The name "functional equation" is used for problems where the goal is to find all functions satisfying the given equation (and maybe some other conditions). So in this case, solving the equation means finding all functions fulfilling the equation. (This is different from the more common use of the ...

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Functional equation for the given function

For instance, there is functional equation for Lambert W function $z=W(z) e^{W(z)}$ And moreover, there is differential one: $z(1+W)\frac{dW}{dz}=W$. At the same time, there is no known functional ...
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90 views

Defining Oblique Lines

Is it correct to classify a line which is neither vertical nor horizontal as oblique. I am trying to classify lines in a plane based on the quadrants through which they pass.
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43 views

if I get the asymptotic solution of a certain equation involving $ f(x)$ does it mean that the solution exists

Let's take a complicated functional equation $ f(g(x))=f(1-x)g(x) $. Let us suppose that by using a) Analytic method b) Numerical method I can prove that for example $ f(x) \sim x $ as $ ...
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113 views

where can I find a good Proof for Cauchy's functional equation

Do you know where can I find good proofs for Cauchy's functional equation?
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721 views

Solving a functional discrete equation.

I was to solve the following functional discrete equation (I arguing that $a_k$ is a discrete function): \begin{equation}f\left[a_{k+1}\right]-f\left[a_{k}\right]=0\end{equation} where ...
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118 views

solution of d’Alembert’s equation.

i know that equation for d’Alembert’s equation. is looking so $g(x+y)+g(x-y)=2*g(x)*g(y)$ so am trying to find actual solution for this equation,first i took $x=y=0$ and i got $2*g(0)$=$2*g(0)^2$ ...
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429 views

functional derivative of an integral of the function itself

I have the following $$ \frac{d}{dn(x)} \int_{x \in \cal{R}^3} {n(x) dx} $$ I know that this additional relationship holds $$ \int_{x \in \cal{R}^3}{n(x) dx} = N $$ where N is a constant. My ...
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65 views

How to do this estimate

If $a,b$ are two vectors in $\mathbb R^n$ satisfy the following relation \begin{equation} \frac{|a|^2}{1+(1-|a|^2)^{\frac{1}{2}}}\geq \frac{|a|^2-2\langle ...
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36 views

Transcendental Functional Equations

Given $f^k(x) = f \circ f \circ f\circ ...(x)$ composed $k$ times, Do the functional equations $f^k(x) = g(x)$, where $g(x)$ is a basic transcendental elementary function, for example, the inverse ...
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15 views

Find a derivative of equation that contains Fourier series

I need to find a derivative of follow equation $$ \left(r_{0} + \sum [a_{i}\cos(i\phi) + b_{i}\sin(i\phi)] \right)({\sin\phi-k\cos\phi}) - b = 0 $$ I know the derivative of $\left(r_{0} + \sum ...
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17 views

A Somewhat Complicated Functional Equation

Given a function on $\mathbb R^2$ $$C(x,y)=e^x\big(e^y N(d_1)-N(d_2)\big) \tag1$$ where $N$ is the cumulative standard normal distribution function (an increasing function) and ...
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21 views

Stability of Cauchy exponential functional equation

If f : R → R is a function satisfying |f(x + y)- a^xy f(x) f(y)| ≤ δ for all x,y ∈ R and for some positive δ, where a is a positive real constant, then show that either the function $f(x) ...
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30 views

D'Alembert's functional equation. I need to solve this problem

Let $λ$ be a nonzero real constant. Find all functions $f,g \colon \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ that satisfy the functional equation $$ f(x + y) + g(x-y) = \lambda f(x) g(y) $$ for all $x,y \in ...
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38 views

Unique solution of a simple functional equation

Let $x,y:[a,b]\to\mathbb{R},\ a<b, a,b\in\mathbb{R}$ be two smooth functions ($x,y\in C^{\infty}([a,b])$). How can I prove that there is a unique function $\theta:[a,b]\to\mathbb{R},\ \theta\in ...
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33 views

The most general solution to the functional equation

Suppose we have the following functional equation $$X(x_1,x_2)Y(x_1,x_3)=Z(x_2,x_3).$$ Is the most general solution given by $$X(x_1,x_2)=A(x_1)B(x_2), Y(x_1,x_3)=\frac{C(x_3)}{A(x_1)}, ...
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37 views

Approach on solving limit equation systems and finding some f given assymptotes?

This is a "reverse" question of finding the asymptote of a function Recently, I am interested in doing some sort of modelling which involve equations of the form $$@(t)=1-f(t)$$ where $f(t)$ is ...
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17 views

Iterative Functional Equation? (discrete, increment, logarithm)

Say $f(n)$ is defined as discrete iterative process, $n \in [0,1,2,\ldots,N]$, and $g(x)$, $x \in [-\infty,+\infty]$ is "small": $|g(x)|<1, \forall x$: $$f(n+1)=f(n) + \log(1 + g(f(n)))$$ ...
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36 views

Functional equation similar to Babbage's equation

I'm interested in the potential solutions $f: R_{+} \rightarrow R_{+}$ to the functional equation: $ \forall x \in R_{+}, \quad f(s(x) - f(x)) = ax $ where $a>0$ is a constant. $s: R_{+} ...
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63 views

Extension of the Cauchy functional equations

Let $f:(0,a)\to\mathbb{R}$ satisfying $$f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$$ for all $x,y,x+y\in(0,a)$, where $a$ is a positive real number. Show that there exists an additive function $A:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ such ...
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18 views

Solving a linear functional equation

Working with Green functions, I have found to solve the following equation $$ -\omega^2G(\omega)-m^2G(\omega)+\kappa\sum_{n=-\infty}^\infty b_nG(\omega-n\omega_0)=1 $$ where $m$, $\kappa$ and ...
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32 views

Does this problem have analytic/approximate analytic solution?

Define $F[i]=F[i-1]-F[i-1]^c$ with $F[0]=r>0,c\in(0,1)$. Define $R(r,c)=\min\{i:F[i]<1\}$. What is solution to $c\in(0,1)$ in $R(r,c)=r^{1/k}$ with some given $k>1$?
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31 views

Riccati Finite Difference Equation:

Question: Consider the finite difference equation in Zeilberger notation: $$D_{1,x} [y] = a_0(x) + a_1 (x) y + a_2 (x)y^2 $$ Which in functional form is: $$ y(x+1) - y(x) = a_0(x) + a_1 (x) y + ...
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13 views

Closed form of chained Stationary Functions

Consider the following operator $$D_{(a-1)x,x}\left[ f \right] = \frac{f(ax) - f(x)}{(a-1)x} $$ It's pretty easy to see that a nontrival function $g(x)$ such that $$D_{(a-1)x,x}[g] = g$$ Is given ...
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14 views

Recurrence relation involving ordinary generating function

Let $f_1,f_2,\ldots$ be a given infinite sequence of functions. Define the sequence of functions $F_1,F_2,\ldots$ by the recurrence relation $$F_n(x)=f_n(x)\sum_{k=0}^\infty F_{n+1}(k)x^k$$ or ...
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33 views

show the following: (functional equations)

If f : R to R is a solution of the additive Cauchy functional equation, then show that f is either everywhere or nowhere zero.
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56 views

Differential equation involving composition

I've been studying Euler's method to approximate a solution to a differential equation in an algorithm class. I faced a weird differential equation in a mathematics exercise, and I wanted to know if ...
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41 views

Prove $\lim\limits_{x \to +\infty} \frac{f_1(x)}{f_2(x)} = \text{Constant}$

Let $g(x)$ be a real-analytic strictly rising function for $x>0$. Define for $x>1$ two real analytic functions $f_1,f_2$ such that : $$f_1(x) - f_1(x-1) = f_1(g(x))$$ $$f_2'(x) = f_2(g(x))$$ ...
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find the distribution of 100 heart transplant patients at a low volume and high volume hospital using boxplot graph 0-40 mortality

Using a boxplot graph find the distribution show mortality rates within one year of 100 patients having heart transplants at various hospitals. The low volume hospital perform between 5 and 9 ...
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33 views

A functional equation involving convolution

Let's say I have a smooth function $\varphi:\mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ which is a convolution kernel. I am interested in the following equation: $0=A+B~(\varphi*v)+C~v+D~v~(\varphi*v)$, where ...
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49 views

Existance of solution to integral Fredholm equation

I am a bit confused with the existence/non existence of a solution to the following equation: $$\int_{-T}^{T} R(t,\tau) x(\tau) d\tau = y(t), \forall t\in [-T,T]$$ where $y(t)=C$ (a constant ...
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11 views

Prove that a functional has an unique global minimun.

Consider the funcional $$ E(u)=\frac{1}{p}\int_{\Omega} |\nabla u|^pdx-\int_{\Omega}fudx. $$ Where $u \in W^{1,p}_{0}(\Omega)$, $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ is a regular and bounded domanin, $p \in (1, ...
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17 views

Meta Euler Lagrange

Consider the following generalized standard Euler Lagrange Problem which is to maximize the quantity $$ \int_{x_1}^{x_2} L(x,y,y', y'' ... y^{(n)}) dx $$ It can be solved by first determining a ...
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44 views

Conjecture about $A f(x) = f(g(x)) + f(h(x))$

Let a given real $A$ satisfy $0 < A < 2$. Conjecture : For any real entire nonconstant $f(x)$ there exist real entire $g(x)$ and $h(x)$ such that $A f(x) = f(g(x)) + f(h(x))$ or $ A f(x) ...
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22 views

In which condition related to coefficients, some equation has a solution?

My purpose is to know in which condition related to the coefficients $c>0, \, n\geq 2, 0<p<1,\, a>c\, \, \, \text{and} \, \, b>0$, this equation $$ F(x)= -c x^{n+p} -bx^n + (a-c)x^p ...
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24 views

Solving functional equation $b(x)=\int b(xy)f(y)dy$

I want to prove that given a real-valued smooth function $f$, the set of functions $b$ solving $b(x)=\int_0^{\infty} b(xy)f(y)dy$ is given by linear combinations of $x^{\sigma}$ where $\sigma$ is a ...
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32 views

Find all functions: $f:C\rightarrow C$

Find all functions $f:C\rightarrow C$ such that $f(x)=(x-f(0))(x-f(\pi))(x-f(-\pi))$ Extension: Find all $f:C\rightarrow C$ such that $f(x)=(x-f(0))(x-f(\pi))(x-f(-\pi))(x-f(2\pi))(x-f(-2\pi))\cdots ...
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36 views

Does there exist a solution of that system of functional equations?

Does there exist a non-constant rational function $f(x)$ (i. e. a ratio of two polynomials in $x$ over the reals) which simultaneously satisfies $f(x)=f(1-x)$ and $f(x)=f\left(\frac 1 x \right)$ on ...
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20 views

Extract independent parameters

I have a two-variable function which depends also on a number of parameters (six to be exact) $f(x,y; c_1, c_2, c_3, \dots, c_6)$. The explicit form is quite complicated so I will not give it here. It ...
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24 views

unknown function: calculation of coefficients in series expansion up to a given degree

I am trying to solve an functional equation of unknown $h\mapsto h(x)$ ($x\in\mathbb{R}$, in the neighbourhood of $0$): $$\mathcal{F}(h)=\mathcal{G}(h) \qquad (*)$$ (assume $\mathcal{F}$ and ...
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30 views

Existence of a function satisfying all the given infima

Given a function $f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$, we can compute its infimum over $A$ for all the Borel measurable $A \subset \mathbb{R}$. I am wondering when we can deduce in the other direction, ...
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29 views

An equation with a nested function

I'm trying to find the function $\eta(x)$ such that $\eta(x) F(\eta(x))-G(\eta(x)) = \eta(x)H(x) - G(x)$ but I have no idea how to go about it, or where to look. Thanks for the inputs. All ...
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46 views

What functions satisfy $\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(x,y)dx=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} g(x,y)dx$?

What functions satisfy $\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(x,y)dx=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} g(x,y)dx$ for all $y\in \mathbb{R}$? Under what conditions would this imply that $f(x,y)=g(x,y)$?
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33 views

A functional equation for a Dirichlet serie

I'm looking for a functional equation for the following Dirichlet serie $$\varphi(s)=\sum_{n=1}^{+\infty}{\frac{2 \cos(2n \pi q)}{n^s}}$$ where $q$ is a rational number. Any help ? Thank you !
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55 views

Does there exist a nontrivial cumulative distribution function $F$ on $\mathbb{R}_+$ for which $(F^2)'= (F')^{\ast k}$ for some $k > 0$?

This question arises from the context of computing the distribution of total execution time with an underlying graph of tree. For instance, we can model the execution times of all the nodes on the ...
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55 views

Non-constant solution of $f(x+y+z)=f(x)g(y)+f(y)g(z)+f(z)g(x)$ in rings

The answers to this question prove that over an integral domain the functional equation $$f(x+y+z)=f(x)g(y)+f(y)g(z)+f(z)g(x)$$ has only solutions where one of $f$ or $g$ is constant. The proofs make ...
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56 views

Integral Functional Equation

If $f(x) = 1 + \int_{x/c}^1 f(t) dt$, find $f(x)$ in terms of $c$. This problem was inspired by trying to find the expected value of the longest increasing subsequence $a_1, a_2, a_3, \cdots, a_n$ ...
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776 views

An example of the Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP)

Given an objective function $f(x,y)=(x+6)^2+(y-10)^2$, we want to minimize the function $f$ under a constrained condition $xy-5\leq0$. Obviously it is a constrained optimization, a good algorithm to ...
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82 views

Seeking a function which satisfies a given functional equation.

I wish to find a function $f: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ which satisfies: $f(u) \geq 0$ when $0 \leq u < 1$, $f(u)=0$ when $u<0$ or $u \geq 1$, $\int_0^1 f(u) du=1$, and ...
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81 views

Interpretation of functional equation of dedekind eta function

It's well known that the Dedekind eta function defined by $\eta(z) = \displaystyle e^{\frac{\pi i z}{12}} \prod_{n=1}^{\infty} (1 - e^{2 \pi i n z}) $ converges for $z$ in the upper half plane to a ...
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42 views

Proving Join Dependencies in MVD

I have a question regarding natural join operations in multivalued dependencies. I know that a join operator joins two tables on similair attributes, however I have a hard time to figure out how to ...