Functional analysis is the study of infinite-dimensional vector spaces, often with additional structures (inner product, norm, topology), with typical examples given by function spaces. The subject also includes the study of linear and non-linear operators on these spaces, as well as measure, ...

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Showing that $a(\cdot,\cdot)$ is coercive

I am working on a problem and I have the weak formulation of Poisson's problem in $2$ spatial dimensions i.e. $u = u(x,y)$: $$a(u,v) = \ell(v) $$ where $$a(u,v)=\int_{\Omega}\nabla u\nabla ...
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6 views

A question about essential ideal

Let $I$ be a nonunital C*-algebra and $I\subset B(H)$ be any nondegenerate representation and define $$M(I)=\{T\in B(H): Tx\in I~and ~xT\in I, ~for ~all~ x\in I\}.$$ Then, how to prove $I$ ...
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1answer
32 views

Inverse in a functional space

I would like to understand why the inverse of a bounded operator must to be bounded too? In other context, all bijective function have an inverse but when we deal with a bounded operator it have to be ...
2
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2answers
43 views

Equality of two operators

The following is a fact in Murphy's C*-algebras and operator theory page 49: Suppose $u,v \in B(H)$, where $H$ is a Hilbert space, then $u=v$ if and only if $\langle u\xi,\xi\rangle = \langle ...
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1answer
52 views

Fundamental theorem of calculus with Gâteaux differentials and Riemann integrals

Let $f:[a,b]\to E$ where $E$ is a Banach space and let $Df(x,h)$ be its Gâteaux differential in $x$ with direction $h$. If $\mathbb{R}\to E$, $h\mapsto Df(x,h)$ is linear and continuous, then we write ...
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2answers
84 views

Symmetric Operator vs. Real Spectrum

For symmetric operators one has a characterization: $$A\text{ symmetric}:\quad A=A^*\iff\sigma(A)\subseteq\mathbb{R}$$ (I want to investigate to what extend symmetry is a necessary assumption.) ...
4
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0answers
203 views

Hölder regularity of the simple layer heat potential (question on the proof)

Let $G(t,x)$ be the fundamental solution of the heat equation, with $t\in\mathbb{R},x\in\mathbb{R}^n$. In the book "Linear and Quasilinear Equations of Parabolic Type" by O.Ladyzhenskaya, ...
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3answers
1k views

Compact operator

If $H$ and $K$ are Hilbert spaces,show that if $T:H\longrightarrow K$ is a compact operator and $\{e_{n}\}$ is any orthonormal sequence in $H$ then $\|Te_{n}\|\to0$.Is the converse true? thanks.
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1answer
379 views

Can a dynamic programming problem be transformed into a linear algebra problem?

Here is a simple standard economic problem: Let Robin Crusoe have an endowment $w_0$ of lembas bread. She is immortal and discounts at a rate of $\beta$ per period. Each period (from $t=0$ on) she ...
2
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1answer
34 views

Convergence implies Abel summability, and we only need to consider when $s=0$?

Suppose $\displaystyle c_n\in\mathbb{C}\textrm{ and}\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}c_n=s$. Then, prove $\displaystyle\lim_{r\to 1^{-}}\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}r^{n}c_n=s$. In my text, the author hinted that: we only ...
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6answers
326 views

Is there such thing as an unnormed vector space?

I learned about Banach spaces a few weeks ago. A Banach space is a complete normed vector space. This of course made me wonder: are there unnormed vector spaces? If there are, can anyone please ...
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12 views

Trace map $\gamma:H^1(\Omega) \to H^{\frac 12}(\partial\Omega)$ invertible on $\{ u \in H^1(\Omega) \mid \Delta u =0 \}.$

It is apparently true that the trace map $\gamma:H^1(\Omega) \to H^{\frac 12}(\partial\Omega)$, is invertible when restricted to the domain $$\{ u \in H^1(\Omega) \mid \Delta u =0 \}.$$ I've been ...
2
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0answers
22 views

Is $\{ u \in H^1(\Omega) \mid \Delta u \in L^2(\Omega)\}$ dense in $H^1(\Omega)$?

Can it be true that the space $$\{ u \in H^1(\Omega) \mid \Delta u \in L^2(\Omega)\}$$ is dense in $H^1(\Omega)$? If so, please give me a reference to this. Every $u \in H^1$ has $\Delta u \in ...
4
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1answer
39 views

When does a continuous function defined on a non-compact closed and bounded convex set has a fixed point?

Is there any result in fixed point theory which will give the existence of a fixed point for a continuous function defined on a non-compact, closed and bounded convex set?
3
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1answer
13 views

operators on Hilbert spaces have adjoints

The following is a Theorem of Murphy's C*-algebras and operator theory: In the last line of proof, he claims $u^*$ is linear, but I think it's conjugate linear because for $y_2,x_2\in H_2$, $x_1\in ...
5
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2answers
2k views

spectrum of the right shift operator

Here is the question: Considering the right shift operator $S$ on $l^2({\bf Z})$, what can one know about ran$(S-\lambda)$? Here is what I thought: If one wants to prove that the operator ...
2
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1answer
44 views

Proposed proof for convergence in Sobolev space

Consider the Anisotropic Sobolev Space defined by: $$W^{1,\overrightarrow{p},\epsilon}(\Omega) := \{ u \in L^{1+\frac{1}{\epsilon}}(\Omega), \frac{\partial u}{\partial x_{i}} \in L^{p_{i}}(\Omega), ...
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0answers
21 views

a totally bounded subset of $\mathbb{L}_1(\mathbb{R}^{d})$ and Kolmogorov-Riesz compactness theorem

Let $\lambda$ be the Lebesgue measure on $\mathbb{R}^{d}$ , $\mathcal{F}$ a set of all probability densities $f$ such that $\mathcal{F}$ is a totally bounded subset of $\mathbb{L}_1(\mathbb{R}^{d})$ ...
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1answer
43 views

What is the 'largest' space of integrable functions which is also a Hilbert space?

It is well known that $L^2(X,\mu)$, the set of functions $f:X \rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ such that $\int_X |f|^2 \text{d} \mu < \infty$, is a Hilbert space. Is there a Hilbert space $H$ such that ...
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1answer
53 views

TVS: Uniform Structure

Disclaimer: This thread is meant informative and therefore written in Q&A style. Of course everybody is encouraged to give an answer as well! Prove that any topological vector space gives rise ...
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2answers
91 views

TVS: Topology vs. Scalar Product

I just had an idea: It is clear that every scalar product induces a norm and that a metric and that finally a topology. Turning this argument around we know: Not every topology induces a metric only ...
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1answer
32 views

If $f \in L_2(a,b)$, then $\int_a^x f(y) dy \in L_2(a,b)$?

If $f \in L_2(a,b)$, then I want to show that the antiderivative $$ F(x) := \int_a^x f(y) d y $$ is in $L_2$ (I guess this is true). If $L_2(a,b)$ would be closed under pointwise product, i.e. if ...
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17 views

Is the Fourier transform a tame linear operator?

$\mathcal{F}:C^{\infty}_{0}(B^d)\to L_{1}^{\infty}(\mathbb{R}^{d},\mu,w)$ $\mathcal{F}(f)=\hat{f}$ I'd like show that $\left\|\mathcal{F}(f)\right\|_{n}\leq\left\| f ...
3
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4answers
176 views

Determinant: Alternative Definition (Matrices)

Reference Foundation for: Determinant: Continuity Problem Given a vector space $V$. Consider an endomorphism $T:V\to V$. The rank of an endomorphism: ...
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0answers
25 views
+50

Gateaux variation (Functional Derivative) of functional with convolution

Given the following functional $F[f]=\int f(x) \log(g(x)) dx$ find Gateaux variation. Also, $g(x)$ is given by convolution $g(x)=y(x) * f(x)=\int y(\tau) f(x-\tau) d\tau$, so \begin{align*} ...
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0answers
23 views

Basis of $H^1(\Omega)$ which is orthonormal wrt. $L^2(\partial\Omega)$ inner product?

Let $\Omega$ be a domain with $\partial\Omega$ bounded. Is it possible to find a smooth basis of $H^1(\Omega)$ and $L^2(\Omega)$ which is orthonormal wrt. the $L^2(\partial\Omega)$ inner product? ...
2
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1answer
92 views

Hilbert Spaces: Tensor Product

Attention The question has been modified! (Previous answers were perfectly correct, then.) Reference Build-up on: Vector Spaces: Tensor Product Problem Given Hilbert spaces $\mathcal{H}$ and ...
2
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2answers
35 views

extend a linear function

Let $P$ denote the subspace of $C^0([0,1])$ defined by polynomials restricted to [0,1]. Suppose that $l:P\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is a linear function with the property that $p(x)\geq 0$ in $x\in ...
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1answer
41 views

An unusual two dimensional sum

Can anyone prove or reference a proof for the following bound (unless it's not true!) $$\sum_{|\underline{k}|_{\infty} > M} \frac{1}{((k_1)^2 + (k_2)^2 )^2} \leq \frac{C}{M^2}$$ where ...
1
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1answer
87 views

Determinant: Continuity

Reference Build-up on: Determinant: Definition Problem Given a vector space $V$. Consider an endomorphism $T:V\to V$. Define its determinant $\det:\mathcal{L}(V)\to\mathbb{C}$. Introduce a norm ...
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1answer
36 views

Trace map from $H^1$ into $H^{\frac 12}$, does this statement imply another?

Consider trace map $T:H^1(\Omega) \to H^{\frac 12}(\partial\Omega)$ on a sufficiently smooth domain $\Omega$. It has a partial inverse $E$. If we have the statement $$F(u,Eu) = 0\quad\text{for all ...
2
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2answers
55 views

There are $u$ in $W^{1,p}(D)$ and a subsequence $\left\{ u_{m_{k}}\right\} $ such that $\left\{ u_{m_{k}}\right\} $ weakly converges to $u$.

Let $D$ be a bounded open subset with smooth boundary in $\mathbb{R}^n$, $p \in (1,\infty)$, and {$u_m$} be a bounded sequence in $W^{1,p}(D)$. Then there are $u$ in $W^{1,p}(D)$ and a subsequence ...
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Intersection of the closure of epigraph and subgraph of f function

Can you give an example of a function $f:R^p \to\ R$ such that $Grf \neq \overline{epif}\cap\overline{subf}$ where $p\in N$ and $Grf=\{(x,y)\in R^px R \mid f(x)=y \}, epif=\{(x,y)\in R^pxR \mid ...
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0answers
30 views

Commutativity and norms of specific operators (Problem 2.7.10 in Kreyszig's functional analysis book)

This is Problem 2.7.10 from Erwin Kreyszig's Introductory Functional Analysis with Applications. Let $C[0,1]$ denote the normed space of all (real- or complex-valued) functions defined and ...
2
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0answers
54 views

Approximate the unit ball in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, by compact sets?

Are there some common ways to approximate the unit ball in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, by compact sets? (note that the unit ball isn't compact.) My goal is to prove a statement which holds ...
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27 views

Boundedness of linear operator and weak convergence

Let us assume that $X,Y$ are Banach spaces and $T : X \to Y$ is a linear operator. Show that: $T$ is bounded $\Leftrightarrow$ for any sequence $ \{ x_n \}^{\infty}_{n=1} $ weakly convergent to some ...
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0answers
38 views

Semigroup of operators: weak continuity at 0+ implies weak continuity at any t > 0

Let ($E$, $d$) be a metric space. Consider the semigroup $\{P(t)\}_{t\geq 0}$ of bounded linear operators on the Banach space $\hat{C}(E)$ of continuous real functions on ($E$, $d$) vanishing at ...
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0answers
35 views

Characterization of $H^{-1}(\mathbb{R}^N)$ by Fourier transform

We denote by $H^{-1}(\mathbb{R}^N)$ the dual space to $H_0^1(\mathbb{R^N})$. Let $$\langle f,v \rangle = \int_{\mathbb{R}^N} fv \hspace{1cm} (f,v \in L^2(\mathbb{R}^N)).$$ It is known that if $f \in ...
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1answer
42 views

Help with proof that $H^{1}(\mathbb{R})$ is closed under multiplication.

Edit: Prove that if $u,v \in H^{1}(\mathbb{R})$ then $uv \in H^{1}(\mathbb{R})$. My idea is to approximate with functions in $C^{\infty}(\mathbb{R})$ with compact support. Let $u,v \in ...
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9 views

weak* convergence of periodically extended function

Let $U := \Pi^d_{i=1}(a_i,b_i) \subset \mathbb{R}^d \ (a_i<b_i \ \text{for each} \ i )$ and let $f \in L^p(U)$ for some $1<p<+\infty$. Let us extend $f$ periodically on whole $\mathbb{R}^d$ ...
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0answers
23 views

weak* convergence for sequence in $ L^\infty$

Let $ \Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^d $ be a bounded and open set. Suppose $ \{f_n\} \subset L^{\infty} (\Omega) , f \in L^{\infty} (\Omega) $. Prove that $ f_n \rightharpoonup^* f \ \ \text{in} \ \ ...
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0answers
54 views

What is the “actual definition” of the following?

Imagine you were standing on the ground and as the ground starts moving you stay exactly where you are. Your change in movement, by standing on a moving surface, is like a path-line. Suppose we take ...
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0answers
33 views

Hahn-Banach proof of existence of Haar measure

I'm reading these notes of Terry Tao on the Haar measure (and related topics) on a locally compact Hausdorff group $G$. When he goes through the construction of the Haar measure, he does so by way of ...
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1answer
29 views

how to find norm of the operator Ax(t) = cos (t)*x(t)?

Please explain me how can I get norm of this operator: $Ax(t)=\cos(t)x(t)$ where $A\colon C[-\pi/2,\pi/2] \to C[-\pi/2,\pi/2]$. Thanks
13
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3answers
276 views

Every invertible linear transformation can be perturbed a bit without destroying invertbility, Neumann series

Let $T: V \to V$ be any linear transformation on a real or complex vector space $V$. Show that there exists $\epsilon_0 > 0$ $($depending on $T$$)$ so that $I + \epsilon T$ is invertible for any ...
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1answer
31 views

Interpolation sequences and open mapping theorem

I'm using Garnett's "Bounded Analytic Functions" as a course text and looking at interpolation sequences. $z_n$ is a sequence of interpolation if for each sequence $a_n \in l^{\infty}$ there exists $f ...
6
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3answers
37 views

Borel measurable functions $f:[0,1]\to[0,\infty)$ which cannot be expressed as pointwise limit of nondecreasing sequence of step functions

An interval in this problem may be open, closed or half open. We regard a singleton $\{a\}$ as being an interval also. A step function is a real valued function on $\mathbb{R}$ which is a linear ...
2
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1answer
31 views

For $(l^2,\|\cdot\|_2)$ and $e_n=(0,0,.,1,0,.)$ and a bounded linear functional $\Phi$ find $p\geq 1$ where $\sum_{n=1}^\infty |b_n|^p$ converges?

For $(l^2,\|\cdot\|_2)$ and $e_n=(0,0,...,1,0,...)$ and a bounded linear functional $\Phi$ find a value of $p\geq 1$ where $\sum_{n=1}^\infty |b_n|^p$ converges for $b_n=\Phi(e_n)$? Ok so since ...
0
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0answers
30 views

C*-algebras: States?

I'd like to better understand states on C*-algebras. What properties should I investigate and in which order? (Positive functionals, extremal states, Schwarz's inequality, Kadison's inequality, what ...
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0answers
30 views

$c_o$ is not isometric to $c_0 \oplus c_0$

$c_0$ is the Banach space of sequences converging to zero and $c_0 \oplus c_0$ is its algebraical direct sum with itself equipped with the norm $||(\xi,\eta)|| := ||\xi||+||\eta||$. How to prove that ...