The name "functional equation" is used for problems where the goal is to find all functions satisfying the given equation (and maybe some other conditions). So in this case, solving the equation means finding all functions fulfilling the equation. (This is different from the more common use of the ...

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1answer
67 views

Find all the $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$,satisfying

$f(f^3(x)+y^3)=x^2+f^3(y)$ where $f^3(x)$ stands for $[f(x)]^3$. I really don't know where to start off$\cdots$
1
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0answers
64 views

Proof that $\forall x \in \mathbb{R}, \forall n \in \mathbb{N}: (f(x))^n = f(nx)$ only has solutions of the form $f(x) = c^x$ for some constant $c$

I am looking for a proof (or a counterexample I suppose) that the recurrence equation (is that the right term here?) $(f(x))^n = f(nx)$ only has a solution of the form $ f(x)=c^x$ for some ...
-1
votes
1answer
52 views

An functional equation [closed]

Find all the functions $f:\mathbb{R}^+\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^+$, such that $\forall w,x,y,z\in\mathbb{R}^+,~wx=yz$, and $$\dfrac{f^2(w)+f^2(x)}{f^2(y)+f^2(z)}=\dfrac{w^2+x^2}{y^2+z^2}$$ $f^2(x)$ ...
10
votes
4answers
176 views

If $f(3x)=f(x)$ and $f$ is continuous, show that $f(x)$ is a constant function.

If $f(x)$ is a continuous function such that $f(3x)=f(x)$ and the domain of $f$ is all non-negative real numbers. Prove that $f$ is a constant function. What I did: ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

If $f$ is not identically zero and $|f(x)| \le 1$ for $x$ $\in \mathbb{R}$, then also $|g(x)| \le 1$ for $x \in \mathbb{R}$

Suppose that $f$ and $g$ satisfy the equation $f(x+y)+f(x-y)=2f(x)g(y)$, $x$,$y$ $\in \mathbb{R}$. Show that If $f$ is not identically zero and $|f(x)| \le 1$ for $x$ $\in \mathbb{R}$, then also ...
2
votes
2answers
92 views

Functional inequation on $\mathbb{R}$: $f(x+y^2)-f(x)\geq y$

I have the following equation: $$f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$$ $$\forall (x,y)\in\mathbb{R}^2,\ f(x+y^2)-f(x)\geq y$$ f is not necessarily differentiable/continuous/... (In fact, we can prove ...
1
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0answers
35 views

Can a linear solution make a non-linear (functional) differential equation linear?

I was inspired by this question Does a non-trivial solution exist for $f'(x)=f(f(x))$? And tried coming up with similar problems, one interesting case I found was $f'(x) +f(x)=f(f(x))$ which has ...
2
votes
3answers
165 views

Does a solution to this functional equation exist and if so can we construct it?

For $x\geq 0 $ we have $f(x) +xf(1/x) = x/(1+x)$ as well as the conditions $\lim_{x\rightarrow 0} f(x) = 0$ and $\lim_{x\rightarrow \infty} f(x) = 0$. Clearly $f(1) = \frac{1}{4}$. What is the ...
7
votes
2answers
128 views

Continuous functions that satisfies $f(x) + f(1-x) + f(\sqrt{x^2+(1-x)}) = 0$ and $f(\frac12)=0$

$f:[0,1]\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is a continuous function which satisfies $$ f(x) + f(1-x) + f\left(\sqrt{x^2+(1-x)}\right) = 0 \text{ and } f\left(\tfrac12\right)=0. $$ Can someone give explicit ...
5
votes
3answers
117 views

Functional equation $f(x)=f(\sqrt{x})$

If we take an equation $f(x)=f(\sqrt{x})$ defined for positive $x$ then it is quite easy to see that it is constant; $f(x)=f(0)$ if continuous at zero. My question is: What would happen if we take ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

Finding equations when given new center of a circle

$y = −x + \sqrt{2}$, $y = −x − \sqrt{2}$, $y = x + \sqrt{2}$, and $y = x − \sqrt{2}$. These equations determine lines, which in turn bound a diamond shaped region in the plane. Construct a diamond ...
4
votes
1answer
65 views

Solving the functional equation $f(x+y)-f(x)f(y)+g(x)g(y)=0$

As in the title I want to solve the functional equation $$f(x+y)-f(x)f(y)+g(x)g(y)=0 \tag{1} $$ provided that $f,g$ are differentiable for all real values, and that $f$ is an even function. My ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

A problem about functional equations

We want to find all continuous functions $f:R→R$ that satisfy the equation $f(x^2+1/4)=f(x)$ for all real x. Of course -If I am right- constant functions satisfy the equation mentioned, and as well ...
1
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2answers
73 views

Functional equation (is solution unique)

Let $f:[0,1]\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ - cont. diff. function. Is it true that equation $\cos{t}f(\sin{t})+\sin{t}f(\cos{t})=1, t \in [0,\pi/2]$ has only solution $f(x)=\sqrt{1-x^2}$? How can we prove ...
0
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0answers
25 views

ODE in case of discontinuity

Consider a function $\varphi(x) : \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ bounded and continuous and $c \in \mathbb{R}$. Question 1 Is there a unique $f : \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, among all ...
4
votes
1answer
104 views

Tricky probability problem

I am having trouble with proving the following assertion: $X,Y$ are i.i.d. with mean $0$ and variance $1$. If $X+Y$ and $X-Y$ are independent then $X,Y$ are normally distributed. Should I be ...
3
votes
1answer
91 views

$f_{n+1}(x)=f_n(x+1)-f_n(x)$ functional equation and “classification of functions”

Doing a quiz I found a question of this kind "given $a_0, a_1, a_2, ...,a_n$ find $a_{n+1}$" In order to find the $f$ such that $f(a_n)=a_{n+1}$ I tryed for a function like $f(x)=k+x$ ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

$f(x + y)f(x − y) = ( f(x) + f(y) )^ 2− 4x^ 2 f(y)$ so why $f(2) \neq 2$?

Let $f : \mathbb R → \mathbb R$ be a function that satisfies for all $x,y ∈ \mathbb R $ defined as $f(x + y)f(x − y) = ( f(x) + f(y) )^ 2− 4x^ 2 f(y)$. So, why $f(2) = 2$ is impossible? Why $f(0) = ...
3
votes
2answers
63 views

Determine the smallest number P

I have here a hard problem, which I couldn't solve. Denote $M$ the set of all functions $f:[0,1]\to\mathbb{R}$ with the following properties: $f(x)\ge0, \forall x$ in $[0,1]$, $f(1)=1$, $f(x+y)\ge ...
2
votes
0answers
23 views

Is determining a non-constant solution to a functional inequality with polynomial arguements decidable?

So suppose we have a functional inequality with polynomial arguments in $2$ variables, $\sum_i c_i f(p_i(x,y)) \geq 0$, where $c_i$ are say integer constants and $p_i$ are polynomials, say with ...
4
votes
1answer
63 views

submodular-like functions on $\mathbb{R}$

The definition of submodularity led me to define a type of function on numbers (I suppose ordered rings, but consider the reals for now) as $f(x) + f(y) \ge f(x+y) + f(xy)$. Such functions exist: for ...
1
vote
2answers
108 views

Proof of continuity $f(x+y) = f(x) + f(y)$

I am trying to prove that if I have $f:\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ satisfying $\forall x,y\in\mathbb{R},f(x+y) = f(x) + f(y)$. Which is assumed continuous at $0$, that $f$ is continuous on $\mathbb{R}$ ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Largest value in the functional $\int_0^\infty e^{-rt}( x^2+2x+\dot x^2)dt$?

I am trying to understand the second order linear differential equation and the answer here (Finnish) that I have translated below. Translation Problem What is the value of $x(t)$ where the ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Solving a functional equation with a boundary condition (involving probabilites)

Ok, I am getting a functional equation in $z$ domain given by $F(z)= F(G(z))$ where $G(z)= e^{-a(1-z)}$. I want to get $f(n)$ ($F(z)$ is the $z$ transform of $f(n)$) where $f$ is some pmf, hence we ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

The “trick” in the Herglotz trick

In How does the Herglotz trick work?, is explained as in "Proofs from THE BOOK" by Aigner and Ziegler, but the "trick" itself I found to be not so clear. The trick says: It follows from (4) ...
1
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0answers
24 views

Functional equation on a ring

Let $R$ be a ring with identity. Find all functions $f: R \to \Bbb R$ satisfying the functional equation \begin{equation} f(xp+yq, yp+xq)=f(x, y)f(p, q) \end{equation} for all $x, y, p, q\in R$, and ...
4
votes
1answer
99 views

Inverse Function Differential Equation [duplicate]

For the differential equation $$\frac{d}{dx}[y(x)]=y^{(-1)}(x)$$ where $y^{(-1)}(x)$ is the inverse of $y(x)$, find y(x). I gave up on finding the solution analytically pretty quickly and decided ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Validation of proof,for a functional equation

Sorry for bad English in advance,I had to translate most of things from another language that's why it's pretty messy,I feel like I made a mistake about this Given a natural number $k$.Let ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Prove That $f(n+f(n))=n$

if $f:\mathbb{N}\rightarrow\mathbb{N}$ is a function such that $f(1)=1$ and $$f(n)=n-f(f(n-1))\,\,\: \forall n \ge 2$$ Prove That $$f(n+f(n))=n$$
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Suppose a function $f : \mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ satisfies $f(f(f(x)))=x$ for all $x$ belonging to $\mathbb{R}$.

Suppose a function $f : \mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ satisfies $f(f(f(x)))=x$ for all $x$ belonging to $\mathbb{R}$. Show that (a) $f$ is one-to-one. (b) $f$ cannot be strictly decreasing, and ...
2
votes
3answers
147 views

Help with functional equation $F(x,x)+F(x,c-x)-F(c-x,x)-F(c-x,c-x)=0$

How can we find $F$ satisfying: exists a $c$ such that $$F(x,x)+F(x,c-x)-F(c-x,x)-F(c-x,c-x)=0 \text{ for all } x,y $$ Several quadratic polynomials in $x,y$ satisfy the above property. I'm trying to ...
1
vote
3answers
48 views

Find all polynomials p with real coefficients

Find all polynomials $p$ with real coefficients such that $p(x+1)=p(x)+2x+1$. I feel like in this question you let $x+1=x'$.
3
votes
2answers
106 views

Find all functions that satisfy the following conditions

Find all functions $f:\mathbb Z\to \mathbb Z$ that satisfy the following conditions: (i) $f (0) = 1 $ (ii) $f(f (x)) = x$ for all integers x (iii) $f(f(x + 1)+1) = x$ for all integers x How ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Functional Equation and totally multiplicative functions

Find all $f:\mathbb{C}\rightarrow\mathbb{C}$ s.t. $\forall a, b\in \mathbb{C}, f(ab) = f(a)f(b)$. I could deduce a lot of things about what happens at the roots of unity, and 0, but I can't find out ...
5
votes
2answers
74 views

Problem solve functional equation

Solve functional equation:find all strictly monotone functions $f:(0,+\infty)\to(0,+\infty)$ such that $$(x+1)f(\dfrac{y}{f(x)})=f(x+y),\forall x,y>0$$
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0answers
70 views

Creating a monotonic function

I have $n$ functions $f_i(x) \{i = 1 ,...,n\} $that does not preserve the monotonic mapping order. i.e. if $x_1 < x_2$, then in general, $f_i(x_1)$ is not less than $f_i(x_2)$ (for all $i = 1 ... ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Contour approach to Riemann zeta functional equation

I have a question regarding Riemann's first proof of the functional equation that was given in his paper on the Riemann zeta function. I am an undergraduate working on a fairly short undergraduate ...
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0answers
34 views

Wronskian different from zero and solutions of ODE.

Let $a_0, \ldots , a_{n-1}$ continuous functions in an interval $I$.Consider the equation $$x^{(n)} = a_{n-1}(t)x^{(n-1)}+\cdots+a_0(t)x. \tag 1$$ Let $\phi_1, \phi_2, \ldots,\phi_n$ $n$ are ...
3
votes
3answers
193 views

if $f(mn)+f(m+n-1)=f(m)f(n)$How find $f(n)$

let $f:N^{+}\to Z$,and $f$ is monotonic nondecreasing,and such $$f(m)f(n)=f(mn)+f(m+n-1),f(4)=5$$ Find all $f(n)$ My try: let $$m=2,n=2\Longrightarrow f^2(2)=f(4)+f(3)$$ ...
4
votes
1answer
61 views

Solve the functional equation, $f(x+y+1)= (\sqrt{f(x)} + \sqrt{f(y)})^2$

Solve the functional equation, find all real valued functions $f(x)$ s.t. $$f(x+y+1)= (\sqrt{f(x)} + \sqrt{f(y)})^2$$ given $f(0)=1$. I reached to a point that $4f(x)=f(2x+1)$
7
votes
3answers
347 views

If $f:N→N$ such that $f(f(x))=3x$, then find $f(2013)$

If $f:N→N$ such that $f(f(x))=3x$, then what is the value of $f(2013)$?
3
votes
0answers
75 views

Is this a field of study?

Is there a name for an equation that takes the following form? $$F(f(x),f^{-1}(x),x)=0$$ A nice example being $$f(x)-f^{-1}(x)=0$$ because the solutions of this equation are their own inverses. ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

The uniqueness of a solution of a system of differential equations

Suppose I have a system of delay differential equations $\frac{d G_1(\phi_1(s))}{ds}= F_1(\phi_1(s),\phi_2(1-s),1-s)$ $\frac{d G_2(\phi_2(1-s))}{ds}= F_2(\phi_1(s),\phi_2(1-s),s)$ where $G_1, G_2, ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

$f(x)=xf(1)$ Doubt

I just started learning Functional Equations and I was working on a problem that asked me to find all functions satisfying a certain condition, and at some point I got $f(x)=xf(1)$, is there a way to ...
6
votes
2answers
165 views

Function whose inverse is also its derivative?

What are some good examples of a function $f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ where its derivative is equal to its inverse? I attempted to find a monomial that satisfied it by starting with $f(x) = ax^b$ ...
3
votes
3answers
178 views

$1992$ IMO Functional Equation problem

The problem states: Let $\Bbb R$ denote the set of all real numbers. Find all functions $f : \Bbb R \rightarrow \Bbb R$ such that $$f(x^{2}+f(y))=y+(f(x))^{2} \space \space \space \forall x, y \in ...
4
votes
3answers
151 views

How find this function $f(x)$ such $f(a+f(b))=f(a+b)+f(b)$

let function $f:R_{+}\to R_{+}$,and such $$f(a+f(b))=f(a+b)+f(b),\forall a,b\in R_{+}$$ Find $f(x)$. my try: let $a=b=1$,then $$f(1+f(1))=f(2)+f(1)$$ $a=1,b=2$,then $$f(1+f(2))=f(3)+f(2)$$ then I ...
7
votes
0answers
69 views

Find all pairs of functions $(f,g)$, $\forall x, y \in \mathbb{R}, f(x+g(y))=x f(y) - y f(x) + g(x)$

Find all pairs of functions $(f,g)$ : $\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}, g : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ satisfying : $$\forall x, y \in \mathbb{R}, f(x+g(y))=x f(y) - y f(x) + g(x)$$ I am really ...
0
votes
1answer
63 views

General solution of a finite-difference equation with real non-commensurable differences.

How to find a general solution of the following functional (recurrence) equation: $$f(x) = c_1 f(x - a_1) + \dots + c_n f(x - a_n), \tag{1}$$ where $c_i, a_i$, $i = 1, ... n$ are arbitrary real ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Determining quadratic function of this word problem

I have this word problem in my homework: ...