The name "functional equation" is used for problems where the goal is to find all functions satisfying the given equation (and maybe some other conditions). So in this case, solving the equation means finding all functions fulfilling the equation. (This is different from the more common use of the ...

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Overview of basic facts about Cauchy functional equation

The Cauchy functional equation asks about functions $f \colon \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ such that $$f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y).$$ It is a very well-known functional equation, which appears in various areas of ...
18
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4answers
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Is there a name for function with the exponential property $f(x+y)=f(x) \cdot f(y)$?

I was wondering if there is a name for a function that satisfies the conditions $f:\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ and $f(x+y)=f(x) \cdot f(y)$? Thanks and regards!
11
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3answers
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If $f(xy)=f(x)f(y)$ then show that $f(x) = x^t$ for some t

Let $f(xy) =f(x)f(y)$ for all $x,y\geq 0$. Show that $f(x) = x^p$ for some $p$. I am not very experienced with proof. If we let $g(x)=\log (f(x))$ then this is the same as $g(xy) = g(x) + g(y)$ ...
35
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8answers
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Square root of a function (in the sense of composition)

There are some math quizzes like: find a function $\phi:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ such that $\phi(\phi(x)) = f(x) \equiv x^2 + 1.$ If such $\phi$ exists (it does in this example), $\phi$ can ...
10
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2answers
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On sort-of-linear functions

Background A function $ f: \mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R} \ $ is linear if it satisfies $$ (1)\;\; f(x+y) = f(x) + f(y) \ , \ and $$ $$ (2)\;\; f(\alpha x) = \alpha f(x) $$ for all $ x,y \in \...
6
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3answers
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I need to find all functions $f:\mathbb R \rightarrow \mathbb R$ which are continuous and satisfy $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$

I need to find all functions $f:\mathbb R \rightarrow \mathbb R$ such that $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$. I know that there are other questions that are asking the same thing, but I'm trying to figure this out ...
1
vote
1answer
975 views

continuous functions on $\mathbb R$ such that $g(x+y)=g(x)g(y)$

Let $g$ be a function on $\mathbb R$ to $\mathbb R$ which is not identically zero and which satisfies the equation $g(x+y)=g(x)g(y)$ for $x$,$y$ in $\mathbb R$. $g(0)=1$. If $a=g(1)$,then $a>0$ ...
22
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4answers
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thoughts about $f(f(x))=e^x$

I was thinking, inspired by mathlinks, precisely from this post, if there exists a continuous real function $f:\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$ such that $$f(f(x))=e^x.$$ However I have not still been able to ...
7
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4answers
434 views

3rd iterate of a continuous function equals identity function

If $ f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R} $ is continuous, and $\forall x \in \mathbb{R} :\;(f \circ f \circ f)(x) = x $, show that $ f(x) = x $. The condition that $f$ is continuous on $\mathbb{R}$ is ...
107
votes
8answers
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Continuous function $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ such that $f(f(x)) = -x$?

I've been perusing the internet looking for interesting problems to solve. I found the following problem and have been going at it for the past 30 minutes with no success: Find a continuous ...
9
votes
3answers
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Proving that an additive function $f$ is continuous if it is continuous at a single point

Suppose that $f$ is continuous at $x_0$ and $f$ satisfies $f(x)+f(y)=f(x+y)$. Then how can we prove that $f$ is continuous at $x$ for all $x$? I seems to have problem doing anything with it. Thanks in ...
4
votes
2answers
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Graph of discontinuous linear function is dense

$f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ is a function such that for all $x,y$ in $\mathbb{R}$, $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$. If $f$ is cont, then of course it has to be linear. But here $f$ is NOT cont. Then show ...
15
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2answers
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If $f\colon \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ is such that $f (x + y) = f (x) f (y)$ and continuous at $0$, then continuous everywhere

Prove that if $f\colon\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ is such that $f(x+y)=f(x)f(y)$ for all $x,y$, and $f$ is continuous at $0$, then it is continuous everywhere. If there exists $c \in \mathbb{R}$ such ...
8
votes
2answers
704 views

Do there exist functions satisfying $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$ that aren't linear?

Do there exist functions $f : \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y),$ but which aren't linear? I bet you they exist, but I can't think of any examples. Furthermore, what ...
6
votes
3answers
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Classifying Functions of the form $f(x+y)=f(x)f(y)$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Is there a name for such kind of function? The question is: is there a nice characterization of all nonnegative functions $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that $f(...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

Continuous and additive implies linear

The following problem is from Golan's linear algebra book. I have posted a solution in the comments. Problem: Let $f(x):\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be a continuous function satisfying $f(x+y)=f(...
7
votes
1answer
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Solution(s) to $f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y)$ (and miscellaneous questions…)

My lecturer was talking today (in the context of probability, more specifically Kolmogorov's axioms) about the additive property of functions, namely that: $$f(x+y) = f(x) + f(y)$$ I've been trying ...
8
votes
1answer
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Examples of functions where $f(ab)=f(a)+f(b)$

What are some examples of continuous (on a certain interval) real or complex functions where $f(ab)=f(a)+f(b)$ (like $\ln x$?)
67
votes
7answers
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Does a non-trivial solution exist for $f'(x)=f(f(x))$?

Does $f'(x)=f(f(x))$ have any solutions other than $f(x)=0$? I have become convinced that it does (see below), but I don't know of any way to prove this. Is there a nice method for solving this kind ...
34
votes
8answers
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How to obtain $f(x)$, if it is known that $f(f(x))=x^2+x$?

How to get $f(x)$, if we know that $f(f(x))=x^2+x$? Is there an elementary function $f(x)$ that satisfies the equation?
17
votes
1answer
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Show that $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$ implies $f$ continuous $\Leftrightarrow$ $f$ measurable

Let $f:\mathbb R \rightarrow \mathbb R$, and for every $x,y\in \mathbb R$ we have $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$. Show that $f$ measurable $\Leftrightarrow f$ continuous.
10
votes
3answers
777 views

How to calculate $f(x)$ in $f(f(x)) = e^x$?

How would I calculate the power series of $f(x)$ if $f(f(x)) = e^x$? Is there a faster-converging method than power series for fractional iteration/functional square roots?
16
votes
6answers
887 views

$g(x+y)+g(x)g(y)=g(xy)+g(x)+g(y)$ for all $x,y$.

Find all functions $g:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ with $g(x+y)+g(x)g(y)=g(xy)+g(x)+g(y)$ for all $x,y$. I think the solutions are $0, 2, x$. If $g(x)$ is not identically $2$, then $g(0)=0$. I'm trying ...
13
votes
1answer
348 views

Is there a real-valued function $f$ such that $f(f(x)) = -x$?

Is there a function $f\colon \mathbb{R} \to\mathbb{R} $ such that $ f(f(x)) = -x$ ?
7
votes
1answer
166 views

Solution to the functional equation $f(x^y)=f(x)^{f(y)}$

Consider the functional equation problem $$ f: \Bbb{R} \rightarrow \Bbb{R}$$ $$ f(a^b) = f(a)^{f(b)},$$ when $a,b \in \Bbb{R}, a,b \ge 0.$ So far the only solution I have is the trivial $$ f(x) ...
4
votes
1answer
312 views

A question concerning on the axiom of choice and Cauchy functional equation

The Cauchy functional equation: $$f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$$ has solutions called 'additive functions'. If no conditions are imposed to $f$, there are infinitely many functions that satisfy the equation, ...
6
votes
2answers
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How do I prove that $f(x)f(y)=f(x+y)$ implies that $f(x)=e^{cx}$, assuming f is continuous and not zero?

This is part of a homework assignment for a real analysis course taught out of "Baby Rudin." Just looking for a push in the right direction, not a full-blown solution. We are to suppose that $f(x)f(...
4
votes
1answer
161 views

Are Exponential and Trigonometric Functions the Only Non-Trivial Solutions to $F'(x)=F(x+a)$?

Are exponential & trigonometric functions the only non-trivial solutions to $F'(x)=F(x+a)$? $F(x)=0$ would be the trivial solution. Then, for $a=0$ (or $a=2\pi i$), we have $F(x)=e^x$, and for $...
27
votes
6answers
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Find all polynomials $P$ such that $P(x^2+1)=P(x)^2+1$

Find all polynomials $P$ such that $$P(x^2+1)=P(x)^2+1$$
8
votes
1answer
234 views

Functional Equation $f(mn)=f(m)f(n)$.

If $f: \mathbb N \mapsto \mathbb N$ is one-to-one and $f(mn) = f(m)f(n)$, what is the smallest possible value of $f(999)$? Easily $f(1)=1$, and I think $f(n)=n$ must be the only map, but not able to ...
7
votes
5answers
2k views

Find polynomials such that $(x-16)p(2x)=16(x-1)p(x)$

Find all polynomials $p(x)$ such that for all $x$, we have $$(x-16)p(2x)=16(x-1)p(x)$$ I tried working out with replacing $x$ by $\frac{x}{2},\frac{x}{4},\cdots$, to have $p(2x) \to p(0)$ but then ...
7
votes
1answer
626 views

non-continuous function satisfies $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$

As mentioned in this link, it shows that For any $f$ on the real line $\mathbb{R}^1$, $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$ implies $f$ continuous $\Leftrightarrow$ $f$ measurable. But how to show there exists such ...
32
votes
7answers
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Find $f(x)$ such that $f(f(x)) = x^2 - 2$

Find all $f(x)$ satisfying $f(f(x)) = x^2 - 2$. Presumably $f(x)$ is supposed to be a function from $\mathbb R$ to $\mathbb R$ with no further restrictions (we don't assume continuity, etc), but the ...
12
votes
3answers
416 views

Is Zorn's lemma necessary to show discontinuous $f\colon {\mathbb R} \to {\mathbb R}$ satisfying $f(x+y) = f(x) + f(y)$?

A UC Berkeley prelim exam problem asked whether an additive function $f\colon {\mathbb R} \to {\mathbb R}$, i.e. satisfying $f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y)$ must be continuous. The counterexample involved ...
25
votes
2answers
664 views

$f(x+1)=f(x)+1$ and $f(x^2)=f(x)^2$

A function that satisfies both $f(x+1)=f(x)+1$ and $f(x^2)=f(x)^2$ for all real $x$ is known to be the identity over $\mathbb Q$, but is it also the identity over $\mathbb R$? If not, can you provide ...
8
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1answer
606 views

Different methods to prove $\zeta(s)=2^s\pi^{s-1}\sin\left(\frac{s\pi}{2}\right) \Gamma (1-s) \zeta (1-s)$.

I've recently encountered this strangely attractive equation (Riemann's functional equation), along with Riemann's original proof. $$\displaystyle\zeta(s)=2^s\pi^{s-1}\sin\left(\frac{s\pi}{2}\right) ...
10
votes
3answers
360 views

Solving $(f(x))^2 = f(\sqrt{2}x)$

I would like to know how to solve this equation : $$f(x)^2 = f(\sqrt{2}x)$$ We assume that $f : \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ is $\mathcal C^{2}$. The answer should be $f(x)=e^{-x^{2}/2}$, but I don't ...
17
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4answers
919 views

very elementary proof of Maxwell's theorem

Maxwell's theorem (after James Clerk Maxwell) says that if a function $f(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ of $n$ real variables is a product $f_1(x_1)\cdots f_n(x_n)$ and is rotation-invariant in the sense that the ...
7
votes
1answer
696 views

Measurable Cauchy Function is Continuous

I found this question here Show that $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$ implies $f$ continuous $\Leftrightarrow$ $f$ measurable and I want to adapt the proof that t.b had suggested. I don't know the concepts of Baire ...
2
votes
1answer
610 views

Solution of Cauchy functional equation which has an antiderivative

Let $f\colon\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$ be a function such that $$f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$$ for any $x,y\in\mathbb R$ i.e., it fulfills Cauchy functional equation. Additionally, suppose that $F'=f$ for some ...
8
votes
1answer
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Solution for exponential function's functional equation by using a definition of derivative

let $f(0)=1$ and $f'(0)=1$. and $f(x+y)=f(x)f(y)$ for $x,y\in R$. How can I found $f(x)$ by using a definition of derivative?
6
votes
1answer
361 views

Iterated polynomial problem

Polynomial $P$ satisfies $P(n)>n$ for all positive integers $n$. Every positive integer $m$ is a factor of some number of the form $P(1),P(P(1)),P(P(P(1))),\ldots $. Prove that $P(x)=x+1$.
2
votes
1answer
617 views

What can we say about functions satisfying $f(a + b) = f(a)f(b) $ for all $a,b\in \mathbb{R}$? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Is there a name for such kind of function? I am investigating functions satisfying the exponentiation identity $f(a + b) = f(a)f(b)$ for all $a,b\in \Bbb R$. This is ...
7
votes
1answer
575 views

How do you solve $f'(x) = f(f(x))$?

A friend told me to solve the following differential equation: $$f'(x)=f(f(x))$$ I have no idea how to solve this! This doesn't seem to be an ordinary differential equation and I can't even solve ...
6
votes
3answers
2k views

If $f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y)$ showing that $f(cx) = cf(x)$ holds for rational $c$

For $f:\mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}^m$, if $f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y)$ for then for rational $c$, how would you show that $f(cx) = cf(x)$ holds? I tried that for $c = \frac{a}{b}$, $a,b \in \mathbb{Z}$ ...
6
votes
2answers
344 views

Function whose inverse is also its derivative?

What are some good examples of a function $f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ where its derivative is equal to its inverse? I attempted to find a monomial that satisfied it by starting with $f(x) = ax^b$ ...
4
votes
2answers
231 views

Many other solutions of the Cauchy's Functional Equation

By reading the Cauchy's Functional Equations on the Wiki, it is said that On the other hand, if no further conditions are imposed on f, then (assuming the axiom of choice) there are infinitely ...
1
vote
6answers
272 views

Solutions of $f(x)\cdot f(y)=f(x\cdot y)$ [duplicate]

Can anyone give me a classification of the real functions of one variable such that $f(x)f(y)=f(xy)$? I have searched the web, but I haven't found any text that discusses my question. Answers and/or ...
4
votes
2answers
500 views

Prove that $f'$ exists for all $x$ in $R$ if $f(x+y)=f(x)f(y)$ and $f'(0)$ exists

A function $f$ is defined in $R$, and $f'(0)$ exist. Let $f(x+y)=f(x)f(y)$ then prove that $f'$ exists for all $x$ in $R$. I think I have to use two fact: $f'(0)$ exists $f(x+y)=f(x)f(y)$ How to ...
4
votes
2answers
149 views

Functional equation $f(xy)=f(x)+f(y)$ and continuity

Prove that if $f:(0,\infty)→\mathbb{R}$ satisfying $f(xy)=f(x)+f(y)$, and if $f$ is continuous at $x=1$, then $f$ is continuous for $x>0$. I let $x=1$ and I find that $f(x)=f(x)+f(1)$ which ...