The name "functional equation" is used for problems where the goal is to find all functions satisfying the given equation (and maybe some other conditions). So in this case, solving the equation means finding all functions fulfilling the equation. (This is different from the more common use of the ...

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1answer
10 views

Fredholm-like equation

I have the following equation: $$\lambda=\displaystyle\int_{a}^b f(x)g(x)dx$$ Where $\lambda$ is a constant and I know the expresión for f(x). Is there any way of extracting the fucntion g(x)? I ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Transcendental Functional Equations

Given $f^k(x) = f \circ f \circ f\circ ...(x)$ composed $k$ times, Do the functional equations $f^k(x) = g(x)$, where $g(x)$ is a basic transcendental elementary function, for example, the inverse ...
-1
votes
2answers
119 views

If $f(x+y^3)=f(x)+[f(y)]^3$ and $f'(0)\ge0$, what can $f(10)$ be? [on hold]

A real valued function satisfies the condition: $f(x+y^3)=f(x)+[f(y)]^3$ for all real $x$, $y$. If $f'(0)\ge0$ how to find $f(10)$ ?
-4
votes
2answers
74 views

Find the value of this $2f\left ( \frac{1}{2} \right )$ [on hold]

IF $f(f(x))=1-x$, Find $$2f\left ( \frac{1}{2} \right )=??$$ help guys, I really tried but I couldn't.
8
votes
3answers
224 views

Solve this functional equation:

Functional equations such as this one appear only once every several years on exams, so I feel it's hard to have a sure-fire way to approach the problem, unlike, say, solving a series convergence ...
2
votes
4answers
73 views

Find all functions $\mathbb{R}^{+}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$

Find all functions $f$: $\mathbb{R}^{+}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that $$f\left ( \frac{x}{y} \right )= f(x)+f(y)-f(x)f(y)$$ for all $x,y\in\mathbb{R}^{+}$. Here, $\mathbb{R}^{+}$, denotes the ...
1
vote
2answers
66 views

Follow up to previous functional equation question.

Find all $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ s.t $$f(x^2+f(y))=(x-y)^2f(x+y)$$ Putting $x=y$ yields $f(x^2+f(x))=0$. (1) Putting $y=-x$ yields $f(x^2+f(-x))=(2x)^2f(0)$. (2) By (1) $(2x)^2f(0)=0$ ...
3
votes
2answers
123 views

What is derivative a of a continuous function such that $f(x+y) = f(x) +f(y)$? [on hold]

Let $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R} $ be a continuous function with $f(x+y) = f(x) +f(y),\forall x,y\in \mathbb{R}.$ Find $\frac {df} {dx} $, if it is exist?
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Representation of a Functional Equation.

Let, $f:\mathbb{R}^{J+1}\to\mathbb{R}$, $g:\mathbb{R}^J\to\mathbb{R}$ and consider the following equation: $$f(x,g(x))=g(x).$$ I would like to know if the following statement is true (or find ...
28
votes
7answers
4k views

Find $f(x)$ such that $f(f(x)) = x^2 - 2$

Find all $f(x)$ satisfying $f(f(x)) = x^2 - 2$. Presumably $f(x)$ is supposed to be a function from $\mathbb R$ to $\mathbb R$ with no further restrictions (we don't assume continuity, etc), but ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Find a derivative of equation that contains Fourier series

I need to find a derivative of follow equation $$ \left(r_{0} + \sum [a_{i}\cos(i\phi) + b_{i}\sin(i\phi)] \right)({\sin\phi-k\cos\phi}) - b = 0 $$ I know the derivative of $\left(r_{0} + \sum ...
1
vote
0answers
51 views

Find all $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ for which $f(x^3)+f(y^3)=(x+y)(f(x^2)+f(y^2)-f(xy))$ [duplicate]

Problem Find all $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ which satisfy $$f(x^3)+f(y^3)=(x+y)(f(x^2)+f(y^2)-f(xy))$$ for all $x,y\in\mathbb{R}$. This is a contest math problem, and I have very little ...
2
votes
2answers
55 views

A difficult problem on functions

I've been trying to solve the following problem but can't wrap my head around it. Let $x$, $f(x)$, $a$, $b$ be positive integers. Furthermore, if $a > b$, then $f(a) > f(b)$. Now, if $f(f(x)) = ...
31
votes
8answers
1k views

How to obtain $f(x)$, if it is known that $f(f(x))=x^2+x$?

How to get $f(x)$, if we know that $f(f(x))=x^2+x$? Is there an elementary function $f(x)$ that satisfies the equation?
8
votes
4answers
210 views

if the function $f(f(n))+f(n)=2n+2014$,find the $f$

let the function $f:N^{+}\to N^{+}$,and such $$f(f(n))+f(n)=2n+2014$$ Find the $f(n)$ My try: let $n=1$,then we have $$f(f(1))+f(1)=2016$$ let $f(1)=a$,then $$f(a)+a=2016$$ and let ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

A Somewhat Complicated Functional Equation

Given a function on $\mathbb R^2$ $$C(x,y)=e^x\big(e^y N(d_1)-N(d_2)\big) \tag1$$ where $N$ is the cumulative standard normal distribution function (an increasing function) and ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Periodic Function With A Given Functional Equation

Let $f$ be a real valued function defined for all real numbers $x$ such that for some positive constant '$a$' the equation $f(x+a)=1/2+\sqrt{f(x)-(f(x))^2}$ holds for all $x$. Then prove that $f$ is ...
31
votes
4answers
955 views

Is it true that this function $f(n)=n^{13}$?

Assume strictly monotone increasing function; such that $f:N^{+}\to N^{+}$, $h$ for all $n\in N^{+}$, $$f(f(f(n)))=f(f(n))\cdot f(n)\cdot n^{2015}$$ Prove or disprove:$f(n)=n^{13}$ ...
4
votes
1answer
76 views

Way to solve basic functional equations

Is there any general way to solve basic functional equations? For example we have algebraic ways to solve algebraic equations (find $x$)! But for functional equations like : $$f(x) + f(x-1) = 0$$ ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Polynomials $f(x)$ such that $f(x)f(x-1)+f(x^2)=0$

How can I find all polynomials $f(x)$ such that $f(x)f(x-1)+f(x^2)=0?$ I am self-studying functional equations, but don't know how to start this one. A hint would suffice.
1
vote
1answer
112 views

solving a functional equation using given values

Moderator Note: This is a current contest question on Brilliant.org. The current contest ends on 13 October 2013, after which time this question will be unlocked. A Function $f$ from the ...
1
vote
4answers
64 views

If $f(f(x)) = x $ has at most 1 solution, then so does $f(x) = x$.

Let f be defined on [0,1] and its values are between 0 and 1. If $f(f(x)) = x $ has at most 1 solution, then $f(x) = x$ has at most 1 solution. Please, give me a hint how to prove this.
2
votes
1answer
81 views

How to solve the functional equation : $T(n)=(\log n)T(\log n)+n$

I want to solve the following functional equation using any ways: $$T(n)=(\log n)T(\log n)+n$$
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Easily computable function that is one-to-one and onto with 2 or more inputs

I am looking for a function that will take take n inputs and have 1 output, and knowing the 1 output and function you can get back the n inputs, without error and computationally easy in both ...
1
vote
1answer
435 views

Solution of Cauchy functional equation which has an antiderivative

Let $f\colon\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$ be a function such that $$f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$$ for any $x,y\in\mathbb R$ i.e., it fulfills Cauchy functional equation. Additionally, suppose that $F'=f$ for some ...
3
votes
0answers
392 views

What special role plays the function $\pi^{\frac x\pi}$ in analysis?

I have tried to redefine some special functions in the most "natural" way, that is the way which allows to simplify the relations the most. I would call these functions "parelementary". The ...
7
votes
3answers
131 views

Functions proof.

Find all functions $$f: \mathbb{Z} \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}$$ such that $$f(a)^2+f(b)^2+f(c)^2=2f(a)f(b)+2f(b)f(c)+2f(c)f(a)$$ for all integers $$a, b, c$$ satisfying $$a+b+c=0$$ I have no idea how to ...
8
votes
1answer
649 views

Equation about generating functions and subfactorial

Suppose $G_n(w)$ is a formal power series (really a probability generating function, see the following explanation) of variable $w$, try to solve out $G_n(w)$ for all $n\ge0$ from the ...
7
votes
2answers
68 views

Solve the functional equation $ \dfrac{f(x)}{f(y)}=f\left( \dfrac{x-y}{f(y)} \right) $

Solve the functional equation $$ \frac{f(x)}{f(y)}=f\left( \frac{x-y}{f(y)} \right), $$ here $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ and $f$ is differentiable at $x=0.$ By set $x=y$ we get $f(0)=1$. ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

An awkward Functional Equation

Find all $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ satisfying $$f(f(y)+x^2+1)+2x=y+(f(x+1))^2$$ for all $x,y \in \mathbb{R}.$ I proved that $f$ is bijective, but I am stuck there. Any help please?
8
votes
4answers
105 views

Is $f(x) = Cx\log x$ the only solution to $f(xy) = xf(y) + yf(x)$?

I was studying $L(x) = x \log x$ function and found that it satisfies the following functional equation for positive $x, y$: $$ f: \mathbb R^+ \to \mathbb R\\ f(xy) = x f(y) + y f(x) $$ I have a ...
2
votes
2answers
44 views

Determine function such that $f\left(\sqrt{x_1^2+(f(x_1))^2}\right) = f\left(\sqrt{x_2^2+(f(x_2))^2}\right)$ for every $x_1,x_2$.

Determine a numerical no constant function $f$ such that for all $x_1$, $x_2$ in its domaine of definition, the equality $$f\left(\sqrt{x_1^2+(f(x_1))^2}\right) = ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Extract independent parameters

I have a two-variable function which depends also on a number of parameters (six to be exact) $f(x,y; c_1, c_2, c_3, \dots, c_6)$. The explicit form is quite complicated so I will not give it here. It ...
3
votes
0answers
57 views

Solving an equation for a function

I am trying to do some proof and in connection with that this question arose: Can you find a decreasing function so that $$ 1-\frac{f(x)}{f(ax)} = (1-a)^2x^2 $$ where $0\leq a \leq 1$ and $x$ is ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Solve the system of functional equations.

Find all functions $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ such that \begin{cases} f(x(1+f(x)))=f(x)^2,\\ f(x(1-f(x)))=f(x) f(-x),\\ f(x(-1+f(-x)))=f(x)f(-x). \end{cases} I have found only that for ...
10
votes
0answers
79 views

How to solve non-linear differential equation

How to solve non-linear differential equation $$y'(x) = y(y(x)), \quad y\colon\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}?$$ Of course, $y(x)\not\equiv 0$. If we substitute $y(x) = Ax^n$, we get complex $n$ and $A$. Any ...
5
votes
2answers
250 views

find all continuous functions $f:\mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ satisfying $f(x+y)+f(x-y)=2f(x)+2f(y)$ for all $x,y \in \mathbb{R}^n$

find all continuous functions $f:\mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ satisfying \begin{equation*} f(x+y)+f(x-y)=2f(x)+2f(y)~\forall x,y \in \mathbb{R}^n. \end{equation*} My attempt: I manage to show ...
6
votes
1answer
50 views

Is there a constructive discontinuous exponential function? [duplicate]

It is well-known that the only continuous functions $f\colon\mathbb R\to\mathbb R^+$ satisfying $f(x+y)=f(x)f(y)$ for all $x,y\in\mathbb R$ are the familiar exponential functions. (Prove ...
15
votes
1answer
2k views

Find continuous functions such that $f(x+y)+f(x-y)=2[f(x)+f(y)]$

Here is the problem: Find all continuous $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ which satisfy $$f(x+y)+f(x-y)=2[f(x)+f(y)]\;\;\;(1).$$ Here is my attempt: Fix $\delta>0$ and let ...
3
votes
1answer
38 views

Functional equation $f(f(y))+f(x-y)=f(xf(y)-x)$

Find all functions $f$ defined on the real and takes real values ​​such that $$f(f(y))+f(x-y)=f(xf(y)-x)$$ for all $x,y\in \mathbb{R} $ My approach: Let be x=y=o, so $f(f(0))+f(0)=f(0) \to ...
4
votes
0answers
78 views

Solution to following functional equation

Consider the functional equation problem $$ f: \Bbb{R} \rightarrow \Bbb{R}$$ $$ f(a^b) = f(a)^{f(b)},$$ when $a,b \in \Bbb{R}, a,b \ge 0.$ So far the only solution I have is the trivial $$ f(x) ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Recurrence equation $f(g\cdot x)/f(x)=t$

I am trying to solve equation $\frac{f(g x)}{f(x)}=t$ and I'm out of ideas. Any suggestions? In my problem, $f$ is a continuous and weakly increasing function.
0
votes
2answers
36 views

The functional equation $x(x+1)+C(x)=(x+1)(x+2)+C(x+1)=(x+2)(x+3)+C(x+2)=…$

Consider the functional equation $$x(x+1)+C(x)=(x+1)(x+2)+C(x+1)=(x+2)(x+3)+C(x+2)=...$$ The equality continues to infinity. Is there $C(x)$ that satisfies all the equality? If there is, what is it? ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Commutative version of hyper operators.

As I understand it, addition and multiplication are defined on the reals as having identity elements 0 and 1 and being commutative and associative. Multiplication is also distributive over addition. ...
1
vote
1answer
110 views

Functional equation $f(x)=f(x-1)+f(x-a)$

Please help to solve functional equation for real numbers We have: $a\in \mathbb{R}$ and $a>1$ $f_a(x)=1$ if $x<a$ $f_a(x)=f_a(x-1)+f_a(x-a)$ for $x\ge a$ @update Actually we have to find ...
2
votes
2answers
79 views

All solutions to functional equation $f(x+1)-f(x)=1$

I was thinking of the possibility of finding all solutions other than $f(x)=x$ for the functional equation: $f(x+1)-f(x)=1$ If there are other solutions, what will be some restrictions for the ...
2
votes
0answers
23 views

D'alembert functional equation

The d'alembert functional equation f : R → R be function satisfy f(x + y) + f(x-y) = 2f(x)f(y) , for all x, y ∈ R. Having ageneral solution of the form f(x) = E(x) + E∗(x)/2 , where E : R → C? How I ...
7
votes
6answers
200 views

Solve the following equation: $\sqrt {x + \sqrt {4x + \sqrt {16x + \sqrt {64x + 5}}}} - \sqrt x= 1$

A past examination paper had the following question that I found interesting. I tried having a go at it but haven't come around with any solutions. How would one go about tackling it? $$\sqrt {x + ...
0
votes
1answer
194 views

Solving this set of quadratic equations

I have a set of quadratic equations of the form: \begin{equation*} 2S_0q_0(q_0S_0 + q_1S_1 + ...... + q_iS_n)+k_0 = 0 \\ 2S_1q_1(q_0S_0 + q_1S_1 + ...... + q_iS_n)+k_1 = 0 \\ \vdots \\ ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Stability of Cauchy exponential functional equation

If f : R → R is a function satisfying |f(x + y)- a^xy f(x) f(y)| ≤ δ for all x,y ∈ R and for some positive δ, where a is a positive real constant, then show that either the function $f(x) ...