The name "functional equation" is used for problems where the goal is to find all functions satisfying the given equation (and maybe some other conditions). So in this case, solving the equation means finding all functions fulfilling the equation. (This is different from the more common use of the ...

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7
votes
2answers
146 views

When is it possible to have $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)+g(xy)$?

According to the question mentioned here, it seems that there is no function $f(x)$ such that the functional equation $$f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)-(xy-1)^2$$ can hold. Motivated by this question, I found it ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

New SAT Math Section: Comparing Equation of Line to Graph

This is a math question on a practice test for the New SAT that will come out in March. These questions should not go above the level of precalc. I'm posting a picture of the problem as well because ...
6
votes
2answers
116 views

Functional Equation: When $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)-(xy-1)^2$

How does one solve the following functional equation when $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ $$f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)-(xy-1)^2$$ When I assumed it was a polynomial equation, it can be seen through ...
1
vote
2answers
54 views

General solution of recurrence relation [closed]

I am supposed to solve for the general solution of $f(n+2)=2(f(n+2))^2 -f(n+2)f(n)-2012$. I tried the method of generating functions but I am stuck with the power $2$ on the RHS. any other methods or ...
3
votes
1answer
89 views

(Non-continuous) solutions to $f(f(x))=kx$ and $f(x^2)=xf(x)$

Given a fixed non-zero constant $k\in\mathbb{R}$, find all functions $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ satisfying $$f(f(x))=kx\quad\text{and}\quad f\left(x^2\right)=xf(x).$$ If $f$ is continuous, ...
0
votes
1answer
66 views

If $f(x-2)=x$ for all real numbers x, then what is $f(x)$?

If $f(x-2)=x$ for all real numbers x, then $f(x)=?$ I think the answer stays the same, because the given says for all real x. so is $f(x)=x$ or i am wrong?
-1
votes
2answers
77 views

If $f(xy) = f(x) + f(y)$, show that $f(.)$ can only be a logarithmic function. [duplicate]

As the question states, show that the property exhibited can only be satisfied by a logarithmic function i.e no other family of functions can satisfy the above property.
0
votes
2answers
133 views

Show that $f(x^a) = a f(x) $ and $f(x y) = f(x) + f(y)$

Let $f(x) = (x-1) \large\prod_\limits{n=1}^{\infty} \dfrac{2}{x^{2^{-n}} + 1} $ For real $x > 0$ it is easy to show that $f(x^2) = 2 f(x)$. Let $a$ be a real number. Question 1 Show that ...
4
votes
3answers
94 views

how to find all functions such that $f\left( x^{2} - y^{2} \right) = ( x - y )( f(x) + f(y) )$

Find all function $f:\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$ such that $f\left( x^{2} - y^{2} \right) = ( x - y )( f(x) + f(y) )$. My try: If $ x=y=0$ then $f(0)=0$ and if $x\leftarrow\frac{x+1}{2}$ and ...
8
votes
1answer
129 views

Functional Equation for $f(x-y)+f(y-z)+f(z-x)=2f(x+y+z)$

The following functional equation proved quite difficult. $1.$ $f(x)$ is a polynominal with real coeffecients. $2.$ $f(1)=2,f(2)=20$. $3.$ When for real $x,y,z$ satisfies the condition ...
1
vote
1answer
140 views

if $\ f(f(x))= x^2 + 1$ , then $\ f(6)= $?

I want to know how to solve this type of questions. How can I find $\ f(x)$ from $\ f(f(x))$ Suppose, $\ f(f(x)) = x$ , then $\ f(x)=x$ or $\ f(x)=\dfrac{(x+1)}{(x-1)}$ how to find these ...
1
vote
1answer
87 views

Find all the function that satisfy $f(x+y)+1=f(x)+f(y)$

Let function $f:R\setminus 0\to R$ such (1): $$\dfrac{f(x)}{x}=f\left(\dfrac{1}{x}\right),\forall x\neq 0$$ (2): for any $x,y$ such $$f(x)+f(y)=f(x+y)+1,\forall x+y\neq 0$$ Find $f$ Let $P(x,y)$ be ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Easy computations using the functional equations for Riemann and Gamma functions

Let $\zeta(z)$ the Riemann Zeta function and $\Gamma(z)$, the Gamma function. I've deduced easily an equation involving these functions. I don't known if it is useful, if there are mistakes in my ...
3
votes
2answers
69 views

find all functions satisfying the condition. [duplicate]

Find all functions $f:\mathbb{R}\to{\mathbb{R}}$ such that $f(x+y)+f(x)f(y)=f(xy)+f(x)+f(y)$ for all $x,y\in{\mathbb{R}}$ first I put $x=y=0$ so I got $f(0)=0$ or $f(0)=2$. For the case $f(0)=2$, ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Showing an equation with integrals of sinus [duplicate]

I have to show the following equation: $\int_{0}^{\pi} t \cdot f(sin \; t) \; dt = \frac{\pi}{2} \int_{0}^{\pi} f(sin \; t) \; dt$ with $f : [0, 1] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is continuous. I ...
4
votes
6answers
65 views

Not Understanding a specific substitution rule

I was given the question, If $f(3x+5) = x^2-1$, what is $f(2)$? I am trying to understand the reasoning why $3x+5$ is set equal to $2$.
1
vote
3answers
48 views

For which a there exists a non-constant function $a+f(x+y-xy)+f(x)f(y) \leq f(x)+f(y)$

I came across the following problem: Find for which $a \in \mathbb{R}$ there exists a non-constant function $f:(0, 1] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ $a+f(x+y-xy)+f(x)f(y) \leq f(x)+f(y)$ for each $x, y \in ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

Solving a functional equation using Mobius transformations

I've done part (i) pretty easily but I've no idea about (ii). I think I want to use the earlier hint about the generators but I can't seem to get anywhere.
0
votes
0answers
114 views

Functional equation $f(f(x)+3y)=12x + f(f(y)-x)$

I found this problem on a French exchange forum : Find all the $f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ satisfying $f(f(x)+3y)=12x + f(f(y)-x)$ In fact I solved the problem when $f$ is supposed to be ...
0
votes
0answers
50 views

two integral equations

I'm trying to solve the two following integral equations : 1) $y(x)=2+\int_1^x\frac{1}{ty(t)}\,dt$, $x>0$ 2) $y(x)=4+\int_0^x2t\sqrt{y(t)}\,dt$ It really looks like an ODE but I'm a bit clueless ...
2
votes
2answers
43 views

Why does the monotonicity imply $2^u < 3^v$ if and only if $3^u < 6^v$?

In the question and solution below, I am wondering how to #$7$ it says "The monotonicity of $f$" implies that $2^u < 3^v$ if and only if $3^u < 6^v$, $u,v$ being positive integers." How does ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

If $\sin y=a\sin(x+y)$ prove $\frac{\rm d y}{\rm d x}=\frac{\sin a}{1- 2x\cos a +x^2}$

If $\sin y=a\sin(x+y)$ prove $\frac{\rm d y}{\rm d x}=\frac{\sin a}{1- 2x\cos a +x^2}$ I am not finding any proper way even to express $y$ only in terms of $x$ too which could reduce bit ...
7
votes
1answer
139 views

How to solve the functional equation $ f(f(x))=ax^2+bx+c $

Find all real numbers $a,b,c\in\mathbb{R}$ for which there exists a function $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ such that: $$ f(f(x))=ax^2+bx+c $$ for all $x\in\mathbb{R}$. The only thing I could deduce is: ...
0
votes
2answers
64 views

Sufficiency of the condition $f(x) = f(x^3)$ for $f$ to be even or constant

I've been playing around with some aspects of basic functions, and I reached a function that seemed a bit peculiar. Consider $\forall x \in \mathbb{R}$ a function $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ ...
10
votes
1answer
102 views

Solving functional equation $f(4x)-f(3x)=2x$

Given that $f(4x)-f(3x)=2x$ and that $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ is an increasing function, find $f(x)$. My thoughts so far: subtituting $\frac{3}{4}x$, $\left(\frac{3}{4}\right)^2x$, ...
8
votes
1answer
226 views

If $f(2x)=2f(x), \,f'(0)=0$ Then $f(x)=0$

Recently, when I was working on a functional equation, I encountered something like an ordinary differential equation with boundary conditions! Theorem. If the following holds for all $x \in ...
5
votes
3answers
83 views

Find all solutions to the functional equation $f(x+y)-f(y)=\cfrac{x}{y(x+y)}$

Find all solutions to the functional equation $f(x+y)-f(y)=\cfrac{x}{y(x+y)}$ I've tried the substitution technique but I didn't really get something useful. For $y=1$ I have ...
6
votes
6answers
132 views

Solving functional equation $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)+xy$

We are given $f(0)=0$. Then when $x+y=0$: $$0=f(-y)+f(-x)+xy$$ Can I now use $x=0$ and obtain: $$0=f(-y)?$$ Is this correct? Is there a better way to solve this equation?
2
votes
3answers
69 views

Functional equation $f(x+y)=\frac{f(x)+f(y)}{1-4f(x)f(y)}$ with $f'(1)=1/2$

Try to find the solution of the functional equation $$f(x+y)=\frac{f(x)+f(y)}{1-4f(x)f(y)}$$ with $f'(1)=1/2$.
5
votes
3answers
79 views

Differentiable function such that $f(x+y),f(x)f(y),f(x-y)$ are an arithmetic progression for all $x,y$

If $f$ is a differentiable function on $\mathbb{R}$ such that $f(x+y),f(x)f(y),f(x-y)$(taken in that order) are in arithmetic progression for all $x,y\in \mathbb{R}$ and $f(0)\neq0,$then ...
1
vote
2answers
63 views

If $f(x+y)-f(x-y)=4xy$, then is $f(0)=0$ or $f(0)=1$?

As in the title. It may be very simple, but I'm having difficulty finding the proper substitution.
1
vote
1answer
45 views

What are the conditions on this Riemann-Zeta function functional equation?

I am a huge fan of the Riemann Zeta function's functional equation: $$\large{\color\green{\zeta(x)=2^x \Gamma(1-x)\zeta(1-x)\pi^{x-1}\sin\frac{\pi x}{2}}}$$ I am curious as to what conditions on $x$ ...
1
vote
2answers
38 views

If,for all $x$,$f(x)=f(2a)^x$ and $f(x+2)=27f(x)$,then find $a$

I am finding this problem confusing : If,for all $x$,$f(x)=f(2a)^x$ and $f(x+2)=27f(x)$,then find $a$. When $x=1$ I have that $f(1)=f(2a)$ using the first identity. Then when $x=2a$ I have by ...
5
votes
1answer
56 views

Find all solutions to the functional equation $f(x) +f(x+y)=y+2 $

I've started studying functions and I am having trouble with the following question: Find all solutions to the functional equation $f(x) +f(x+y)=y+2 $ Using the substitution technique when $y=0$ ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

How to prove that a function is continuous in functional equation?

I was wondering about different methods or properties to prove that a function in a functional equation is continuous or differentiable. Can somebody give me some examples of such problems or methods, ...
0
votes
2answers
115 views

Solve the functional equation $f (2x)=f (x)\cos x$

Find all $f: \mathbb R\longrightarrow \mathbb R $ such that $f $ is a continuous function at $0$ and satisfies $$\;\forall \:x \in \mathbb R,\; f\left(2x\right) = f\left(x\right)\cos x $$ My try: ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

Functional equation $f(x + y) = f(x)^m + f(y)^{m + 1}$ [closed]

Let $m \in \mathbb{N}$. How i can find all functions $f$ such that $f(x + y) = f(x)^m + f(y)^{m + 1} \forall x,y \in R$? Thank you in advance.
2
votes
1answer
54 views

Solving functional equation $f(x+y)^2=f(x)^2+f(y)^2$

I need to solve the following functional equation:$$f(x+y)^2=f(x)^2+f(y)^2$$ I'm familiar with simpler ones such as $f(x)+f\left(\frac{1}{1-x}\right)=x$ (I use substitutions), but here I cannot find ...
11
votes
3answers
138 views

If $B(x+y)-B(x)-B(y)\in\mathbb Z$ can we add an integer function to $B$ to make it additive?

Given a function $B:\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$ satisfying $B(x+y)-B(x)-B(y)\in\mathbb Z$ for all real numbers $x$ and $y$, is there a function $Z:\mathbb R\to\mathbb Z$ such that $B+Z$ is an additive ...
4
votes
3answers
195 views

Differentiable function satisfying $f(x+a) = bf(x)$ for all $x$

This is an exercise from Apostol Calculus, (Exercise 10 on page 269). What can you conclude about a function which has derivative everywhere and satisfies an equation of the form $$ f(x+a) = ...
11
votes
2answers
131 views

Finding Symmetry Group $S_3$ in a function

I was considering functions $f: \Bbb{C} \rightarrow \Bbb{C}$ and I defined the following instrument (I call it the Symmetry Group of a function) $$ \text{Sym}(f) = \left< m(x)|f(m(x))=f(x) ...
7
votes
2answers
87 views

Solving a functional equation $f(x)+f\left(\frac{1}{1-x}\right)=x$

I was given the following homework: list all functions $f:\mathbb{R}\setminus\{0,1\}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ such that $f(x)+f\left(\frac{1}{1-x}\right)=x$. And obviously have I no idea what should I do ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

The functional equation $f(f(x) + y) = f(f(x) - y) + 4f(x)y$

I found the following functional equation: $f(f(x) + y) = f(f(x) - y) + 4f(x)y$ Up to now I tried setting $x = 0$ and $f(0) = c$ to get $f(c + y) = f(c - y) + 4cy$ If we define $g(x) = f(x) - x^2 ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Solve $g(x + \frac{1}{x}) = x^y + \frac{1}{x^y}$

Let $y$ be a real number. Find $g$ such that $$g(x + \frac{1}{x}) = x^y + \frac{1}{x^y}$$ Is valid for all real $x$.
5
votes
3answers
57 views

Let $f:\mathbb{R}^m \to \mathbb{R}$ be differentiable s.t. $f(x/2)=f(x)/2, \forall x \in \mathbb{R}^m$. Show that $f$ is linear.

Basically, I am not really sure how to start. I thought about going through induction to show for $\mathbb{N}$ and $\mathbb{Q}$, then use the completeness of $\mathbb{R}$, but I think it is a long ...
5
votes
1answer
114 views

About $f(x)= f(\frac{1}{x})$

Consider the equation $$f(x)=f\left(\frac{1}{x}\right)$$ Where we want $f$ to be real-meromorphic. Are all solutions $f$ of the form $$f(x) = g\left(\frac{x}{1+x^2}\right)$$ Where $g$ is a ...
4
votes
1answer
124 views

How can one show that $f(0)=0$ for $f$ satisfying certain conditions?

Given the functional equation $$f(x+(1+x)f(y))=y+(1+y)f(x)$$ Such that $f:(-1,\infty) \to (-1,\infty)$ and the function $g(x):=\frac{f(x)}{x}$ is strictly increasing in $I=(-1,0)\cup(0,+\infty),$ ...
2
votes
1answer
54 views

$3^x-2^y=1$, $x \in \mathbb{N}$ and $y \in \mathbb{N}$

$3^x-2^y=1$ or $y=\log_2{\left(3^x-1\right)}$ $x$ and $y$ must be natural numbers. I know this two solutions: $x=1$ and $y=1$ $x=2$ and $y=3$ Are there more solutions? How can I find them?
3
votes
1answer
49 views

Verify proof of $ f(x)=e^x $ if $ f(x+y)=f(x)f(y) $ and $ f'(x)$ exists for all $x$

This is exercise 6.26.8 from Tom Apostol's Calculus I, I'd like to ask someone to verify my proof. I'd be also interested in alternative proofs: If $ f(x+y)=f(x)f(y) $ for all $ x $ and $ y $ and if ...
5
votes
3answers
128 views

Finding a unique continuous function

Let $f$ be a given continuous function on $[0,1]$. How do you prove that there is a unique continuous function $g$ on $[0,1]$ satisfying $$g(x) = \frac{1}{2}g\left(\frac{x+1}{2}\right) + f(x)$$ for ...