Functional analysis is the study of infinite-dimensional vector spaces, often with additional structures (inner product, norm, topology), with typical examples given by function spaces. The subject also includes the study of linear and non-linear operators on these spaces, as well as measure, ...

learn more… | top users | synonyms (1)

0
votes
0answers
8 views

$L^{2, n} (\Omega) \cong L^{\infty} \cap L^2 (\Omega)$

The Morrey space $L^{2, \nu} (\Omega)$ for an open set $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ and for $1 \leq \nu \leq n$ is defined as $$L^{2, n} (\Omega) = \{ f \in L^2(\Omega); \hspace{2mm} [f]^2_{L^{2, ...
15
votes
0answers
342 views

Reinventing The Wheel - Part 2: The Lebesgue Integral

Disclaimer After struggling for some time to find an appropriate definition for the notion of integration I came across another attempt for which I would need your help deciding to what extend this ...
2
votes
1answer
18 views

Is $C(\mathbb R) \subset H_{s}^{loc}$ (localized Sobolev space)?

We put, Sobolev space $$H_{s}=H_{s}(\mathbb R)=\{f\in L^{2}(\mathbb R):[\int_{\mathbb R} |\hat{f}(\xi)|^{2}(1+|\xi|^{2})^{s}d\xi]^{1/2}<\infty \}.$$ If $U$ is an open set in $\mathbb R,$ the ...
3
votes
1answer
38 views

Find the values of $f(0)$, $f(4)$, $f(6)$ and $f(18)$

A function $f:\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ is such that $f(2)=2$ and $$f(x+1)+f(x-1)=\sqrt{3}f(x) \tag{1}.$$ Find the values of $f(0)$, $f(4)$, $f(6)$ and $f(18)$. My approach: replace $x$ ...
2
votes
0answers
17 views

Does a strictly convex and weak metrizable unit sphere of a Banach space imply locally uniform convexity?

I'm trying to find a proof for this question Let $X$ be a Banach space with strictly convex norm and a metrizable unit sphere, $S_X=\{x\in X: \|x\|=1\}$, for the weak topology. Does $X$ admits ...
4
votes
2answers
50 views

Riesz's Lemma for $l^\infty$ and $\alpha = 1$

Riesz's Lemma says the following: Let $X$ be a normed vector space and $Y$ a proper closed subspace of $X$. Pick $\alpha \in (0,1)$. Then $\exists x\in X$ such that $|x|=1$ and $d(x,y) \geq \alpha$ ...
4
votes
1answer
134 views

1-separated sequences of unit vectors in Banach spaces

Given an infinite-dimensional Banach space $X$, I would like to construct a sequence of linearly independent unit vectors such that $\|u_k-u_l\|\geqslant 1$ whenever $k\neq l$. Any ideas on how to ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

Terminology: 'pointwise monotone functional'?

I have a set $\mathcal{F}$ of real-valued functions, $$f_i(\cdot):\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R} \, ,$$ and a (linear) functional $T$ defined on $\mathcal{F}$, $$T:f_i \mapsto T[f_i] \in \mathbb{R} \, ,$$ ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

Convex interior topology

I have found a fascinating example of topology on a vector space $V$, but I cannot prove its interesting properties to myself. Let $\mathcal{B}$ be the family of all convex symmetric (i.e. $\forall ...
2
votes
3answers
46 views

The “Circle” is a Vector Space?

Consider the set of angles $C = [0, \ 2\pi)$ and, for all $x,y \in C$, define the $sum$ operation as the sum modulo $[0, \ 2\pi)$. The identity element of the addition is the angle $0$. The inverse ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Question on the proof of Open mapping Theorem

I am studying on Open Mapping Theorem. I am stuck at a point in the proof. Open Unit Ball: A bounded linear operator T from a Banach space X onto a Banach space Y has the property that the image ...
-1
votes
0answers
26 views

Existence of a semigroup of bounded operators which is not $C_0$

Let $X$ be any Banach space. Then we can define a $C_0 $ semi group of bounded operators on $X$. But my question is that can we define a semi group of bounded operators which is not $C_0$?
0
votes
1answer
58 views

Weak convergence of scaled elements implies norm convergence

Let $u_{k}\in l^2{\mathbb{(Z)}}$ be a sequence such that for every sequence $n_{k} \in \mathbb{Z}$ the sequence $n_{k}u_{k}\rightharpoonup 0$. Prove that $ u_{k} \rightarrow 0$ in $l^{q}(\mathbb{Z}) , ...
5
votes
1answer
52 views

Existence of integral equation solution

I am trying to prove a differentiable solution in some open interval about the origin for the equation: $$u(x) + u(x)^2 + \int_0^x (1+\cos(x+u(y))) dy = 0$$ I have been trying to prove it as a ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

The image of non-reflexive Banach space in its bidual is at large distance from some unit vector in the bidual

I am having some difficulties with part of a problem, I am working on. Let $X$ be a non-reflexive Banach space and let $i: X \to X^{**}$ be the canonical embedding. Show that for given $\epsilon ...
0
votes
0answers
42 views

Existance of inverse of an operator

I was studying abstract inverse source problem of an abstract heat equation in approach of semi group theory. There I am unable to find the reason of existence of inverse of an operator that i have ...
1
vote
0answers
20 views

Continuity of Function Related to F-norms

Let $X$ be a locally bounded $F$-space and $\left\|\cdot\right\|$ be an $F$-norm on $X$. Suppose that $\left\|\cdot\right\|$ is concave: for all $x\in X$ fixed, the function ...
1
vote
0answers
10 views

Maximizing the “uniformity” of a distribution subject to moment constraints

I want to develop a continuous probability density, subject to moment constraints, that is maximally "uniform". A maximally uniform density is a density that has the smallest maximum probability ...
2
votes
2answers
29 views

Boundedness of Volterra operator with Sobolev norm

Consider the subspace of $C^\infty([0,1])$ functions in the Sobolev space $H^1$. I want to know whether the Volterra operator \begin{equation} V(f)(t) = \int_0^t f(s) \, ds \end{equation} is bounded ...
3
votes
1answer
29 views

Is $C^\infty_0$ dense in $C^\infty$ w.r.t. $\|\cdot\|_{L^p}$ and $\|\cdot\|_{W^{1,p}}$?

Is the space $C^\infty_0(\Omega)$ of smooth functions with bounded support, dense in the set of smooth functions $C^\infty(\Omega)$ with respect to the norms $\|\cdot\|_{L^p}$ and the Sobolev-Norm ...
1
vote
2answers
40 views

Characterisation of one-dimensional Sobolev space

I've got some doubts proving that $$H^1_0((a,b))=\{u\in AC([a,b]): u'\in L^2 \text{ and } u(a)=u(b)=0\}:=X.$$Let $$\mathcal A=\{v\in C^2([a,b]):v(a)=v(b)=0\}.$$ $H^1_0((a,b))\subseteq X.$ Let ...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

Books with exercises or problems on the space of functions of bounded variation

I am studying BV space (the space of functions of bounded variation) by using Evans & Gariepy's book. However, there are no exercises for BV space, and I have no idea where I can find some. ...
-4
votes
1answer
36 views

The symetric operator is linear operator. [on hold]

Definition: Let be $X$ unitary space. Operator $A:X\rightarrow X$ called symetric if $$ (Ax\vert y)=(x\vert Ay), (x,y\in X).$$ I saw some books functional analysis but can not find verification of ...
-1
votes
0answers
22 views

Get locally uniformly convex norm by bounded linear operator

I want to prove this theorem Let $Y$ be a locally uniformly convex Banach space and $X$ be a Banach space and let $T$ be a bunded linear operator from $X$ into $Y$ such that for every bounded ...
3
votes
3answers
618 views

Folland & Functional Analysis

I'm reading Folland's Real Analysis to learn some basic functional analysis. I read through his section Normed Vector Spaces and could make my way through most of the exercises I attempted. I am ...
1
vote
1answer
104 views

Minimum calculus of variation

Hi I am looking for a criterion that is sufficient to prove that a solution to a functional depending on two functions y(t) and x(t) is an extremum. it is about the following functional$$ \int_0^b ...
0
votes
0answers
92 views

Why is it hold for types of operators?

We ‎let ‎the ‎state ‎space ‎be‎ ‏‎‎‎$ \mathcal{H} =‎ ‎‎H_{E}^{2}(0 , 1) \times L^2(0 , 1) $‎ equipped with the norm ‎ \begin{align} \| (f , g) \| = \int_{0}^{1} [ |f''(x)|^2 + |g(x)|^2] ‎\mathrm{d}x‎ ...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

Formal definition of “node” with respect to eigenvalues and functional analysis.

I'm concerned with a special problem of spectral analysis for a certain Sturm-Liouville-differential-operator, that is to say $L:=\frac{d^2}{dx^2}-q(x)$ and the spectrum $\sigma(L)$. While reading an ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

Difference between Half Quadratic vs Quadratic

Half quadratic minimization/penalty/optimization, I am unable to find any related material/resources. If anyone can point to some useful resources, it will be great
4
votes
2answers
129 views

Extensions and Kazhdan's Property (T)

Is Kazhdan's property (T) stable under extensions? i.e. if $G$ is an extension of a group with property (T) by a group with property (T), does it follow that $G$ has property (T)?
6
votes
3answers
219 views

Dual norm intuition

The dual of a norm $\|\cdot \|$ is defined as: $$\|z\|_* = \sup \{ z^Tx \text{ } | \text{ } \|x\| \le 1\}$$ Could anybody give me an intuition of this concept? I know the definition, I am using it ...
6
votes
1answer
252 views

Is this proof good? Identifying extreme points of the unit ball in a function space

I want to prove: If $K$ is compact $T_2$ then the extreme points of the unit ball of $C(K)$ are precisely the functions $f\in C(K)$ such that $|f(k)|=1$ for all $k\in K$. Here is my proof: Can someone ...
4
votes
2answers
65 views

Example of a function $u\in L^\infty(0,T,H^1)$ such that $u_t\notin L^\infty(0,T,H^1)$

Could someone give me an example of a function $u\in L^\infty(0,T,H^1)$ such that $u_t$ exists (in the distributional sense), $u_t\in L^\infty(0,T,L^2)$ and $u_t\notin L^\infty(0,T,H^1)$? Thanks. ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Characterizing C* algebra generated by elements.

Let $A$ be a C*-algebra and $A_0\subset A$. Then it is known that the $\mathbb{C}$-algebra generated by $A_0$ (i.e. the intersection of all sub-$\mathbb{C}$-algebras containing it ) is just the ...
6
votes
2answers
315 views

Unitisation of $C^{*}$-algebras via double centralizers

In most of the books I read about $C^{*}$-algebras, the author usually embeds the algebra, say, $A$, as an ideal of $B(A)$, the algebra of bounded linear operators on $A$, by identifying $a$ and ...
2
votes
2answers
38 views

If $f(x)g(y)$ is a measurable function, and $f$, $g \in L^{1}(dm)$, does this imply $g(y - x) \in L^{1}(dm)$?

Question rephrased Suppose we are working in $(\mathbb{R}, \Sigma(m^{*}) \times \Sigma(m^{*}), m \times m)$ where $m$ is Lebesgue measure. Note that our $\sigma$-algebra is not necessarily complete. ...
1
vote
1answer
43 views

Orthogonal basis of complete Euclidean space

friends! I read that any complete Euclidean, complex or real, space $R$ has a (normalized) orthogonal basis. By orthogonal basis an orthogonal system of vectors such that the smallest closed subspace ...
-4
votes
0answers
39 views

Calcul of limit [on hold]

What is the limit of $$\lim_{f \rightarrow 0} \frac{ \nabla {f(x)} }{\sin{(f(x))}}?$$ We can use the Poincare inequality and the famous limits: $$\lim_{x\rightarrow 0} ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Explaining why $\Vert x_n\Vert _1=\frac{3}{4}$

Let $X_1$ respectively $X_2$ denote the space $C [a, b]$, $a <b$ with norm: $$\Vert x\Vert_1=\int_a^b \vert x(t)\vert dt; $$$$\Vert x\Vert_2=\left(\int_a^b \vert x(t)^2\vert ...
2
votes
0answers
57 views

$ d(x,y)^2 \le d(x,z)^2 - d(y,z)^2\color{}{+\varphi\big(x,y,z,d(x,y),d(y,z) \big)}? $

In a metric space $(M,d)$ the triangle inequality $d (x, z) \le d(x, y) + d (y, z)$ gives us's the inequalitie $$ \quad d(x,y)^2 \ge d(x,z)^2 - d(y,z)^2\;\color{}{{-2\cdot d(x,y)\cdot d(y,z)}} $$ ...
2
votes
1answer
35 views

If $T: X \to Y$ is norm-norm continuous then it is weak-weak continuous

Let $X,Y$ be normed linear spaces (or Banach spaces if necessary) and let $T: X \to Y$ be linear. We call $T$ norm-norm continuous if $X,Y$ are endowed with the norm topology and similarly, weak-weak ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Convex Inequality describing Functions inside specific area

Let us assume that we have two functions $f_1$, $f_2:[0,1] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{2}$, which describe each a point trajectory on the plane. Let us further assume that we parametrize those functions ...
2
votes
0answers
24 views

Resolvent and spectrum of a self-adjoint extension

In this paper, they give the resolvent, spectrum, and eigenfunctions of the self-adjoint extension of the Laplacian on a rectangle that corresponds to a delta potential at an arbitrary point (items ...
2
votes
1answer
274 views

Characterization of compactness in weak* topology

Let $ X $ be Banach space, and $X^*$ its dual. A set $ F \subset X ^ * $ is weakly-* compact if and only if $ F $ is closed in the weak* topology and is bounded in norm. How does one prove this ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

Question about statement of Fubini's theorem

This is a question on the statement of Fubini's theorem for measurable sets. The theorem looks like this: Let $(X \times Y, \overline{\Sigma \times \tau}, \lambda = \mu \times \nu)$ be a complete ...
2
votes
0answers
41 views

How to solve this finite-difference equation?

How to solve the following finite-differences equation: $$f(x) = f(x-1) + f(x-\sqrt{2}), \quad x\in [\sqrt{2}, +\infty) \,?$$ Let's say $f(x) = f_0(x)$ for $x \in [0, \sqrt{2})$ is a given function. ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

General solution of a finite-difference equation with real non-commensurable differences.

How to find a general solution of the following functional (recurrence) equation: $$f(x) = c_1 f(x - a_1) + \dots + c_n f(x - a_n), \tag{1}$$ where $c_i, a_i$, $i = 1, ... n$ are arbitrary real ...
2
votes
1answer
24 views

Find the values of $p$ for which the given sequence converges in $l^p$ norm or weakly

We consider $E_p=(c_{00}, ||\cdot||_{p})$ (where $c_{00}$ are the sequences that are zero except in a finite number of values and $1\leq p \leq \infty$) and the sequence:$$(x_n)_{n\in ...
-2
votes
0answers
34 views

Book suggestion functional analysis [duplicate]

I am studding functional analysis and applications. Does anyone have a good recommendation of books//lectures/resources/etc.? Thanks.
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Proving concavity for complicated function

I have a rather complicated function, $f$, that I am trying to demonstrate is log-log-concave, i.e., $$\frac{d^2\log f}{(d\log x)^2}\leq 0.$$ The reason I think it is concave is purely heuristic. ...