The name "functional equation" is used for problems where the goal is to find all functions satisfying the given equation (and maybe some other conditions). So in this case, solving the equation means finding all functions fulfilling the equation. (This is different from the more common use of the ...

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42 views

Find all differentiable functions $f$ such that $f(f(x))=f'(x)$ [duplicate]

Here is a problem I made up: Find all differentiable functions $f$ from the reals to the reals such that $f(f(x))=f'(x)$ for all real $x$.
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0answers
14 views

Approach on solving limit equation systems and finding some f given assymptotes?

This is a "reverse" question of finding the asymptote of a function Recently, I am interested in doing some sort of modelling which involve equations of the form $$@(t)=1-f(t)$$ where $f(t)$ is ...
2
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1answer
40 views

Polar to cartesian equation conversion

I have a polar equation defined as: $r = ae^{θ tan (m)}$ where, $a$ and $m$ are constants, θ is the angle between the horizontal axis from the origin (xc,yc) to the coordinate. $e$ refers to ...
3
votes
3answers
108 views

How to solve the functional equation $f(2x) = (e^x+1)f(x)$?

I need to solve $f(2x)=(e^x+1)f(x)$. I am thinking about Frobenius type method: $$\sum_{k=0}^{\infty}2^ka_kx^k=\left(1+\sum_{m=0}^{\infty}\frac{x^m}{m!}\right)\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}a_nx^n\\ ...
4
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2answers
128 views

Solve differential equation $f'(z) = e^{-2} (f(z/e))^2$

I'm curious if there's a simple closed solution to the following DE and, if so, what it is. $$\begin{align} f'(z) &= e^{-2} (f(z/e))^2 \\ f(0) &= 1. \end{align}$$
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1answer
20 views

How to solve the delay algebraic equation $xf(x) + \alpha f(x - {x_0}) - \alpha f(x + {x_0}) = 0$?

In the process of solving a problem, I am faced with the problem of finding a non-zero function $f:\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ which satisfies the equation $$xf(x) + \alpha f(x - {x_0}) - \alpha f(x + ...
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1answer
40 views

What are 'Regular Products'?

When looking at the functional equation for the Riemann zeta function, I came across the statement: For $s$ an even positive integer, the product $\sin{(\frac{\pi s}{2})}\Gamma({1-s})$ is regular. ...
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0answers
69 views

We all know about compositions of functions, but what about decomposition. Is there a way with math, not just heuristics?

The composition operator is a well know and quite often used method in integration and differentiation, think u-substitution. However, given a composition like $$f(f(f(...f(x)...)))$$ Where there are ...
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0answers
12 views

Iterative Functional Equation? (discrete, increment, logarithm)

Say $f(n)$ is defined as discrete iterative process, $n \in [0,1,2,\ldots,N]$, and $g(x)$, $x \in [-\infty,+\infty]$ is "small": $|g(x)|<1, \forall x$: $$f(n+1)=f(n) + \log(1 + g(f(n)))$$ ...
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0answers
30 views

Proof of unique solution to functional equation. [closed]

How do I prove that the only solution to the functional equation $f(x^2)=f(x)^2$ is $f(x)=x^k, f\equiv 0$.
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1answer
83 views

Find $f(x) $ given that: $f'(x)=\frac{f(x)-x}{f(x)+x}$ [closed]

I would appreciate if somebody could help me with the following problem: Find $f(x)$ given that: $f \colon \mathbb{R^+} \rightarrow \mathbb{R^+}$, $f$ is differentiable function, and ...
7
votes
4answers
156 views

$f \colon \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, $f$ is continuous , and $f(x+1)+f(x)=x^2$

I would appreciate if somebody could help me with the following problem: Find $f(x)$ ($f(x)$ is not Polynomial function), given that: $f \colon \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, $f$ is ...
7
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1answer
138 views

Nonlinear inhomogeneous recurrence $f(x)^2=f(x+1)+S(x)$ to find nested radical

I want to solve the recurrence relation $$f(x)^2=f(x+1)+S(x)$$ where $S(x)$ is a given polynomial. The background is to find nested radicals expressions of the form ...
7
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0answers
91 views

Looking for all sequences such that $a_i^2+a_j^2=a_k^2+a_l^2$ whenever $i^2+j^2=k^2+l^2$

I'm working in a difficult functional equation, and I have reduced the problem to the following question ($\mathbb{N}$ denotes the set of non negative integers $0,1,2,3,4\cdots$) Question: Can we ...
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0answers
439 views

Find all functions $f$ such that if $a+b$ is a square, then $f(a)+f(b)$ is a square

Question: For any $a,b\in \mathbb{N}^{+}$, if $a+b$ is a square number, then $f(a)+f(b)$ is also a square number. Find all such functions. My try: It is clear that the function $$f(x)=x$$ ...
4
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0answers
85 views

Integer functional equation $f(f(f(n)))=f(n+1)+1$

Can you find all functions $f:\mathbb N\rightarrow\mathbb N$ satisfying the functional equation $$ f(f(f(n)))=f(n+1)+1 $$
9
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3answers
1k views

If $ f(x \cdot f(y) + f(x)) = y \cdot f(x) + x $, then $f(x)=x$

Let $ f : \mathbb{Q} \rightarrow \mathbb{Q} $ be a function which has the following property: $$ f(x \cdot f(y) + f(x)) = y \cdot f(x) + x \;,\; \forall \; x, y \in \mathbb{Q} $$ Prove that $ f(x) = ...
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2answers
84 views

$f$ is a linear function. If $f(x+3) + f(4x+5) = 10x$,$ f(x)=?$

Question: Suppose $f$ is a linear function. If $f(x+3) + f(4x+5) = 10x$, then $f(x)=?$ My attempts: Okay, this is what I have so far... $$f(x) + f(3) + 5(4x) + f(5)$$ $$f(5x) = 10x - f(8)$$ ...
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5answers
54 views

Boolean Simplification of AB + A'+B'

Is there any way to simplify this function? Or is this the simplest equation? : AB + A'+B'
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0answers
81 views

Solving functional equation for all real numbers.

The functional equation to be solved is $ f(x+y) +f(x)f(y)=f(x)+f(y)+f(xy)$. Domain:Reals,Codomain:Reals.I found about 4 possible solutions to the equation but ran into a fundamental problem with all ...
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0answers
47 views

Iterative (functional) roots of integer functions (functions on $\mathbb{Z}$)

A function $g:A\to A$ is called a $k$-th iterative root of another function $f:A\to A$ ($A$ an arbitrary set and $k\in\mathbb{N}$) iff $f=g^k$, where $g^k(x)=g\circ g\circ\ldots\circ g(x)=g(g(\ldots ...
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0answers
20 views

Functional equation similar to Babbage's equation

I'm interested in the potential solutions $f: R_{+} \rightarrow R_{+}$ to the functional equation: $ \forall x \in R_{+}, \quad f(s(x) - f(x)) = ax $ where $a>0$ is a constant. $s: R_{+} ...
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1answer
28 views

hyperplane in $L^2$

Consider $R^2$ valued functions $f,g \in L^2([0,1],\mu, R^2)$ where $f=(f_1,f_2)$,$g=(g_1,g_2)$ and $\sqrt{\langle f, g\rangle}=\int_{[0,1]} (f_1(x)g_1(x)+f_2(x)g_2(x)) d\mu(x)$ Suppose for a given ...
1
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1answer
18 views

Extension of the additive Cauchy functional equation

Let $f\colon (0,\alpha)\to \def\R{\mathbf R}\R$ satisfy $f(x + y)=f(x)+f(y)$ for all $x,y,x + y \in (0,\alpha)$, where $\alpha$ is a positive real number. Show that there exists an additive function ...
6
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2answers
165 views

$f(\alpha x) = f(x)^{\beta}$ under different constraints

With $\alpha > 0,\, \beta \in \Bbb R^*,\, \alpha, \beta \neq 1$ and $f : \Bbb R \to \Bbb R_+^*$, let's consider the functional equation $$ f(\alpha x) = f(x)^{\beta} \tag{$\Xi$}$$ or equivalently ...
2
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1answer
68 views

What are all pairs of functions f and g so that $f(x)f(y) = g(x+y)$?

It can be shown, and is a problem in Rudin's Principles of Mathematical Analysis (Chapter 8), that when $f$ is continuous, and $f(x)f(y) = f(x+y)$, $f$ is a function of the form $e^{cx}$. Must this ...
2
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3answers
65 views

Solving for $f(2004)$ in a given functional equation

Given that $$f(1)=2005$$ and $$f(1)+f(2)+...f(n) = n^{2}f(n)$$ for all $n>1$. Determine the value of $f(2004)$. My progress: I first substituted $n-1$ into the equation to get ...
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0answers
37 views

Is the functional equation $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$ on $\mathbb{R}_{+}$ solved only by linear functions? [duplicate]

Consider a function $f$ defined on the set of all non-negative real numbers. Suppose $f(x+y) = f(x) + f(y)$ for any non-negative $x,y$. Does it follow that $f(x) = kx$ for some constant $k$?
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1answer
42 views

A function $\psi(z)$ satisfies the following functional equation…

I was given the following question to solve: "Given a function $\psi_0(z)$ satisfies the following functional equation: $\psi_0(z+1)=\frac{1}{z}+\psi_0(z)$ Prove that ...
8
votes
1answer
642 views

Equation about generating functions and subfactorial

Suppose $G_n(w)$ is a formal power series (really a probability generating function, see the following explanation) of variable $w$, try to solve out $G_n(w)$ for all $n\ge0$ from the ...
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0answers
50 views

Extension of the Cauchy functional equations

Let $f:(0,a)\to\mathbb{R}$ satisfying $$f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$$ for all $x,y,x+y\in(0,a)$, where $a$ is a positive real number. Show that there exists an additive function $A:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ such ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

A problem on solving functional equations

If $f(x),\forall x\in\mathbb{R}$ is continous and differentiable, and satisfies: $f(x_1+x_2)+f(x_1-x_2)=2f(x_1)f(x_2),\forall x_1,x_2\in\mathbb{R}$ $f\left(1\right)=\dfrac{3}{2}$ How to prove: ...
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0answers
40 views

Proving existence and uniqueness of solutions to the functional equation $f(n) = r \cdot f(n-1)$

Suppose I have a functional equation $f(n) = r \cdot f(n-1)$ where $r$ is a constant. This represents a geometric progression and a known solution is $g(n) = ar^n$ where $a = g(0)$. By intuition, ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Solving a linear functional equation

Working with Green functions, I have found to solve the following equation $$ -\omega^2G(\omega)-m^2G(\omega)+\kappa\sum_{n=-\infty}^\infty b_nG(\omega-n\omega_0)=1 $$ where $m$, $\kappa$ and ...
10
votes
3answers
250 views

Solving $(f(x))^2 = f(\sqrt{2}x)$

I would like to know how to solve this equation : $$f(x)^2 = f(\sqrt{2}x)$$ We assume that $f : \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ is $\mathcal C^{2}$. The answer should be $f(x)=e^{-x^{2}/2}$, but I don't ...
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1answer
53 views

Follow-up to $f(x)^2 = f(\sqrt2 x)$

This is a follow-up to: Solving $(f(x))^2 = f(\sqrt{2}x)$ . So $f : \Bbb R \to \Bbb R$ is $\mathcal C^2$ and verifies $\forall x,\, f(x)^2 = f(\sqrt2 x)$. We already know that $f(0) \in \{0,1\}$ and ...
5
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0answers
252 views

What special role plays the function $\pi^{\frac x\pi}$ in analysis?

I have tried to redefine some special functions in the most "natural" way, that is the way which allows to simplify the relations the most. I would call these functions "parelementary". The ...
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1answer
52 views

Find all continuous functions $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ satisfying $\frac{f(x+3)}{3+f(x)}=\frac{4+x^2}{x^2}$

Find all continuous $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ satisfying $$\frac{f(x+3)}{3+f(x)}=\frac{4+x^2}{x^2}.$$ I believe the original question was $$\frac{f(x)}{3+f(x)}=\frac{4+x^2}{x^2},$$ which has a ...
14
votes
1answer
1k views

Prove that function is continuous without knowing the function explicitly

Let $f\colon \mathbb R^+\to\mathbb R$ be a function that satisfies the following conditions: $$\tag1 \lim_{x\to 1}f(x)=0 $$ $$\tag2f(x_1)+f(x_2)=f(x_1x_2)$$ Show that $f$ is continuous in its domain. ...
1
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0answers
17 views

Calculus of Variations for discrete functionals

Question: How does one determine the optimal function f that either maximize or minimizes: $$\int_{x_1}^{x_2} L\left(x, f, D_{h,x}[f ]\right) dx$$ Whereas: $$ D_{h,x}[f] = \frac{f(x + h) - ...
4
votes
0answers
77 views

$\int_0^1 \frac{\ln(1+x^a)}{1+x}\, dx$

I have recently met with this integral: $$\int_0^1 \frac{\ln(1+x^a)}{1+x}\, dx$$ I want to evaluate it in a closed form, if possible. 1st functional equation: $\displaystyle f(a)=\ln^2 2-f\left ( ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Does this problem have analytic/approximate analytic solution?

Define $F[i]=F[i-1]-F[i-1]^c$ with $F[0]=r>0,c\in(0,1)$. Define $R(r,c)=\min\{i:F[i]<1\}$. What is solution to $c\in(0,1)$ in $R(r,c)=r^{1/k}$ with some given $k>1$?
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0answers
19 views

Riccati Finite Difference Equation:

Question: Consider the finite difference equation in Zeilberger notation: $$D_{1,x} [y] = a_0(x) + a_1 (x) y + a_2 (x)y^2 $$ Which in functional form is: $$ y(x+1) - y(x) = a_0(x) + a_1 (x) y + ...
0
votes
1answer
11 views

Defining a rectangular prism using a formula and complex numbers.

I recently read that a line can be defined using the formula $$ A = O + dL $$ where $A$ represents any point on the line, $O$ represents the vector origin of the line, $L$ represents the direction ...
3
votes
4answers
132 views

A functional equation: $4f(x)^3 +f(3x)=3f(x)$

Find all functions $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ such that $$4f(x)^{3}+f(3x)=3f(x)$$ I know of 2 functions that satisfy the equation but I do not know how to prove that they are the only ones. ...
7
votes
3answers
253 views

Does there exist a function such that $f(a)f(b)=f(a^2b^2)?$

Given $S=\{2,3,4,5,6,7,\cdots,n,\cdots,\} = \Bbb N_{>1}$, prove whether there exists a function $f:S\to S$, such that for any positive $a,b$: $$f(a)f(b)=f(a^2b^2),a\neq b?$$ This is 2015 ...
0
votes
2answers
39 views

Continuous, 1-periodic $f$ with $f(x+y) = f(x) f(y)$ for $x, y \in \mathbb{R}$

The problem is to find all $f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{C}$ that is continuous, has $f(x) = f(x+1) \forall x$, and $$f(x+y) = f(x) f(y) \quad x, y \in \mathbb{R}$$ Plug in $y=0$, we find $f(x) = ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

What function satisfies the following equation?

$$f(x)e^{-x}\Gamma(x/\pi)=f(\pi/2-x)e^{x-\pi/2}\Gamma(1/2-x/\pi)$$ I think it should be similar to Zeta function, but what is it exactly?
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Solving the functional equation $f(x)=f(f(x-p))+q$

I can see that $f(x) = x + (p-q)$ is a solution. Is this the only possible solution?
0
votes
3answers
233 views

Find all real functions that satisfy the functional equations $f(x+y) = f(x) + f(y)$ and $f(xy)=f(x)\,f(y)$ [closed]

Determine all functions $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ that satisfy the two functional equations $f(x + y) =f(x)+f(y)$ and $f(xy)=f(x)\,f(y)$.