The name "functional equation" is used for problems where the goal is to find all functions satisfying the given equation (and maybe some other conditions). So in this case, solving the equation means finding all functions fulfilling the equation. (This is different from the more common use of the ...

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4
votes
2answers
195 views

$f(x+f(y))=f(x)+y^n$

Here is the problem: Fix $n\in\mathbb{N}$. Find all monotonic solutions $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ such that $f(x+f(y))=f(x)+y^n$. I've tried to show that $f(0)=0$ and derive some ...
10
votes
4answers
207 views

Find all functions f such that $f(f(x))=f(x)+x$

Let $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ be a function such that $f(f(x))=f(x)+x, \forall x\in\mathbb{R}$. Find all such functions $f$. Clearly, $f$ is an "one-to-one function". I have tried setting ...
0
votes
0answers
87 views

Riemann zeta function, functional equation, what completes this analogy?

What completes this analogy? This: $$\zeta(s) = 2^s\pi^{s-1}\ \sin\left(\frac{\pi s}{2}\right)\ \Gamma(1-s)\ \zeta(1-s)\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;(1)$$ is to: $$\chi(s)=\pi ^{-\frac{s}{2}} \Gamma ...
2
votes
3answers
72 views

Prove the equation has unique class of solutions

Find the solutions of equation: $$ x^y + y^x = 1 + xy \quad x,y \in \mathbb{R} \quad x,y >0 $$ My quest First, $x=1$ or $y=1$ gives us obvious solutions, so let's suppose $x \not =1$ and $y \not= ...
1
vote
2answers
40 views

Expressing Math Equations

I'm confused how to express the following expressions in math equations for publication: $x =$ integer part of $y$ $x =$ fraction part of $y$ image $x =$ shifted version of image $y$ left with $z$ ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

modelling trough polynomial equation

Set up a polynomial equation that models each problem below.Then solve the equation, and state the answer to each problem. 1.One dimension of a cube is increased by 1 inch to form a rectangular ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

$\int_0^t f(x) - x dx = f^{[t]}(0) - t - 1$

Let $t,x$ be nonnegative reals. Let $* ^{[k]}$ denote k th iteration. Find real-analytic $f(x)$ such that $\int_0^t f(x) - x dx = f^{[t]}(0) - t - 1$ Holds. We require analytic iterations. ( $ ...
2
votes
2answers
43 views

Contest problem in functional equations.

Let n be a positive integer with $f(n)= 1! +2! +3!+... +n!$ and P(x), Q(x) be polynomials in $x$ such that $f(n+2)=P(n)f(n+1)+Q(n)f(n)$ for all $n \geq 1$, then which of the options is/are ...
3
votes
1answer
56 views

Is the functional equation for $\zeta (s) \left(1-\frac{1}{3^{s-1}}\right)$ known?

It says in wikipedia that Hardy gave a simple proof of the functional equation for: $$\eta(s)=\zeta (s) \left(1-\frac{1}{2^{s-1}}\right)$$ and that it is: $$\eta(-s) = 2 ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

Can this relation be made into a functional equation?

I am trying to find the functional equation for this: $$\zeta(s)\left(1 - \frac{1}{n^{(s - 1)}}\right)$$ Therefore I let: $$x_1=\left(1-\frac{1}{n^{s-1}}\right)$$ which I substitute with ...
8
votes
1answer
676 views

Polynomials which satisfy $p^{2}(x)-1 = p(x^{2}+1)$

Can we find a polynomial $p(x) \in \mathbb{R}$ such that $\text{deg}\ p(x)>1$ and which satisfies $$p^{2}(x)-1=p(x^{2}+1)$$ for all $x \in \mathbb{R}$. This question can be very well identified ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

Is $f(\sqrt{x}) = \sqrt{f(x)}$ true, where $f(xy) = f(x) + f(y)$ for all positives $x, y \in \mathbb{R}$?

Is $f(\sqrt{x}) = \sqrt{f(x)}$ true, where $f(xy) = f(x) + f(y)$ for all positives $x, y \in \mathbb{R}$? It's obviously false. But the point is that "can it be proved without using the fact that the ...
1
vote
0answers
53 views

A matrix version of Fredholm integral equation of the second kind

Fredholm integral equation are often encountered in physics. I have to deal with the following Fredholm matrix equation \begin{equation} \big[ L (x,y) \big]_{ij} = \big[ A (x,y) \big]_{ij} + \sum_{k} ...
3
votes
1answer
71 views

Existence of a solution to $f(x) = \int_0^1 k(x,y) f(y) dy$

Let $X = (0,1)\times (0,1)$ with the Lebesgue measure, and $k\colon X \to \mathbb{R}$ be a measurable non-negative function such that $$ \int_0^1 k(x,y) dy = 1$$ for every $x \in (0,1)$. My question ...
8
votes
1answer
659 views

Equation about generating functions and subfactorial

Suppose $G_n(w)$ is a formal power series (really a probability generating function, see the following explanation) of variable $w$, try to solve out $G_n(w)$ for all $n\ge0$ from the ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Real-valued function with kind of additivity

I am looking for (family of) real-valued functions $f:\mathbb{N}^k \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that for any $i$ one can compute $f(n_1, n_2, \dotsc,n_i+1, \dotsc, n_k)$ knowing only $f(n_1, n_2, ...
3
votes
1answer
47 views

functional with two functions

Find all functions $g:R\rightarrow R$ with the prorepty: There exists a strictly monotonic function $f:R\rightarrow R$ such that $$f(x+y)=f(x)g(y)+f(y),\forall x,y \in R$$ We have one official ...
3
votes
1answer
85 views

Determine all functions $f:\mathbb{Q}\to\mathbb{Q}$ satisfying the functional equation $f(2f(x) + f(y)) = 2x + y$

Determine all functions $f$ defined on the set of rational numbers that take rational values for which $$f(2f(x) + f(y)) = 2x + y \tag{1}$$ for each x and y. This question is from the 2008 ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Finding a Recurrence Relation.

This is from AMC 2015 . For each positive integer n, let S(n) be the number of sequences of length n consisting solely of the letters A and B, with no more than three As in a row and no more than ...
1
vote
1answer
116 views

How to prove that Riemann zeta function is zero for negative even numbers?

Can anyone please explain to me how to prove that Riemann zeta function is 0 for all negative even numbers. In many references , they have just given the statement without any proof. Any explanation ...
-1
votes
2answers
17 views

Unit price equation.

having some trouble with an equation.. 50x + 40y = 375 75x + 70y = 621 I know x=2.82 and y=5.85 (I looked it up in the answers), but I have literally no idea how to get there... Thanks in advance.
11
votes
3answers
163 views

Determine all functions satisfying $f\left ( f(x)^{2}y \right )=x^{3}f(xy)$

Denote by $\mathbb{Q}^{+} $ the set of all positive rational numbers. Determine all functions $f: \mathbb{Q}^{+} \rightarrow \mathbb{Q}^{+}$ which satisfy the following equation for all $x,y \in ...
6
votes
0answers
82 views

Pretty Innocuous Functional Equation

If $f$ is a real-valued function with $x,y \in \mathbb{R}$ such that $$f(x+y)=f(x)f(y)$$ then find $f(5)$, given that $f(2)=5$. So, can someone tell me if/where I'm incorrect? This was my approach: ...
5
votes
1answer
63 views

When does $f\left [g\left (x \right ) \right ]=g\left [ f\left ( x \right ) \right ]$ have roots.

I met a interesting equation: $$\sin\left [\cos\left (x \right ) \right ]=\cos\left [\sin\left (x \right ) \right ]$$ (And of course, the equation has no roots). So, Let $f\left ( x \right )$ ...
4
votes
2answers
218 views

Given functional equation $f(x,y)=f(x,y+1)+f(x+1,y)+f(x-1,y)+f(x,y-1)$, show that $f(0,0)=0$

Let $f:\mathbb{Z}\times \mathbb{Z}\to \mathbb{R}$, such that for all $x,y$ $$f(x,y)=f(x,y+1)+f(x+1,y)+f(x-1,y)+f(x,y-1),$$ and if $m,n\in \mathbb{Z},mn\neq 0$,we have $f(2m,2n)=0$. Show that ...
3
votes
0answers
32 views

What can be said about a function with rotational symmetry of order other than 2?

It is well known that an odd function is a function whose graph has rotational symmetry of order $2$ (about the origin). Suppose the graph of $f:U \to \Bbb{R}$ has rotational symmetry of some higher ...
9
votes
2answers
405 views

Functions satisfying $f\left( f(x)^2+f(y) \right)=xf(x)+y$

Find all functions $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that $f\left( f(x)^2+f(y) \right)=xf(x)+y$ for all real numbers $x$ and $y$. Clearly $f(x)=x$ is a solution, check by substitution. ...
2
votes
3answers
47 views

Solving functional equation gives incorrect function

Let $f:\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ be a function which satisfies $e^xf(y)+e^yf(x)=2e^{x+y}-e^{x-y}$ for all real x and y. If I place $x=y$, I get $f(x)=e^x-\frac{1}{2}e^{-x}$ which does not satisfy the ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

Converting equation into Octave / Matlab code and a for loop

I have an array of thousands of values I've only included three groupings as an example below: (amp1=0.2; freq1=3; phase1=1; is an example of one grouping) ...
5
votes
4answers
402 views

Find a polynomial from an equality

Find all polynomials for which What I have done so far: for $x=8$ we get $p(8)=0$ for $x=1$ we get $p(2)=0$ So there exists a polynomial $p(x) = (x-2)(x-8)q(x)$ This is where I get stuck. How do I ...
4
votes
6answers
168 views

Functional equation $ f(x)+f(x+1)=x$

What functions satisfy $f(x)+f(x+1)=x$? I tried but I do not know if my answer is correct. $f(x)=y$ $y+f(x+1)=x$ $f(x+1)=x-y$ $f(x)=x-1-y$ $2y=x-1$ $f(x)=(x-1)/2$
7
votes
1answer
40 views

Find all functions f with the following two properties

Let $f(x): [0, +\infty)\mapsto \mathbb{R}$ be a function such that for one $k\in [0, +\infty)$: $$f^2(x)=k^2+x\cdot f(x+k) \quad \forall x\in \{\;[0, +\infty) : x\geq k\;\}\qquad (1)$$ and ...
4
votes
3answers
117 views

Determine all functions $f:\mathbb{N}\rightarrow\mathbb{N}$ such that $xf(y)+yf(x)=(x+y)f(x^2+y^2)$ for all $x,y\in\mathbb{N}$ (contest question)

The question below is from the 2002 Canada National Olympiad. I have found one family of functions but need help in finding (or proving the non-existence) of others. Suggestions on how to improve the ...
0
votes
3answers
63 views

Solving the functional equation $f(a + b) = a + f(b)$

How would you solve: $$f(a+b)=a+f(b) ?$$ It seems similar to the Cauchy equation $$f(a+b)=f(a)+f(b),$$ but I'm not sure what to do with this. I have a feeling the only solution is $f(k)=k$ but idk. ...
1
vote
2answers
47 views

Are there any solutions to $2g(x+y)-g(x-y) =2g(x)g(y)$ with $g(0) \ne 0$?

Are there any solutions to $2g(x+y)-g(x-y) =2g(x)g(y)$ with $g(0) \ne 0$? This came up (by replacing $e^x$ with $g(x)$) in an attempt to generalize this: Solving functional equation gives incorrect ...
0
votes
2answers
54 views

Prove that an equation has solution in R

Let $f:\mathbb R\to \mathbb R$, $x\in\mathbb R$ and $$f(x^2 + 3x + 1) = f^2(x) + 3f(x) + 1.$$ Prove that $f(x)=x$ has a solution $\in \mathbb R.$
0
votes
1answer
11 views

rectangular paddock, dimensions, maximise area it encloses

Having trouble trying to work out a question which involves finding a function to graph evidence of the correct answer, any advice would be greatly appreciated. I am struggling with part 'b' a lot, ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Solve differential equation

How can we solve (if a closed form expression for f(x) can be found) the following first-order linear differential equation? $$f'(x)=f(x)\cdot (\cos x+\tan x)$$ I have found that one function which ...
5
votes
3answers
1k views

How to prove $f(x)=ax$ if $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$ and $f$ is locally integrable

Suppose $f(x)$ is integrable in any bounded interval on $\mathbb R$, and it satisfies the equation $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$ on $\mathbb R$. How to prove $f(x)=ax$?
5
votes
1answer
61 views

Functional equation: Finding $f(100)$

A polynomial of degree 98 such $f (k)=1/k$ for $k=1,2,3...,98,99$ exists. How to find $f(100)$? What are the possible methods ?
1
vote
0answers
15 views

Criteria when bigger number of functions can be obtained from smaller number

It is known that $$ A_1(x_1, x_2) = \partial \varphi(x_1, x_2)/\partial x_1, $$ $$ A_2(x_1, x_2) = \partial \varphi(x_1, x_2)/\partial x_2 $$ holds if and only if $$ \partial A_1/\partial ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Find functions that satisfy this equation.

Give some examples of functions, $F$ and $G$ such that $$x=\sqrt{F(x)+G(x)\sqrt{F(x+n)}}-\sqrt{F(x+n)}.$$ $n$ can be a constant. [Edit]: with $n\gt{0}$
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Functional equation + differential equation = way of finding solution?

Question I was wondering about the following: Let's say there is a differential equation whose solution is $f$ And $f$ also satisfies a functional equation. Can anyone construct an (non-trivial) ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

A functional equation that is equal to 7x

I wish to find all of the functions $f:\mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ such that $$ f(x) + 3 f\left( \frac {x-1}{x} \right) = 7x $$ for all nonzero $x$. I have tried plugging in $\frac{x-1}{x}$, but that ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

Example of a well defined functional integral?

So I was playing around with the notion of a functional integral. Basically given a set $S$ of functions we can define $$ \int_{f \in S} L(f) $$ As the sum of of every function $f$ evaluated by ...
1
vote
3answers
90 views

What is meaning of this question and how to solve it?

I am stuck with understanding the meaning of the question, which states: Show that $\cos(n\theta)=f_n(\cos\theta)$ for polynomials $f_n(x)$ satisfying $$f_{n+1}(x)=2xf_n(x)-f_{n-1}(x) \tag{1}$$ ...
2
votes
4answers
93 views

Prove that $\lim_\limits{x\to 0}{f(x)}=0$

Let $f:\mathbb{R}\mapsto \mathbb{R}$ be a function such that: $$2\cdot f(x)-\sin(f(x))=x, \forall x\in \mathbb{R}$$ Prove that $\lim_\limits{x\to 0}{f(x)}=0$. I think I need to use the sandwich ...
18
votes
4answers
3k views

Is there a name for function with the exponential property $f(x+y)=f(x) \cdot f(y)$?

I was wondering if there is a name for a function that satisfies the conditions $f:\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ and $f(x+y)=f(x) \cdot f(y)$? Thanks and regards!
31
votes
0answers
809 views

Find all functions $f$ such that if $a+b$ is a square, then $f(a)+f(b)$ is a square

Question: For any $a,b\in \mathbb{N}^{+}$, if $a+b$ is a square number, then $f(a)+f(b)$ is also a square number. Find all such functions. My try: It is clear that the function $$f(x)=x$$ ...
5
votes
2answers
127 views

given $2f(x) + f(1-x) = x^2$ find $f(-5)$

I found this questions from past year maths competition in my country, I've tried any possible way to find it, but it is just way too hard. A function $f$ has property that $2f(x)+ f(1-x) = x^2$ ...