The name "functional equation" is used for problems where the goal is to find all functions satisfying the given equation (and maybe some other conditions). So in this case, solving the equation means finding all functions fulfilling the equation. (This is different from the more common use of the ...

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1answer
101 views

Are there associative bijections $f\colon \mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{N}$?

This is my first question and I hope this question is not too brief to be acceptable: There are well-known bijections $\mathbb{N \times N \to N}$ and well-known associative compositions on countably ...
8
votes
1answer
212 views

If the function $f$ satisfies the equation $f(xf(y)+x)=xy+f(x)$, find $f$

Question Let the function $f:\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$,and such $$f(xf(y)+x)=xy+f(x)$$ Find all $f(x)$ Let $x=1,y=1$,then $$f(f(1)+1)=1+f(1)$$ let $f(1)=t$,then $$f(t+1)=1+t$$ So I guess $$...
8
votes
1answer
147 views

All functions $g:\mathbb{N}\to\mathbb{Z}$ such that $m+n~|~g(m)+g(n)$

I just thought about the following question: Find all functions $g:\mathbb{N}\to\mathbb{Z}$ such that $m+n~|~g(m)+g(n)$ for all $m,n\in\mathbb{N}$. Clearly every polynomial $g(X)\in\mathbb{Z}[X]$ in ...
8
votes
2answers
181 views

How find this function equation $(f(x))^2-(f(y))^2=f(x+y)\cdot f(x-y)$

Find all the continuous bounded functions $f: \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ such that satisfying the function equation $$(f(x))^2-(f(y))^2=f(x+y)\cdot f(x-y)$$ By the way :I have see this problem( is ...
8
votes
1answer
102 views

Complicated real to real functional equation

Find all $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ satisfying $$f(f(y)+x^2+1)+2x=y+(f(x)+1)^2$$ for all $x,y \in \mathbb{R}.$ So far I have proved that $f$ is bijective. How should I continue?
8
votes
3answers
215 views

Solutions for the Functional Equation $f(x^2)=f(x)^2$

Suppose a continuous function $f:[0,1]\rightarrow [{0,1}]$ satisfies the functional equation $f(x^2)=f(x)^2$. Then I conjecture that we must have $f(x)=0$ or $f(x)=x^r$ for some real number $r\geq 0$. ...
8
votes
1answer
211 views

Maps of $\mathbb{R}^3$ preserving the cross product

Given a map $\phi:\Bbb R^3 \rightarrow \Bbb R^3$ such that for all $a,b \in \Bbb R^3$: $$\phi(a \times b)=\phi(a) \times \phi(b)$$ Is $\phi$ necessarily a rotation around the origin or the map ...
8
votes
1answer
172 views

Find all $f:\mathbb {R} \rightarrow \mathbb {R}$ where $f(f(x))=f'(x)f(x)+c$

Recently, while studying calculus, I have come across multiples problems which asked the following: If $f(x)$ is a polynomial, find all $f(x)$ that $f(f(x))=f'(x)f(x)+c$, where $c$ is a constant. ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

Solution for exponential function's functional equation by using a definition of derivative

let $f(0)=1$ and $f'(0)=1$. and $f(x+y)=f(x)f(y)$ for $x,y\in R$. How can I found $f(x)$ by using a definition of derivative?
8
votes
1answer
130 views

Functional Equation for $f(x-y)+f(y-z)+f(z-x)=2f(x+y+z)$

The following functional equation proved quite difficult. $1.$ $f(x)$ is a polynominal with real coeffecients. $2.$ $f(1)=2,f(2)=20$. $3.$ When for real $x,y,z$ satisfies the condition $xy+yz+zx=...
8
votes
1answer
184 views

A functional equation problem

Let $f$ be a function which maps $\mathbb{Q}^{+}\to\mathbb{Q}^{+}$. And it satisfies $$ \left\{ \begin{array}{l} f(x)+f\left(\frac{1}{x}\right)=1\\ f(2x)=2f(f(x)) \end{array}\right. $$ Show that $f\...
8
votes
2answers
385 views

Solve the following functional equation $f(xf(y))+f(yf(x))=2xy$

Find all function $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ so that $f(xf(y))+f(yf(x)=2xy$. By putting $x=y=0$ we get $f(0)=0$ and by putting $x=y=1$ we get $f(f(1))=1$. Let $y=f(1)\Rightarrow f(x)+f(f(x)...
7
votes
5answers
2k views

Find polynomials such that $(x-16)p(2x)=16(x-1)p(x)$

Find all polynomials $p(x)$ such that for all $x$, we have $$(x-16)p(2x)=16(x-1)p(x)$$ I tried working out with replacing $x$ by $\frac{x}{2},\frac{x}{4},\cdots$, to have $p(2x) \to p(0)$ but then ...
7
votes
7answers
383 views

Function satisfying $x = f(f(x))$ and $x \not= f(x)$

Is there a function that would satisfy the following conditions?: $\forall x \in X, x = f(f(x))$ and $x \not= f(x)$, where the set $X$ is the set of all triplets $(x_1,x_2,x_3)$ with $x_i \in \{0,1,\...
7
votes
2answers
156 views

For all $x,y\in G$ we have: $f(xf(y))=f(x)y$. Prove that $f$ is an isomorphism?

Let $G$ be a group and $f : G \to G$ a function such that for all $x,y\in G$: $$f(x f(y)) = f(x) y.$$ Prove that $f$ is an isomorphism. There are two problems here: we don't know that $f$ is a ...
7
votes
4answers
434 views

3rd iterate of a continuous function equals identity function

If $ f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R} $ is continuous, and $\forall x \in \mathbb{R} :\;(f \circ f \circ f)(x) = x $, show that $ f(x) = x $. The condition that $f$ is continuous on $\mathbb{R}$ is ...
7
votes
4answers
689 views

Solving the functional equation $f(x+1) - f(x-1) = g(x)$

Given a function $g(x)$, is it possible to find a function $f(x)$ that satisfies $$ f(x+1) - f(x-1) = g(x) $$
7
votes
3answers
196 views

Is every function $f : \mathbb N \to \mathbb N$ a composition $f = g\circ g$?

True or wrong: For every function $f: \mathbb N \rightarrow \mathbb N$ there is a function $g: \mathbb N \rightarrow \mathbb N$ with $f=g \circ g$.
7
votes
4answers
185 views

$f \colon \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, $f$ is continuous , and $f(x+1)+f(x)=x^2$

I would appreciate if somebody could help me with the following problem: Find $f(x)$ ($f(x)$ is not Polynomial function), given that: $f \colon \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, $f$ is ...
7
votes
2answers
238 views

Find all real polynomials $p(x)$ that satisfy $\sin( p(x) ) = p( \sin(x) )$

Find all real polynomials $p(x)$ that satisfy $\sin( p(x) ) = p( \sin(x) )$ and prove they are indeed all. Is there an easy way to prove this?
7
votes
4answers
787 views

If $f(x/2)=f(x)/2$, then $f(x)=f'(0)x$

Let $f:\mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ be differentiable such that $f(x/2)=f(x)/2$ for any $x\in \mathbb R$. How can I prove that $f(x)=f'(0)x$, for any $x\in \mathbb R$? It seems easy, but I don't know why, ...
7
votes
2answers
89 views

Solving a functional equation $f(x)+f\left(\frac{1}{1-x}\right)=x$

I was given the following homework: list all functions $f:\mathbb{R}\setminus\{0,1\}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ such that $f(x)+f\left(\frac{1}{1-x}\right)=x$. And obviously have I no idea what should I do ...
7
votes
3answers
651 views

If $f:N→N$ such that $f(f(x))=3x$, then find $f(2013)$

If $f:N→N$ such that $f(f(x))=3x$, then what is the value of $f(2013)$?
7
votes
2answers
123 views

How to solve the functional equation $f\left(x^2+f(y)\right)=y+f(x)^2$

How to solve the following functional equation: Find all $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R} $ such that: $$ f\left(x^2+f(y)\right)=y+f(x)^2 $$ Holds for every $x,y\in\mathbb{R}$. A friend gave it to me, ...
7
votes
3answers
951 views

Find all the functions which satisfy a given functional equation

I was given by a friend of mine the following problem. Find all the functions $f:\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$ which satisfy the following functional equation $$f(y+f(x))=f(x)f(y)+f(f(x))+f(y)-xy.$$ We ...
7
votes
1answer
471 views

Entire function with $f(z)=\sin(f(z))$ must be constant?

I'm trying to show why an entire function with the property $f(z)= \sin(f(z))$ everywhere must be constant. Is it sufficient to say that when taking the derivatives, we will get $f'(z)=f'(z) \...
7
votes
5answers
148 views

Find all functions $f$ such that $f(x-f(y)) = f(f(x)) - f(y) - 1$

Find all functions $f : \mathbb{Z} \to \mathbb{Z}$ such that $f(x-f(y)) = f(f(x)) - f(y) - 1$. So far, I've managed to prove that if $f$ is linear, then either $f(x) = x + 1$ or $f(x) = -1$ must be ...
7
votes
3answers
407 views

Functional equation $f(x+y)+f(x-y)=2f(x)f(y)$

Let $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R^*}$ be a function such that $f(x+y)+f(x-y)=2f(x)f(y),\forall x,y\in\mathbb{R}$. Prove that $f(x)=1,\forall x\in\mathbb{R}$. I have managed to prove the following: 1) $f(...
7
votes
1answer
495 views

How to find all polynomials $P(x)$ such that $P(x^2+2x+3)=[P(x+3)]^2$?

Can someone please show me how to: Find all polynomials $P(x)$ such that $P(x^2+2x+3)=[P(x+3)]^2$? I've tried substitiuting $x=0,1$. Can't seem to figure it out. The square on the RHS is confusing ...
7
votes
3answers
262 views

How to find the function $f$ given $f(f(x)) = xf(x)$?

I was wondering if there is a continuous function such that $f(f(x)) = xf(x)$ for every positive number $x$.
7
votes
3answers
290 views

Solve this functional equation:

Functional equations such as this one appear only once every several years on exams, so I feel it's hard to have a sure-fire way to approach the problem, unlike, say, solving a series convergence ...
7
votes
3answers
467 views

Why computing Fatou coordinate is so hard?

I'm trying to make images of Fatou coordinate for some polynomial maps. If I'm not wrong there is no explicit general formula/method for computing Fatou coordinate near parabolic fixed point. Is ...
7
votes
1answer
626 views

non-continuous function satisfies $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$

As mentioned in this link, it shows that For any $f$ on the real line $\mathbb{R}^1$, $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$ implies $f$ continuous $\Leftrightarrow$ $f$ measurable. But how to show there exists such ...
7
votes
2answers
77 views

How to solve $\frac{f^{-1}(x)f(x)}{x}=\frac{f^{-1}(x)+f(x)}{2}$?

I've come across the following functional equation: Determine all surjective functions $f:\mathbb{R_{>0}}\to\mathbb{R_{>0}}$ which satisfy for all $x\in\mathbb{R_{>0}}$: $$ 2xf(f(x))=f(x)\...
7
votes
4answers
169 views

$f:\Bbb Z\to\Bbb Z$ such that $f(f(n)-2n)=2f(n)+n$ for all $n\in\Bbb Z$

Does there exists a function $f:\Bbb Z\to\Bbb Z$ such that $$f(f(n)-2n)=2f(n)+n$$ for all $n\in\Bbb Z$
7
votes
4answers
1k views

Find a solution for $f\left(\frac{1}{x}\right)+f(x+1)=x$

Title says all. If $f$ is an analytic function on the real line, and $f\left(\dfrac{1}{x}\right)+f(x+1)=x$, what, if any, is a possible solution for $f(x)$? Additionally, what are any solutions for $...
7
votes
2answers
99 views

A functional equation with inequality

Find all (at least one) functions $f\colon \mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}$ (or show there is none), such that $$ f(x^3+x)≤x≤f(x^3)+f(x), \quad \text{for all $x\in \mathbb{R}$}. $$ This is a problem asked ...
7
votes
2answers
110 views

Solve the functional equation $ \dfrac{f(x)}{f(y)}=f\left( \dfrac{x-y}{f(y)} \right) $

Solve the functional equation $$ \frac{f(x)}{f(y)}=f\left( \frac{x-y}{f(y)} \right), $$ here $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ and $f$ is differentiable at $x=0.$ By set $x=y$ we get $f(0)=1$. ...
7
votes
2answers
149 views

When is it possible to have $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)+g(xy)$?

According to the question mentioned here, it seems that there is no function $f(x)$ such that the functional equation $$f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)-(xy-1)^2$$ can hold. Motivated by this question, I found it ...
7
votes
4answers
119 views

Continuity of function where $f(x+y) = f(x)f(y) ~~\forall x, y \in \mathbb{R}$.

Let $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be a function which satisfies $f(x+y) = f(x)f(y) ~~\forall x, y \in \mathbb{R}$ is continuous at $x=0$, then it is continuous at every point of $\mathbb{R}$. ...
7
votes
2answers
160 views

Problem about functional equation (Bulgarian selection team test)

This problem was taken from the bulgarian selection team test for the 47th IMO and appeared in a chinese magazine, I came across it in my own training. http://www.math.ust.hk/excalibur/v10_n4.pdf ...
7
votes
3answers
308 views

$f(x^2) = 2f(x)$ and $f(x)$ continuous

I ran into a problem recently where I obtained the following constraint on a function. $$f(x^2) = 2f(x) \,\,\,\, \forall x \geq 0$$ and the function $f(x)$ is continuous. Can we conclude that $f(x)$ ...
7
votes
1answer
362 views

$f(x+y) + f( f(x) + f(y) ) = f( f( x+f(y) ) + f( y+f(x) ) )$

Suppose $f:\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$ is a strictly decreasing function which satisfies the relation $$f(x+y) + f( f(x) + f(y) ) = f( f( x+f(y) ) + f( y+f(x) ) ) , \quad \forall x , y \in\mathbb R $$ ...
7
votes
2answers
683 views

Problem on Euler's Phi function

Let $S(n)$ be $S(n)=\left\{k\;\left|\;\left\{\frac{n}{k}\right\}\right.\geq \frac{1}{2}\right\}$,where $\{x\}$ is the fractional part of $x$ Prove that : \begin{align} \sum_{k\in S(n)} \varphi(k)=n^...
7
votes
2answers
154 views

Function such that $f(x) f(\pi/2 - x) = 1$

I'm looking for functions that are smooth ($C^\infty$) between $0 < x < \pi/2$ that satisfy the equation $$f(x)\, f(\pi/2-x) = 1$$ on the inteverval $0<x<\pi/2$. I know that the constant ...
7
votes
4answers
111 views

Find all polynomials with real coefficients that satisfy $(x^2-6x+8)P(x)=(x^2+2x)P(x-2)$

Find all polynomials with real coefficients that satisfy $$(x^2-6x+8)P(x)=(x^2+2x)P(x-2)\forall x\in\Bbb R$$ My work; $$\frac{P(x)}{P(x-2)}=-\frac{4}{x-2}+\frac{12}{x-4}+1\tag{1}$$ $$\frac{P(x-2)}{...
7
votes
1answer
697 views

Measurable Cauchy Function is Continuous

I found this question here Show that $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$ implies $f$ continuous $\Leftrightarrow$ $f$ measurable and I want to adapt the proof that t.b had suggested. I don't know the concepts of Baire ...
7
votes
2answers
372 views

Defining sine and cosine

We know the following are true about sine and cosine (and that they can be proven geometrically): $\sin(a+b)=\sin(a)\cos(b)+\sin(b)\cos(a)$ $\cos(a+b)=\cos(a)\cos(b)-\sin(a)\sin(b)$ $\lim\limits_{x\...
7
votes
2answers
167 views

Continuous functions that satisfies $f(x) + f(1-x) + f(\sqrt{x^2+(1-x)}) = 0$ and $f(\frac12)=0$

$f:[0,1]\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is a continuous function which satisfies $$ f(x) + f(1-x) + f\left(\sqrt{x^2+(1-x)}\right) = 0 \text{ and } f\left(\tfrac12\right)=0. $$ Can someone give explicit ...
7
votes
3answers
214 views

Is there a non-constant function $f:\mathbb{R}^2 \to \mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}$ that sums to 0 on corners of squares?

A problem in the 2009 Putnam asks about functions $f:\mathbb{R}^2 \to \mathbb{R}$ such that whenever $A,B,C,D$ are corners of some square we have $f(A)+f(B)+f(C)+f(D)=0$. Without spoiling the problem ...