The name "functional equation" is used for problems where the goal is to find all functions satisfying the given equation (and maybe some other conditions). So in this case, solving the equation means finding all functions fulfilling the equation. (This is different from the more common use of the ...

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3answers
235 views

Find all real functions that satisfy the functional equations $f(x+y) = f(x) + f(y)$ and $f(xy)=f(x)\,f(y)$ [closed]

Determine all functions $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ that satisfy the two functional equations $f(x + y) =f(x)+f(y)$ and $f(xy)=f(x)\,f(y)$.
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0answers
11 views

Closed form of chained Stationary Functions

Consider the following operator $$D_{(a-1)x,x}\left[ f \right] = \frac{f(ax) - f(x)}{(a-1)x} $$ It's pretty easy to see that a nontrival function $g(x)$ such that $$D_{(a-1)x,x}[g] = g$$ Is given ...
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0answers
11 views

Recurrence relation involving ordinary generating function

Let $f_1,f_2,\ldots$ be a given infinite sequence of functions. Define the sequence of functions $F_1,F_2,\ldots$ by the recurrence relation $$F_n(x)=f_n(x)\sum_{k=0}^\infty F_{n+1}(k)x^k$$ or ...
1
vote
2answers
34 views

Simplifying $\frac{1/(\frac{1}{z_1}(1-t)+\frac{1}{z_2}t) - z_1}{(z_2 - z_1)}$

This drives me mad! I am not very good in math but thought I could at least do basic things like this one, but can't figure it out and I spent a day on it. I am trying to simplify: ...
2
votes
2answers
77 views

What is the formula and the name of the mathematical-phenomenon seen at the ending of “Around the World in Eighty Days”?

Spoiler in brief for those who don't know the ending yet: At the end, Phileas Fogg alongside with his companions realize that they have arrived back to London a day earlier than expected due fact the ...
9
votes
3answers
1k views

If $ f(x \cdot f(y) + f(x)) = y \cdot f(x) + x $, then $f(x)=x$

Let $ f : \mathbb{Q} \rightarrow \mathbb{Q} $ be a function which has the following property: $$ f(x \cdot f(y) + f(x)) = y \cdot f(x) + x \;,\; \forall \; x, y \in \mathbb{Q} $$ Prove that $ f(x) = ...
3
votes
6answers
140 views

Functional equation $ f(x)+f(x+1)=x$

What functions satisfy $f(x)+f(x+1)=x$? I tried but I do not know if my answer is correct. $f(x)=y$ $y+f(x+1)=x$ $f(x+1)=x-y$ $f(x)=x-1-y$ $2y=x-1$ $f(x)=(x-1)/2$
6
votes
2answers
201 views

Find $f(x)$ satisfy $f(2x)=2f(x)+x$

I would appreciate if somebody could help me with the following problem: Find $f(x)$, given that: $f \colon \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, $f$ is continuous at $x=0$, and ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

monotonic function. I need to show ots linear

If a real additive function f is monotonic, then it is linear. I need to show that the monotonic function f that satisfies caushy additives functional equation is linear
2
votes
1answer
71 views

Show that f is linear

Let $f : \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ be a solution of the additive Cauchy functional equation satisfying the condition $$f(x) = x^2 f(1/x)\quad \forall x \in \mathbb R\setminus \{0\}.$$ Then show that ...
1
vote
1answer
67 views

analitycs solutions to the equation $f'(x)=f(x)f(x-1)$

As the title says I'm serching for functions ($C^n$ or analitycs $f$) that satisfies $f'(x)=f(x)f(x-1)$ some details: I've come at this equation after looking for a function $g$ satisfying for ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Generalized Riesz theorem of operator value function

I am reading a book Gustafson-Rao's Numerical Range and come across a problem that I really don't understand. In theorem 2.1-2 of the book, it asserts that for an operator valued function ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

What problems are related with the following type of FDE with delay?

Consider the following class of functional differential equations with delay: $$\begin{align} \frac{du}{dt} &= F(x,t,u(x,t),u_{t,x}), & (x,t) &\in [a,b] \times [0,T] \\ u(x,t) &= ...
7
votes
0answers
92 views

Looking for all sequences such that $a_i^2+a_j^2=a_k^2+a_l^2$ whenever $i^2+j^2=k^2+l^2$

I'm working in a difficult functional equation, and I have reduced the problem to the following question ($\mathbb{N}$ denotes the set of non negative integers $0,1,2,3,4\cdots$) Question: Can we ...
1
vote
2answers
71 views

Show that $f$ is a Cauchy function

Let $f \colon \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ be a solution of the functional equation $$|f(x + y)| = |f(x)| + |f(y)| \quad \forall x,y \in\mathbb{R}.$$ Show that $f$ is an additive function.
5
votes
1answer
76 views

Find the functions

Find all the functions $ f : \mathbb{Q} \rightarrow \mathbb{Q} $ with the following property: $$ f(x + 3f(y)) = f(x) + f(y) + 2y, \: \forall x, y \in \mathbb{Q} $$
1
vote
2answers
87 views

functional equations.. I need hints for this problem

Find all functions $f : \mathbb{R} → \mathbb{R}$ that satisfy the functional equation $f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) + xy$, for all $x,y ∈ \mathbb{R}$.
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votes
2answers
506 views

Do there exist functions $f$ such that $f(f(x))=x^2-x+1$ for every $x$?

My question is on the existence (or not) of a function $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ which satisfy the equation: $$f(f(x))=x^2-x+1 \text{ for every }x\in\mathbb{R}$$ Supposing that such a map do exist ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

A matrix version of Fredholm integral equation of the second kind

Fredholm integral equation are often encountered in physics. I have to deal with the following Fredholm matrix equation \begin{equation} \big[ L (x,y) \big]_{ij} = \big[ A (x,y) \big]_{ij} + \sum_{k} ...
3
votes
3answers
96 views

Find $f(2)$ if $f$ satisfies $2f(x)-3f(\frac1x)=x^2$

The following expression is given, and we are asked to find $f(2)$. \begin{equation} 2f(x)-3f\left(\frac{1}{x}\right) =x^2 \end{equation} Does a unique and well defined answer exist? Why? and what ...
2
votes
4answers
84 views

Determine all functions (functional equation) [closed]

Determine all functions $f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ that satisfy the functional equation $$f(x + y) + f(z) = f(x) + f(y + z)$$ for all $x, y, z \in \mathbb{R}$.
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votes
0answers
30 views

show the following: (functional equations)

If f : R to R is a solution of the additive Cauchy functional equation, then show that f is either everywhere or nowhere zero.
3
votes
2answers
143 views

Find value of a functional equation

Find $f(x)$ such that $$2 f(n) + \frac{1}{3}f\left(\frac{1}{n}\right) = 12.$$ Can anybody suggest me a way to solve this kind of functional equations?
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Periodic Function With A Given Functional Equation

Let $f$ be a real valued function defined for all real numbers $x$ such that for some positive constant '$a$' the equation $f(x+a)=1/2+\sqrt{f(x)-(f(x))^2}$ holds for all $x$. Then prove that $f$ is ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

How to solve a set of equations where the unknowns are a function and some parameters?

I'd like to know how to solve something like this: $$\begin{eqnarray} f(f(x_2)-f(x_1)) & = & 27.5\\ f(f(x_3)-f(x_1)) & = & 21.6\\ f(f(x_4)-f(x_1)) & = & 15.1\\ f(f(x_5)-f(x_1)) ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Checking that a defined map is satisfied by some given condition

Suppose I have a group homomorphism $f: (\mathbb{R}^{2}, +) \rightarrow (\mathbb{R}, +)$ defined by $$f(x,y)= f(\frac{x+y}{2}, \frac{x+y}{2})+f(\frac{x-y}{2}, \frac{y-x}{2}) \text{,}$$ where $x, y ...
0
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0answers
47 views

Differential equation involving composition

I've been studying Euler's method to approximate a solution to a differential equation in an algorithm class. I faced a weird differential equation in a mathematics exercise, and I wanted to know if ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Functional equation over $f(x) = \int_0^{ax}f(t)dt + g(x)$

Let $a\in(-1,1)$ and $g\in C^{\infty}(\mathbb{R}, \mathbb{R})$. Let $S(a, g)$ the set of all f such that : $$f(x) = \int_0^{ax}f(t)dt + g(x)$$ The first part was to show that : $$S(a, 0) = ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

Technique to compositive functional equation

What is function $f,g:\Bbb R^+\rightarrow\Bbb R$ sought that satisfies $$\forall x\in\Bbb N,\,f_{(r)}(x)=\underbrace{f(f(\dots(f(f(x)))\dots))}_{r \,\mathsf{times}}=2^{(\log x)^c}$$ $$\forall ...
3
votes
2answers
94 views

Find all real functions $f:\mathbb {R} \to \mathbb {R}$ satisfying the equation $f(x^2+y.f(x))=x.f(x+y)$

Find all real functions $f:\mathbb {R} \to \mathbb {R}$ satisfying the equation $f(x^2+y.f(x))=x.f(x+y)$ My attempt - Clearly $f(0)=0$ Putting $x^2=x,y.f(x)=1$, we have $f(x+1)=x.f(x+y)$. Now ...
0
votes
0answers
39 views

Prove $\lim\limits_{x \to +\infty} \frac{f_1(x)}{f_2(x)} = \text{Constant}$

Let $g(x)$ be a real-analytic strictly rising function for $x>0$. Define for $x>1$ two real analytic functions $f_1,f_2$ such that : $$f_1(x) - f_1(x-1) = f_1(g(x))$$ $$f_2'(x) = f_2(g(x))$$ ...
3
votes
1answer
95 views

Functional equation defined over non-negative real numbers

I'm new to this forum and I don't know how to write mathematical symbols. I have the following functional equation: $f$ defined on $[0, +\infty)$ with values in $[0, +\infty)$ $f$ is bijective and ...
2
votes
4answers
342 views

Problem in solving functional equation.

To find all functions $f$ which is a real function from $\Bbb R \to \Bbb R$ satisfying the relation $$f(x^2 + yf(x)) = xf(x+y)$$ It can be easily seen that the identity function $i.e.$ $f(x)=x$ and ...
0
votes
2answers
91 views

$f(xy)=\frac{f(x)+f(y)}{x+y}$ Prove that $f$ is identically equal to $0$

For all $x,y\in\mathbb{R}$. also $f : \mathbb{R} → \mathbb{R}$ and $x+y\not=0$. My attempt: I restated it as $a[x^2 y^2 (\frac{x}{y}+\frac{y}{x}-\frac{1}{y^2}-\frac{1}{x^2})] + ...
3
votes
3answers
156 views

Solving functional equation $f(x)f(y) = f(x+y)$

I'm having some trouble solving the following equation for $f: A \rightarrow B$ where $A \subseteq \mathbb{R}$ and $B \subseteq \mathbb{C}$ such as: $$f(x)f(y) = f(x+y) \quad \forall x,y \in A$$ ...
4
votes
0answers
45 views

Solution techniques for f'(x)=f(g(x))

I stumbled over this seemingly natural question and was surprised, that I couldn't find a satisfying answer. Differential equations of the type $f'(x)=g(f(x))$ are studied for all kind of classes of ...
16
votes
3answers
492 views

Improvement IMO 1988 $f(f(n))=n+1987$

The following problem was given at IMO 1987. Prove that there is no function f from the set of non-negative integers into itself such that $f(f(n)) = n + 1987$ for every $n$. So I tried to ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

Calculation of Sigma (Multiple Sigmas)

When I was studying Game Theory, I came across this equation: $$F_i(q_1, \ldots, q_n) = \sum_{s_1 \in S_1} \: \ldots \: \sum_{s_n \in S_N} \big\{ \prod_{j=1}^n q_j(s_j) \big\} \: \: f_i(s_1, ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

A functional equation over integers

I was working in a problem in number theory and I blocked over the problem : Given functions $f:\mathbb{Z}\rightarrow \mathbb{Z}$, $g:\mathbb{Z^2}\rightarrow \mathbb{Z}$ and ...
7
votes
2answers
131 views

For all $x,y\in G$ we have: $f(xf(y))=f(x)y$. Prove that $f$ is an isomorphism?

Let $G$ be a group and $f : G \to G$ a function such that for all $x,y\in G$: $$f(x f(y)) = f(x) y.$$ Prove that $f$ is an isomorphism. There are two problems here: we don't know that $f$ is a ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Fixed Point Iteration $x = g(x)$ method for $y_1 = e ^{-x}$ and $y_2= \cos x$

The question reads as follows: Find the x and y coordinates of the intersection points by means of the $x = g(x)$ method. ( I believe they are referring to the Fixed Point Iteration method) The ...
3
votes
1answer
47 views

Difficulty with Jensen's Equation.

Its easy to find all continuous function $f: \Bbb R \to \Bbb R $ satisfing the Jensen equation $$f \left( \frac{x+y}{2}\right )=\frac{f(x)+f(y)}{2}$$ But I am finding difficulty in finding all ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

find the distribution of 100 heart transplant patients at a low volume and high volume hospital using boxplot graph 0-40 mortality

Using a boxplot graph find the distribution show mortality rates within one year of 100 patients having heart transplants at various hospitals. The low volume hospital perform between 5 and 9 ...
0
votes
1answer
125 views

Solutions to functional equation $ \gamma(s,t)=f(t \cdot g(s))+h(t) $

Let $$ \gamma(s,t)=f(t \cdot g(s))+h(t) $$ where $\gamma$ is a known function of $s \in \mathbb{R}$ and $t \in \mathbb{R}$ while $f$, $g$, and $h$ are unknown functions. Assume ...
10
votes
4answers
130 views

Polynomial equation $f(x)f(2x^2)=f(2x^3+x)$

Find all polynomials $f(x)$, for which $f(x)f(2x^2)=f(2x^3+x)$. I have no idea how to do it.
1
vote
1answer
89 views

Role of functional equations in current panorama of pure mathematics

It seems that currently functional equations are greatly explored as a research field. I would like to know what is the importance and role of such a field in the panorama of the current development ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Functional equation extended solution

The question is Find all functions $f:R \to R$ such that $$f(x+y)f(x-y)=(f(x)+f(y))^2-4x^2f(y)$$ Taking $x=y=0$, we get $f(0)^2=4f(0)^2 \implies f(0)=0$. Now take $x=y$ which immediately gives ...
2
votes
3answers
273 views

Solve the following functional equation

Find all functions $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ so that: a) $[f(x)+f(y)][f(x+2y)+f(y)]=[f(x+y)]^2+f(2y)f(y)$ b) for every real $a>b\ge 0$ we have $f(a)>f(b)$ As much as I know: ...
5
votes
2answers
175 views

Solving functional equation $f(x+y)+f(x-y)=2f(x)\cos y$?

How can I solve this functional equation, where $x,y$ are any real numbers and $f:\mathbb{R}\to \mathbb R$ is a function such that : $$f(x+y)+f(x-y)=2f(x)\cos y$$ I tried substituting $x=0$ to get ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Functional equation, probably involving discrete differentiating?

I want to know how to solve this problem on functions. Question: Find all functions $f: \mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ satisfying $$f(x+1)-f(x)=nf(x)$$ where $\mathbb{R}$ is set of real ...