The name "functional equation" is used for problems where the goal is to find all functions satisfying the given equation (and maybe some other conditions). So in this case, solving the equation means finding all functions fulfilling the equation. (This is different from the more common use of the ...

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4
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1answer
27 views

Multiplicative even and odd functions?

An even function satisfies $$ f_e(x) = f_e(-x) $$ and a odd function $$ f_o(x) = -f_o(-x) $$ Every function can be split into an even and an odd part $$ f(x) = f_e(x) + f_o(x) = ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

How to complete this?

Let $f$ a function defined on $]0,+\infty[$ and checking : $$\forall x,y>0,\ f(xy)=f(x)+f(y)$$ Assume that $f$ is bounded on $]1-\eta,1+\eta[$($\subset]0,+\infty[$). Let $\alpha =\underset{x\in ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Functional analysis with KKT conditions

I want to solve an optimization problem min $F(x_{ik}) $ subject to $x \in X$. $F$ here is a function or functional that I wish to determine. I want my optimal ...
5
votes
3answers
73 views

$f(x)$ is an analytic function in $\mathbb{R}$ such that $f(-x)f(x)=1$. What else can we find out about $f(x)$?

Well, I know that there are some easy things we can say immediately: $f(0)= \pm 1$, follows immediately $f(x)=\pm 1$ is the obvious solution, so let's look for other solutions. Moreover, let's ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Solving a functional convolution equation

I have a very weird functional equation that I am trying to solve. Let $f:\mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}$ be a non-negative Lebesgue integrable function such that $\int f=1$. Let $\tilde{f}(x)=f(-x)$ ...
1
vote
0answers
44 views

What does non-degenerate mean?

The context is that f is a real-valued function on a plane such that for every non-degenerate square ABCD in the plane, f(A)+f(B)+f(C)+f(D)=0.... What does this word mean here? I've found that "in ...
0
votes
0answers
45 views

Find all functions $f: \Bbb Q \rightarrow \Bbb Q$

Find all functions $f:\Bbb Q \rightarrow\Bbb Q$ that satisfy the conditions: a) $f(f(2016))=0;$ b) $f(x+y)= f(x)+f(y)+f(2016)$ for all $x,y \in \Bbb Q.$ I tried to solve the problem using the ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

Finding a possible region where this PDE has a solution

Consider the problem $$xu_t+u_x = 0, \quad u(0,x) = \sin x.$$ We're asked to prove that the problem doesn't have a solution defined in all of $\Bbb R^2$, and to give a possible open set in $\Bbb R^2$ ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

Find the equation of the common part of two objects

How to find the equation of the intersection curve of the ball $ x^2 + y^2 + z^2 = 4a^2 $ (1)and the cylinder $x^2+y^2=2ax(a>0)$(2)? let (1)-(2), we can get $$z^2+2ax-4a^2=0 $$ but this is not ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

To find whether the function is one-one and onto and also to proof a function bijective.

$f$ is a function from $\mathbb{N}$ to $\mathbb{N}$. $$ \begin{align} f(x)&=x+1,\text{ if $x$ is odd} \\ &=x-1,\text{ if $x$ is even} \end{align} $$ I have proved it one-one by taking ...
4
votes
3answers
194 views

Solve differential equation $f'(z) = e^{-2} (f(z/e))^2$

I'm curious if there's a simple closed solution to the following DE and, if so, what it is. $$\begin{align} f'(z) &= e^{-2} (f(z/e))^2 \\ f(0) &= 1. \end{align}$$
12
votes
3answers
237 views

The function $f (x) = f \left (\frac x2 \right ) + f \left (\frac x2 + \frac 12\right)$

The function $f: [0,1] → \mathbb R $ satisfies the equation $$f (x) = f \left (\frac x2 \right ) + f \left (\frac x2 + \frac 12\right)$$ for every $x$ in $[0,1]$. Can we assert that $f (x) = c ...
6
votes
1answer
126 views

Prove that $f(x)=8$ for all natural numbers $x\ge{8}$

A function $f$ is such that $$f(a+b)=f(ab)$$ for all natural numbers $a,b\ge{4}$ and $f(8)=8$. Prove that $f(x)=8$ for all natural numbers $x\ge{8}$
16
votes
4answers
311 views

If $f:[0,\infty)\to [0,\infty)$ and $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$ then prove that $f(x)=ax$

Let $\,f:[0,\infty)\to [0,\infty)$ be a function such that $\,f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y),\,$ for all $\,x,y\ge 0$. Prove that $\,f(x)=ax,\,$ for some constant $a$. My proof : We have , $\,f(0)=0$. Then , ...
2
votes
2answers
112 views

Find all functions $f:\mathbb R\to \mathbb R$ such that $f(a^2+b^2)=f(a^2-b^2)+f(2ab)$ for every real $a$,$b$

I guessed $f(a)=a^2$ and $f(a)=0$, but have no idea how to get to the solutions in a good way. Edit: I did what was suggested: from $a=b=0$ $f(0)=0$ The function is even, because from $b=-a$ ...
4
votes
1answer
66 views

Find $f(x)$ if for every $x$: $f(x) + f(\frac {2x-3}{x-1}) = x$

I want to find $f(x)$ if for every $x$ (except one and two): $$f(x) + f\left(\frac {2x-3}{x-1}\right) = x$$ I know that the answer goes something like $g(x)= \frac {2x-3}{x-1} $ and in conclusion ...
10
votes
4answers
842 views

How find this function $f(1+xy)=f(x)f(y)+f(x+y)$

let $f:\mathbb R\longrightarrow \mathbb R$,and for any real numbers $x,y$ have $$f(1+xy)-f(x+y)=f(x)f(y)$$ and $f(-1)\neq 0$. Find the $f(x)$ My try:let $x=y=0$,then we have $$f(1)-f(0)=[f(0)]^2$$ ...
1
vote
0answers
45 views

Is the function from the Cauchy functional equation, $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$ injective?

It's obviously not injective in the case of $f(x)=0$. I'm wondering if it's injective in all other cases. The other linear solutions of the form $f(x)=c\cdot x$ where $c$ is some constant are ...
1
vote
3answers
63 views

If a function such that $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$ is continuous at $0$, then it is continuous on $\mathbb R$ [duplicate]

Let $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be a function such that $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$. If $f$ is continuous at zero how can I prove that is continuous in $\mathbb{R}$.
1
vote
1answer
106 views

Is this graph plot for real?

I came across this equation while surfing through the internet.Is this for real?If it is how is it done?
31
votes
1answer
4k views

Overview of basic facts about Cauchy functional equation

The Cauchy functional equation asks about functions $f \colon \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ such that $$f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y).$$ It is a very well-known functional equation, which appears in various areas of ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

A simple PDE related to symmetric functions

This question was posed on mathoverflow but was put on hold. So far nobody has been able to give any hint either to the solution or to why it is trivial. Disclaimer: as far as I can tell this is not ...
3
votes
1answer
112 views

Find all functions $f:\mathbb R \rightarrow \mathbb R$ such that $f (x+xy+f(y) )= (f(x)+ \frac 12 )\ (f(y)+ \frac 12 \ ).$

Find all functions $f:\mathbb R \rightarrow \mathbb R$ such that $$f\left (x+xy+f(y) \right )=\left (f(x)+ \frac 12 \right )\left (f(y)+ \frac 12 \right ).$$ for every $x,y \in \mathbb R$. My work ...
105
votes
8answers
5k views

Continuous function $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ such that $f(f(x)) = -x$?

I've been perusing the internet looking for interesting problems to solve. I found the following problem and have been going at it for the past 30 minutes with no success: Find a continuous ...
8
votes
1answer
162 views

Find all $f:\mathbb {R} \rightarrow \mathbb {R}$ where $f(f(x))=f'(x)f(x)+c$

Recently, while studying calculus, I have come across multiples problems which asked the following: If $f(x)$ is a polynomial, find all $f(x)$ that $f(f(x))=f'(x)f(x)+c$, where $c$ is a constant. ...
2
votes
3answers
46 views

how to calculate derivative of $f_n(x)=f \circ f … \circ f(x)$? Derivative on $f \circ f_{n-1}$ or $f_{n-1} \circ f$?

Denote $f_n(x)=f \circ f ... \circ f(x)$, the $n$th power of composition multiplication of $f(x)$. Assume $f(x)$ is differentiable for any order. $f(1)=1$, $f^{'}(1)=p$, $f^{''}(1)=q$ Question: Get ...
2
votes
2answers
92 views

About $M(\frac{x+y}{2}) = \frac{1}{2}(M(x) + M(y))$

Suppose $M$ is map from vector space $X$ to vector space $Y$, $M(0) =0$, and $M(\frac{x+y}{2}) = \frac{1}{2}(M(x) + M(y))$. Does this mean that $M$ is a linear map? If not, could someone please give ...
3
votes
3answers
59 views

How to show that $f$ is a straight line?

Let $f:\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$ be continuous such that $f(\frac{x+y}{2})=\frac{f(x)+f(y)}{2}~\forall~x,y\in\mathbb R.$ How to show that $f$ is a straight line?
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Functional Equation of Probability Distributions

Suppose you have a real random variable $X$ that has probability distribution $f_X$ meaning $$ P(\alpha \le X \le \beta) = \int_{\alpha}^{\beta} f_X(x) \ dx $$ Now assume $\Phi(f_X)$ is also a ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Error with the proof that all solutions to the Cauchy Functional Equation are linear

If $f(x)$ is continuous, it is known that $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$ implies that $f(x)$ is linear, and non-continuous solutions are discussed in these links. (1, 2,3, 4) However, what is wrong with this ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Class Scatter Fitness Function Calculation

I get a fitness function for class scatter, the equation: Click here to see the Fitness Function Where : T = Transpose of Matrics Mi = class mean Mo = grand mean The equation is based from ...
16
votes
4answers
567 views

Find all bijections $\,\,f:[0,1]\rightarrow[0,1],\,$ which satisfy $\,\,f\big(2x-f(x)\big)=x$.

A friend of mine gave me the following problem: Find all functions $f:[0,1]\to[0,1]$, which are one-to-one and onto and satisfy the following functional relation: $$ f\big(2x-f(x)\big)=x, \tag{1} $$ ...
6
votes
1answer
89 views

A Increasing Multiplicative Functional Equation where $nm$ is a cube

Let $f:\mathbb{N}\rightarrow\mathbb{N}$ be a strictly increasing function such that $$f(2)=2$$ and $$f(mn)=f(m)f(n)$$ for all positive integers $m,n$ such that $mn$ is a perfect cube. ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

$(2+z^2) f(z) + 3 z + 4 = f(z+1)$?

Consider the equation $(2+z^2) f(z) + 3 z + 4 = f(z+1)$ Such that $f(z)$ is analytic near the positive real axis and the functional equation holds for real $z>0$. Can we express Some solutions ...
1
vote
0answers
40 views

Functional equation $f(f(f(x)f(y)))=f(x)f(y^2)$ for $f: \mathbb R \rightarrow \mathbb R$.

Find all functions $f: \mathbb R \rightarrow \mathbb R$ such that $f(f(f(x)f(y)))=f(x)f(y^2)$ for all $x, y \in \mathbb R$. I made this problem myself. It is not hard to do it for $f: \mathbb ...
4
votes
1answer
56 views

Find all function $f:\mathbb{R^+}→\mathbb{R^+}$ that satisfies $f(xy)^{xy} =f(x)^x f(y)^y$

Find all function $f:\mathbb{R^+}→\mathbb{R^+}$ that satisfies the given condition: $$f(xy)^{xy} =f(x)^x f(y)^y$$ If $f:\mathbb{R}→\mathbb{R^+}$ the question would be rather simple, as putting in ...
5
votes
0answers
60 views

Increasing function $f(x)$ such that $f(\gcd(x,y))=\gcd(f(x),f(y))$

This problem was largely inspired by this problem here. There were many counterexamples given to the problem, such as multiplicative function that maps primes to a permutation thereof. However, if ...
6
votes
2answers
113 views

Functional Equation: When $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)-(xy-1)^2$

How does one solve the following functional equation when $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ $$f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)-(xy-1)^2$$ When I assumed it was a polynomial equation, it can be seen through ...
7
votes
2answers
88 views

Find all $f(x)$ such that $f(gcd(x,y))=gcd(f(x),f(y))$

How does one find all $f:\mathbb {Z} \rightarrow \mathbb {Z}$ that satisfies the following: $$f(gcd(x,y))=gcd(f(x),f(y))$$ I had suspected that there would be some results concerning this functional ...
7
votes
2answers
145 views

When is it possible to have $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)+g(xy)$?

According to the question mentioned here, it seems that there is no function $f(x)$ such that the functional equation $$f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)-(xy-1)^2$$ can hold. Motivated by this question, I found it ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

New SAT Math Section: Comparing Equation of Line to Graph

This is a math question on a practice test for the New SAT that will come out in March. These questions should not go above the level of precalc. I'm posting a picture of the problem as well because ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

A tighter family of Markov-like inequalities

I believe there should exist tighter-than-Markov Inequalities that use the same information as the markov inequality (just expectation). Consider the proof of the markov inequality in the link below: ...
1
vote
2answers
52 views

General solution of recurrence relation [closed]

I am supposed to solve for the general solution of $f(n+2)=2(f(n+2))^2 -f(n+2)f(n)-2012$. I tried the method of generating functions but I am stuck with the power $2$ on the RHS. any other methods or ...
0
votes
2answers
133 views

Show that $f(x^a) = a f(x) $ and $f(x y) = f(x) + f(y)$

Let $f(x) = (x-1) \large\prod_\limits{n=1}^{\infty} \dfrac{2}{x^{2^{-n}} + 1} $ For real $x > 0$ it is easy to show that $f(x^2) = 2 f(x)$. Let $a$ be a real number. Question 1 Show that ...
8
votes
1answer
215 views

If $f(2x)=2f(x), \,f'(0)=0$ Then $f(x)=0$

Recently, when I was working on a functional equation, I encountered something like an ordinary differential equation with boundary conditions! Theorem. If the following holds for all $x \in ...
3
votes
1answer
89 views

(Non-continuous) solutions to $f(f(x))=kx$ and $f(x^2)=xf(x)$

Given a fixed non-zero constant $k\in\mathbb{R}$, find all functions $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ satisfying $$f(f(x))=kx\quad\text{and}\quad f\left(x^2\right)=xf(x).$$ If $f$ is continuous, ...
4
votes
6answers
65 views

Not Understanding a specific substitution rule

I was given the question, If $f(3x+5) = x^2-1$, what is $f(2)$? I am trying to understand the reasoning why $3x+5$ is set equal to $2$.
0
votes
1answer
62 views

If $f(x-2)=x$ for all real numbers x, then what is $f(x)$?

If $f(x-2)=x$ for all real numbers x, then $f(x)=?$ I think the answer stays the same, because the given says for all real x. so is $f(x)=x$ or i am wrong?
1
vote
1answer
139 views

if $\ f(f(x))= x^2 + 1$ , then $\ f(6)= $?

I want to know how to solve this type of questions. How can I find $\ f(x)$ from $\ f(f(x))$ Suppose, $\ f(f(x)) = x$ , then $\ f(x)=x$ or $\ f(x)=\dfrac{(x+1)}{(x-1)}$ how to find these ...
-1
votes
2answers
75 views

If $f(xy) = f(x) + f(y)$, show that $f(.)$ can only be a logarithmic function. [duplicate]

As the question states, show that the property exhibited can only be satisfied by a logarithmic function i.e no other family of functions can satisfy the above property.