The name "functional equation" is used for problems where the goal is to find all functions satisfying the given equation (and maybe some other conditions). So in this case, solving the equation means finding all functions fulfilling the equation. (This is different from the more common use of the ...

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0
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0answers
131 views

Solving an equation with 2 unknowns

I've been trying to solve this problem and was wondering if there is a more accurate / efficient way to do it. For the following equation $$y = a \times \left(1 - ...
11
votes
5answers
485 views

$g(x+y)+g(x)g(y)=g(xy)+g(x)+g(y)$ for all $x,y$.

Find all functions $g:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ with $g(x+y)+g(x)g(y)=g(xy)+g(x)+g(y)$ for all $x,y$. I think the solutions are $0, 2, x$. If $g(x)$ is not identically $2$, then $g(0)=0$. I'm trying ...
-3
votes
2answers
67 views

Find $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ using derivation

USING DERIVATION find $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ $$f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)+2xy, \forall x,y \in \mathbb{R}$$
19
votes
7answers
3k views

Find $f(x)$ such that $f(f(x)) = x^2 - 2$

Find all $f(x)$ satisfying $f(f(x)) = x^2 - 2$. Presumably $f(x)$ is supposed to be a function from $\mathbb R$ to $\mathbb R$ with no further restrictions (we don't assume continuity, etc), but ...
1
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0answers
42 views

Does one have to check some additional hypothesis to apply the implicit function theorem for infinite dimensional spaces?

Let $L : B_1 \rightarrow B_1$ be an isomorphism of Banach spaces (i.e., L is a bijective bounded linear operator) and $A: B_1 \rightarrow B_2$ a non linear operator. Consider the following equation ...
3
votes
1answer
107 views

Mean density of the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function

As part of my MSc I am reviewing a paper. The paper is a review on the statistical distribution of the unfolded zeros (see below) of the Reimann functional equation. In the paper there is a sentence: ...
1
vote
0answers
52 views

A functional power series equation

I am interested in solving the following functional equation: $$(1-w-zw)F(z,w)+zw^nF(z,w^2)=z-zw\,.$$ Here $n\geq2$ is a fixed integer and $F(z,w)$ is a power series in two variables with complex ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

how to solve this optimization problem with functions?

Suppose $\theta\in[0,1]$ and $s(\cdot)$ is strictly increasing in $\theta$ with $0\leq(0)<s(1)\leq1$ and $s(0)+s(1)>1$ How could I solve the program, $\max_{s(\cdot)\in ...
5
votes
2answers
251 views

Iterative roots of sine

Is there an analytical function $f(z)$ such that $f(f(z)) = \sin(z)$? More generally, an analytical function such that f applied $n$ times to $z$ gives $\sin(z)$? Is there a general theory for ...
1
vote
2answers
78 views

Solve this equation: $f(s)=P(s)\exp(Q(s))$

Let $f,P,Q$ three analytic functions. Here $P$ is a polynomial. I want to solve this equation: $$f(s)=P(s)\exp(Q(s)).$$ The unknown here are $P, Q$ and $f$ is known.
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3answers
72 views

Solve this functional equation: $h(-s)=a-h(s)$

Let $h$ be an analytic function. My question is : Solve this functional equation: $$h(-s)=a-h(s)$$ holds true for all $s∈ℂ$. Here, $a∈ℂ$, $a≠0$.
3
votes
1answer
34 views

A question on functional equations.

Question: If it is given that $$ e^xf(x) = 2 + \int_0^x\sqrt{1+x^4}\,dx $$ then what is the value of $ \dfrac {d} {dx} \Big(f^{-1}(x)\Big)\Bigg|_{x=2} $ Where I am stuck: Now, since we are to ...
-4
votes
1answer
254 views

Find all continuous functions f :

Find all continuous functions f : $(x+y)f(x+y)=xf(x)+yf(y)+2xy$ $\forall x,y\in \mathbb{R} $
0
votes
1answer
356 views

fabric design using trigonometric functions

is there any trigonometric function or any others that involve trigonometric function, that draw cool fabric shapes or patterns? I have seen some pictures like but with trigonometric functions... ...
1
vote
0answers
232 views

iterative method to solve nonlinear equations

I'd like to know whether there are any methods like the Gauss-Seidel method to solve nonlinear equations. For example, I'd like to solve $f(\textbf x) = 0$, where $f(\textbf x)$ is a nonlinear ...
2
votes
0answers
69 views

How prove this sequences have limts and find this value?

let $f:R\longrightarrow R$,and $f(x)=x-\dfrac{x^2}{2}$,and $$L_{1}(x)=f(x),L_{2}(x)=f(f(x)),L_{3}(x)=f(L_{2}(x)),\cdots,L_{n}(x)=f(L_{n-1}(x))$$ and let $$a_{n}=L_{n}\left(\dfrac{17}{n}\right)$$ ...
-2
votes
2answers
83 views

$g(x+y)=g(x)g(y)$ for all $x,y \in\mathbb{R}$. If $g$ is continuous at $0$, prove that $g$ is continuous on $\mathbb{R}$ [duplicate]

$g(x+y)=g(x)g(y)$ for all $x,y \in\mathbb{R}$. If $g$ is continuous at $0$, prove that $g$ is continuous on $\mathbb{R}$.
2
votes
0answers
81 views

Unicity of solution to an integral equation

Suppose we have the following integral equation $$f(x)=\int_0^\infty f(y)(x+y)e^{-x^2/2-xy}\text{d}y$$ where $f: [0,\infty)\rightarrow[0,\infty)$. The function $f(x)=Ce^{-x^2/2}$ solves the equation. ...
2
votes
1answer
98 views

Find $f(x)$ from $2f'(x)-3f'(1/x)=x$

Find $f(x)$ given that $2f'(x)-3f'(1/x)=x$ Also, is it possible to do this without integration?
7
votes
0answers
107 views

Any chance for a solution of $f[f(x)]=x^2+1$? [duplicate]

Not sure if this is a closed or open question. But the question is suppose $f[f(x)]=x^2+1$ then what is $f(x)$? Though the question does not refer to the domain let us suppose it is defined on $\Bbb ...
2
votes
2answers
101 views

Solve the function equation $g^2(x)-g(x+1)-\dfrac{x^2+2x-6}{4}=0$

let $g(x)\in \Bbb R$ and for any $x\in \Bbb R$ such that $$g^2(x)-g(x+1)-\dfrac{x^2+2x-6}{4}=0, g(0)=0$$ find $g(x)$ my idea let $x\longrightarrow x+1$, then we have ...
0
votes
0answers
39 views

Follow up to previous functional equation question.

Find all $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ s.t $$f(x^2+f(y))=(x-y)^2f(x+y)$$ Putting $x=y$ yields $f(x^2+f(x))=0$. (1) Putting $y=-x$ yields $f(x^2+f(-x))=(2x)^2f(0)$. (2) By (1) $(2x)^2f(0)=0$ ...
4
votes
2answers
75 views

Finding all $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ s.t $f(x^2+f(y))=(x-y)^2f(x+y)$

Find all $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ s.t $$f(x^2+f(y))=(x-y)^2f(x+y)$$ I don't want people to solve this one for me I'd just like to know whether one of my steps is legitimate. So I put ...
3
votes
2answers
74 views

Finding a function from the given functional equation .

The question asks us to find the function $f(x)$ with the given information Let $f:\mathbb R \rightarrow \mathbb R$ such that $f'(0)=1$ and $f(x+y)=f(x) + f(y) + (e^{x+y})(x+y)-xe^x-ye^y+2xy$ ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

functional equation (conti-function $f(x)$)

I would appreciate if somebody could help me with the following problem Q: Find conti-function $f(x)=?$ $$4(1-x)^{2} f \left({1-x\over 2} \right)+16f \left({1+x\over 2} \right)=16(1-x)-(1-x)^{4}$$
6
votes
1answer
132 views

Functional Equation - Am I right?

Find all functions $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that $$x^2+y^2+2f(xy)=f(x+y)(f(x)+f(y))$$ So here's my solution, If $x=y=0$, $2f(0)=2f(0)^2$ $\implies f(0)=0$ or $f(0)=1$. Case $1$: ...
0
votes
0answers
160 views

An example of the Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP)

Given an objective function $f(x,y)=(x+6)^2+(y-10)^2$, we want to minimize the function $f$ under a constrained condition $xy-5\leq0$. Obviously it is a constrained optimization, a good algorithm to ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

Functional equations very like the Taylor Series

Let $g(x,y)=0$ be a closed curve, that means, any point inside that curve satisfies $g(x,y)<0$ and any point outside that curve satisfies $g(x,y)>0$. Given a point $(a,b)$ outside the curve ...
8
votes
5answers
222 views

Functional equation: $R(1/x)/x^2 = R(x) $

The following can be shown without much hassle. Suppose $R$ is a rational function satisfying the following functional equation. \begin{align} \frac{1}{x^2} R\left( \frac{1}{x} \right) = ...
3
votes
1answer
78 views

Deriving the series formula for the digamma function using the functional equation

By repeatedly applying the functional equation $ \displaystyle\psi(z+1) = \frac{1}{z} + \psi(z)$ I get that $$ \psi(z) = \psi(z+n) - \frac{1}{z+n-1} - \ldots - \frac{1}{z+1} - \frac{1}{z}$$ or ...
16
votes
4answers
865 views

About the addition formula $f(x+y) = f(x)g(y)+f(y)g(x)$

Consider the functional equation $$f(x+y) = f(x)g(y)+f(y)g(x)$$ valid for all complex $x,y$. The only solutions I know for this equation are $f(x)=0$, $f(x)=Cx$, $f(x)=C\sin(x)$ and $f(x)=C\sinh(x)$. ...
7
votes
2answers
204 views

Find all real polynomials $p(x)$ that satisfy $\sin( p(x) ) = p( \sin(x) )$

Find all real polynomials $p(x)$ that satisfy $\sin( p(x) ) = p( \sin(x) )$ and prove they are indeed all. Is there an easy way to prove this?
0
votes
3answers
51 views

Solve the equation about matrix

The equation is $x^2 = x$, which $x$ is a $2\times2$ matrix. Anyone can give me some hint? Thanks!
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Functional equation problem

I've been trying to find a function that satisfies this to solve a separate problem, but I'm finding it difficult and no polynomial seems to work. $f(x) + \frac{1}{x+1} = f(x+1)$
2
votes
3answers
187 views

How find the $f(x+f(y))+f(y+f(z))+f(z+f(x))=0,$

:$f:R\longrightarrow R$ ,and is continuous such that $$f(x+f(y))+f(y+f(z))+f(z+f(x))=0,$$ find all $f$
0
votes
1answer
71 views

Solving Functional Equations

How would I go about solving $f(r+1) - f(r) = r^3$? I know the answer is $f(r) = c + \frac{1}{4}r^2(r-1)^2$, but I have no idea what method can be used to solve it. I have another functional ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Program to determine the relationship of one variable to several possible variables

Suppose I have a system with several variables a, b, c, d, and x. I am trying to solve for the unknown x. I don't know exactly which of those variables x is dependent on, or exactly how the function ...
3
votes
0answers
51 views

Could we compute $P(t^2)$?

Let $P$ be an operator such that $P(kx)=kP(x)$, $k \in \mathbb{C}$, $x$ is a variable, $P(xy)=P(xP(y))+P(P(x)y)-P(x)P(y)$, $x, y$ are variables. All variables commute. Let $P(t)=t$. Then ...
12
votes
1answer
733 views

Overview of basic facts about Cauchy functional equation

The Cauchy functional equation asks about functions $f \colon \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ such that $$f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y).$$ It is a very well-known functional equation, which appears in various areas of ...
2
votes
0answers
25 views

A question about scaling

One wants the function $\Delta ^2$ to be such that, $\Delta^2(k,\tau) = \Delta^2(\frac{k}{\lambda ^{\frac{4}{n+3}}}, \lambda \tau )$. Now from this how does this follow that, the following holds, ...
4
votes
2answers
208 views

Is a function $f$ satisfying $f(x+1) = f(x) + 1$ and $f(x^2) = (f(x))^2$ odd or even?

The problem statement, all variables and given/known data 1) $f(x+1)=f(x)+1$ 2) $f(x^2) =(f(x))^2$ Let a function $f \colon \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ satisfy the above statements. Then prove ...
1
vote
2answers
65 views

Playing with a functional equation

I was playing with a functional equation and proved the result below: Let $f$ be such that $$f(f(z))=z$$ If $f^{-1}$ exists then $$f(z)=f^{-1}(z)$$ If $f'$ exists then as ...
0
votes
2answers
623 views
8
votes
2answers
83 views

A functional equation with inequality

Find all (at least one) functions $f\colon \mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}$ (or show there is none), such that $$ f(x^3+x)≤x≤f(x^3)+f(x), \quad \text{for all $x\in \mathbb{R}$}. $$ This is a problem asked ...
7
votes
1answer
132 views

The value of the trilogarithm ($\text{Li}_{3} (z)$) at $\frac{1}{2}$

From the functional equation $$\text{Li}_{3}(z) + \text{Li}_{3}(1-z)+ \text{Li}_{3} \Big( 1 - \frac{1}{z} \Big) = \zeta(3) + \frac{\ln^{3} (z)}{6}+ \frac{\pi^{2} \ln (z) }{6}- \frac{\ln^{2} (z) ...
6
votes
2answers
396 views

Find all $f(x)$ if $f(1-x)=f(x)+1-2x$?

To find one solution I assumed that $f$ is even and rewrote this as $f(x-1)-f(x)+2x=1.$ By just thinking about a solution, I was able to conclude that $f(x)=x^2$ is a solution. However, I am sure that ...
5
votes
0answers
201 views

Differentiable functions satisfying $f'(f(x))=f(f'(x))$

I am wondering whether or not there is a reasonable characterization of differentiable functions $f: \mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}$ such that $f'(f(x))=f(f'(x))$ for each $x\in\mathbb{R}$. (Or, if you like ...
9
votes
2answers
407 views

find functions f such that $f(f(x))=xf(x)+1$,

let $f:R\longrightarrow R$, and $f$ is continous,and such that $f(f(x))=xf(x)+1$, find all this $f$? follow is my some idea:(but I don't have solution) We have $f(f(0)) = 1$, so there is your $c = ...
29
votes
4answers
716 views

Does a non-trivial solution exist for $f'(x)=f(f(x))$?

Does $f'(x)=f(f(x))$ have any solutions other than $f(x)=0$? I know it can't have any polynomial solutions. If $f$ has degree $n$, then $f(f(x))$ has degree $n^2$, while $f'(x)$ has degree $n-1$. I ...
0
votes
0answers
100 views

integral equations - i need help to expand the function [duplicate]

I have the following integral equation to solve: $$\int_{0}^{2\pi} (\cos^2(x+y)+1/2) \phi (y) dy$$ So, I need to find $\lambda$ where $\lambda$ is the eigenvalues's function. Well, my main goal is ...