1(4r^2)\big|e^{-2r^2}\Big)^3 \geq 4\int_0^\infty rdr \big|\mathcal{L}_3(4r^2)\big|e^{-2r^2}, $$ where $\mathcal{L}_n(x)$ ...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

Bounds on functions via its derivatives

Suppose, we have a function $f$ where $f$ is: Contionuos. Non-Negative Has a derivative given by $f'$. Can we have a bound on $f$ in terms of its derivative $f'$? That is have an inequality that ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

Prove $p(x)>0$ for $x>b$

This is a question from a past paper which I have no solution to. Let $p(x)=x^n + a_{1}x^{n-1}+\cdots+a_{n-1}x+a_{n}, n\geq 1$ be a polynomial of dgree n and let $b=1+|a_{1}|+\cdots ...
2
votes
0answers
73 views

Near-Application of Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality

I have the following situation: I have two estimators of $\alpha$, both via maximum likelihood of the density: $$ f(x,y\mid \alpha,\beta) = f(y \mid x,\alpha,\beta)f(x \mid \alpha) $$ One uses only ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Implications of a Gronwall-type inequality

Assume that $$f(t) \le K\int_a^t f(s)\, ds, \qquad\text{for all $\,t \in [a,b]$.} $$ for some constant $K$, where $f:[a,b] \rightarrow [0,\infty)$. Let $U(t) = K\int_a^t f(s) ds$. If $U(a) = 0$ and ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Poincaré type inequality

Consider a sequence of functions $f_n \in H^1(M)$, the first Sobolev space of a complete (possibly noncompact) Riemannian manifold. If we have the normalization $\Vert \nabla f_n\Vert_{L^2} = 1$, ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

Understanding the Derivation of Dual Geometric Programming Problem

Enthusiastic CS major interested in Optimization Theory here. Pardon me for overlooking something obvious. I'm referring to this nice tutorial/ebook: http://faculty.uml.edu/cbyrne/optfirst0.pdf In ...
2
votes
0answers
59 views

A question on (odd) perfect numbers

(Note: This has been cross-posted to MO.) Let $\sigma(x)$ be the (classical) sum of the divisors of $x$. A number $N \in \mathbb{N}$ is called perfect if $\sigma(N)=2N$. An even perfect number $U$ ...
3
votes
2answers
486 views

Inequality involving Square Root

$\sqrt{3x-x^2}<4-x$ I know I can't simply square both sides of an inequality. I have narrowed down the possible values of x => x belongs to [0,3] because the expression inside the square root ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

help me to prove this

I would like to prove that $n/k!$ for $k$ that holds $k\leq \frac{\log n}{\log\log n}$ will always be bigger/equal to $1/2$. I tried to use stirling but got stuck. Any ideas? Thanks, Jonatan
4
votes
1answer
53 views

Is $x(x!)^{1/x}$ an increasing function of $x$, for $x > 0$?

Is $x(x!)^{1/x}$ an increasing function of $x$, for $x > 0$? Here $x!$ is the factorial of $x$. Sure, I do know differential calculus, but my problem is that I do not know how to compute for the ...
1
vote
1answer
59 views

Numerical methods to solve nonlinear system of inequalities?

I know some methods to solve nonlinear system of equaltites? Relaxation Method, Newton method, nonlinear Jacobi method, nonlinear Seidel method. Is it exist some analogous method to solve nonlinear ...
4
votes
1answer
43 views

E(X)*E(1/X) <= $(a+b)^2$/4ab

I've worked on the following problem and have a solution (included below), but I would like to know if there are any other solutions to this problem, particularly more elegant solutions that apply ...
4
votes
1answer
76 views

If $\,\,f:[a,b]\to \mathbb{R}, \,b-a\ge 4$, is differentiable, then $\,f'(x_0)<1+(\,f(x_0))^2$, for some $x_0\in (a,b)$.

Suppose that $\,f:[a,b]\to \mathbb{R}$, where $\,b-a\ge 4,\,$ is differentiable in $(a,b)$ and continuous in $[a,b]$. Prove that there is $x_0\in (a,b)$, such that ...
4
votes
1answer
89 views

If $\int_{[0,1]} x^k f(x) dx =1$ then $\int_{[0,1]} (f(x))^2 dx \ge n^2$

Let $k \in \{0,1,...,n-1 \}$ and $f:[0,1] \to \mathbb{R}$ be a continous function. If $\int_{[0,1]} x^k f(x) dx =1$ for all such $k$ then show that $\int_{[0,1]} (f(x))^2 dx \ge n^2$.
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Estimating distance between two functions

Let $F = {f_{n} | n ∈\Bbb N }$ be an infinite collection of functions $f_{n}(x)=e^{−n(x−n)^2} , x ∈ \Bbb R$. I am trying to prove that $F$ is closed in $BC(\Bbb R, \Bbb R)$, where $BC$ is the space of ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

A functional inequality

Suppose that $\varphi (t), \psi (t), w(t)$ are continuous functions on $[a,b]$ such that $w(t)>0$. If the inequality $$\varphi (t)\leq \psi (t) + \int_a^t w(s)\varphi (s)ds$$ holds on $[a,b]$, ...
2
votes
2answers
37 views

$ \int_{\mathbb R^d}\int_{\mathbb R^d}b(x,y)\,f(x)\,f(y)dx\,dy \leq ||b_+||_{L^2(\mathbb R^d\times \mathbb R^d)}||f||_{L^2(\mathbb R^d)}^2 $

We are given the following, $$ b:\mathbb R^d \times \mathbb R^d \rightarrow \mathbb R,\;\; f:\mathbb R^d\rightarrow \mathbb R $$ and $$ f\in L^2(\mathbb R^d)\; ,\;b\in L^2(\mathbb R^d\times \mathbb ...
4
votes
2answers
138 views

Proving $\frac{p_{n+1}^2-p_{n+1}^{-C}}{p_{n+1}^2-1}>\frac{f(n) p_n \log p_n }{p_{n+1} \log p_{n+1}},$ where $f(n)\to1$, for some constant $C>1$

Are there two constants $C_1$, $C_2>1$ such that for large enough $n$ $$\frac{p_{n+1}^2-p_{n+1}^{-C_1}}{p_{n+1}^2-1}>\frac{2 C_2 p_{n+1} \log p_{n+1}-1}{2 C_2 p_{n} \log p_{n}-1} \left(\frac{p_n ...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

Non-constant solutions of the functional inequality

Does the functional inequality $$ F(|x|)+F(|y|) \geq \frac{1}{F(|x+y|)} $$ have non-constant solutions $F$? That is, $F(x)\neq \mathrm{const}$. $F$ is a real-valued function of a real variable.
6
votes
1answer
75 views

Inequality About $f(t)=\int_{0}^t \sqrt{\cos(x)} dx$

During my projet, I encountered the following function defined for all $\displaystyle t\in[0,\frac{\pi}{2}]$ by : $$f(t)=\int_{0}^t \sqrt{\cos(x)} dx$$ and I need to prove the inequality below : ...
2
votes
1answer
30 views

Sketch $ z\in \mathbb{C}:0 < arg(z-(1+i)) < \frac\pi3 $

Sketch the following $$ z\in \mathbb{C}:0 < arg(z-(1+i)) < \frac\pi3 $$ I have considered this geometrically and ended up thinking that the complex numbers $z$ must satisfy $$0 < ...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

Hyperbolic trigonometric inequality

Is the following hyperbolic trigonometric inequality correct and if so, is there a simple derivation? $$\tanh A- \tanh B \geq (A-B)(\operatorname{sech}{^2}(A)), \qquad \forall A\ge B\ge 0.$$
2
votes
1answer
62 views

Improving the inequality $x\sigma_1(x) \leq \sigma_1(x^2)$ for $x \in \mathbb{N}$

Let $\mathbb{N}$ be the set of positive integers. For $x \in \mathbb{N}$, $\sigma_1(x)$ gives the sum of the divisors of $x$. (For example, $\sigma_1(3) = 1 + 3 = 4$.) We call the ratio $I(x) = ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

The functional inequality $f(|x|)+f(|y|) \geq 1/f(|x+y|)$

Please help me to solve the following problem. Does there exist a nonempty function $f: D_{f} \subset \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ with $D_{f} \neq \emptyset$ such that $$ f(|x|)+f(|y|) \geq ...
2
votes
2answers
54 views

Trigonometric inequality $|\sin{a_1}|+|\sin{a_2}|+…+|\sin{a_n}|+|\cos{(a_1+a_2+…+a_n)}| \ge1$ for all real $a_i$

Prove that for all real numbers $a_1,a_2,...,a_n$ the following inequality holds: $$ |\sin{a_1}|+|\sin{a_2}|+...+|\sin{a_n}|+|\cos{(a_1+a_2+...+a_n)}| \ge 1 $$
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Simplifying Inequality Involving $\sigma$, $\beta$ and $x$

Given that $\sigma>0$, $\beta>0$, $x>0$ and $\sigma>\beta$, there are a couple of simplifications I cant derive: $$1.\,\,\sigma \geq x\,\,\,\,and\,\,\,\,\sigma\beta\geq ...
10
votes
2answers
193 views

How prove this function inequality $xf(x)>\frac{1}{x}f\left(\frac{1}{x}\right)$

Let $f(x)$ be monotone decreasing on $(0,+\infty)$, such that $$0<f(x)<\lvert f'(x) \rvert,\qquad\forall x\in (0,+\infty).$$ Show that ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Inequality to bound $\sum_i a_i b_i - \sum_i c_i d_i$ (harmonic eigenfunction/graph) type sum with constraints

We have a homogeneous graph $G = (V,E)$ with a function $f:V\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$. We define the following modulus: $\displaystyle \omega(s) = \sup\{f(x)-f(y) \ | \ |x-y|=s \}$ and wish to lower ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

Proving inequality $(x^2+y^2)(y-1)+yx-y^2<0$

I have an inequality which came out of Lyapunov function for system of ODE's: $$(x^2+y^2)(y-1)+yx-y^2<0.$$ To prove stability of my solution, I have to prove that the inequalty is true in area ...
2
votes
2answers
486 views

Inequality between $L^2$- and $L^1$-norms for functions

In the vector space $\mathbb{R}^n$, we have the inequality $$ ||x||_2 \leq ||x||_1 $$ where $x$ is a vector. I am wondering that we have similar inequality for function's norm. The $L^1$-norm of ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Upper bound for integral over boundary in terms of integral over interior

I've encountered quite some papers in which it is simply assumed that $\exists C>0 : \left(\displaystyle{\int\limits_{\Gamma}}((\nabla v)\cdot \hat{\bf{n}})^2d\Gamma\right)^{\dfrac{1}{2}}\leq ...
1
vote
2answers
83 views

Difficult but Interesting Inequalities Problems

1.) Consider the identity $$(px + (1-p)y)^2 = Ax^2 + Bxy + Cy^2.$$ Find the minimum of $\max(A,B,C)$ over $0 \leq p \leq 1$. 2.) Let $n$ be a positive integer. Show that the smallest integer ...
6
votes
1answer
511 views

Does any one-to-one function exist that satisfies this inequality for all real numbers?

Does there exist a one-to-one function $f: \Bbb R \to \Bbb R $ such that $f(x^2) - (f(x))^2 \geq \frac 1 4\ \ \forall x \in \Bbb R$ ? I've tested this with many one-to-one functions but the ...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

A question on logic and some functional inequalities

Suppose that I have a (generic) function $g$ and arguments $a, b \in \mathbb{N}$. I know that $g$ satisfies the inequalities $$1 < \frac{g(b)}{b} < \frac{g(a)}{a} < 2.$$ I also know that ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

An integral inequality

Suppose $K\in C[0,1]^2$, $G\in C[0,1]$ are arbitrary and given. The question is that does there exists $H\in B[0,1]$ continuous a.e. with possibly finitely many discontinuities such that $$ ...
4
votes
3answers
74 views

If $f(x_{1}+x_{2})+2\ge f(x_{1})+f(x_{2})$, then $f(2^{-x})>2^{-x}+2$?

Let $f(x)$ be monotonic increasing on $[0,1]$ and such that $f(0)=2,f(1)=3$, and for any $x_{1},x_{2},x_{1}+x_{2}\in[0,1]$: $$f(x_{1}+x_{2})+2\ge f(x_{1})+f(x_{2})$$ Question: between ...
2
votes
1answer
88 views

Improving the bound $q < n\sqrt{3}$ for an odd perfect number $N = {q^k}{n^2}$ given in Eulerian form

(Note: This has been cross-posted to MO.) Let $N = {q^k}{n^2}$ be an odd perfect number given in Eulerian form (i.e., $q$ is prime with $q \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(q, n) = 1$). ...
1
vote
2answers
45 views

Show that $|\sin{a}-\sin{b}| \le |a-b| $ for all $a$ and $b$

I've recently been going over the mean value and intermediate value theorems, however I'm not sure where to start on this.
7
votes
3answers
140 views

If $f$ is continuous and $\,f\big(\frac{1}2(x+y)\big) \le \frac{1}{2}\big(\,f(x)+f(y)\big)$, then $f$ is convex

Let $\,\,f :\mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ be a continuous function such that $$ f\Big(\dfrac{x+y}2\Big) \le \dfrac{1}{2}\big(\,f(x)+f(y)\big) ,\,\, \text{for all}\,\, x,y \in \mathbb R, $$ then how do we ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

Is it correct to approach this with Holder Inequality? What am I doing wrong?

I know that $ \forall n\in N, a_0 + a_1 + ... + a_n = 1$, with $a_0, a_1, ... a_n > 0$ and $f(t) = a_0t^n+a_1t^{n-1}+...+a_n, \forall t\in R$ I have to prove that for every $x > 0$ $$ ...