Functional analysis is the study of infinite-dimensional vector spaces, often with additional structures (inner product, norm, topology), with typical examples given by function spaces. The subject also includes the study of linear and non-linear operators on these spaces, as well as measure, ...

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$L^1$ and $L^{\infty}$ are not reflexive

I want some proof for the following statement : $L^1$ and $L^{\infty}$ are not reflexive. Can anyone help me, please? or reference me?
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The $ l^{\infty} $-norm is equal to the limit of the $ l^{p} $-norms. [duplicate]

If we are in a sequence space, then the $ l^{p} $-norm of the sequence $ \mathbf{x} = (x_{i})_{i \in \mathbb{N}} $ is $ \displaystyle \left( \sum_{i=1}^{\infty} |x_{i}|^{p} \right)^{1/p} $. The $ ...
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What is the insight behind the Lebesgue integral?

Edit 3: OK, I had an insight, inspired in part by Ben-Blum Smith's comment, and the post he linked to. (I have no idea if this insight is right; it's barely a hunch, and that's why I'm not submitting ...
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547 views

Why isn't every element of the spectrum an eigenvalue? (Where is the error in my proof?)

My book defines the spectrum like this: Let $H$ be a complex Hilbert space, let $I \in B(H)$ be the identity operator and let $T \in B(H)$. The spectrum of $T$, denoted $\sigma(T)$, is defined ...
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Can you equip every vector space with a Hilbert space structure?

Suppose that we have a vector space $X$ over the field $\mathbb F \in \{ \mathbb R, \mathbb C \}$. Question: Does there exist a Hilbert space $\widehat X$ over $\mathbb F$ such that $\widehat X$, ...
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Some basics of Sobolev spaces

Let $W^{m,p}(\Omega) = \{ f \in L^p(\Omega): D^\alpha f \in L^p(\Omega) \text{ for multi-indices } |\alpha| \leq m\}$, where $D$ denotes the weak derivative. Let $W_0^{m,p}$ denote the closure of ...
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A Hamel basis for $l^{\,p}$?

I am looking for an explicit example for a Hamel basis for $l^{\,p}$?. As we know that for a Banach space a Hamel basis has either finite or uncountably infinite cardinality and for such a basis one ...
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178 views

Connectedness property of $R^2$

My class teacher proposed this problem which seem very interesting. If we remove countably many open disc from $R^2$. Is the remaining space still be path connected. I have done the problem ...
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Dirac Delta or Dirac delta function?

Is Dirac delta a function? What is its contribution to analysis? What I know about it: It is infinite at 0 and 0 everywhere else. Its integration is 1 and I know how does it come.
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676 views

Counterexample for the solvability of $-\Delta u = f$ for $f\in C^2$

I'm learning for an exam and I'm surprised by the following statement that is given without proof or example: Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ be open, bounded and connected and let $f\in ...
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1answer
2k views

$T$ surjective iff $T^*$ injective in infinite-dimensional Hilbert space?

Let $T:H_1\rightarrow H_2$ be a bounded linear operator where $H_1$ and $H_2$ are Hilbert spaces. The Hilbert-adjoint is defined to the the operator $T^*:H_2\rightarrow H_1$ such that $\langle ...
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477 views

Renorming $\mathcal{B}(\mathcal{H})$?

Consider the Banach space of all bounded operators $\mathcal{B}(\mathcal{H})$ on a (separable if you wish) Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}$ with the operator norm. Can we renorm this space to a strictly ...
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3k views

Invertibility of compact operators in infinite-dimensional Banach spaces

Let $X$ be an infinite-dimensional Banach space, and $T$ a compact operator from $X$ to $X$. Why must $0$ then be a spectral value for $T$? I believe this is equivalent to saying that $T$ is not ...
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565 views

Is the closedness of the image of a Fredholm operator implied by the finiteness of the codimension of its image?

Let $X$ and $Y$ be Banach spaces. A bounded operator $T\colon X\to Y$ is called Fredholm iff The dimension of $\ker(T)$ is finite, The codimension of the image $\mathrm{im}(T)$ is finite, The image ...
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473 views

Engineer: Unable to appreciate importance of L2 space

Can someone provide me with some material to make clear of the importance of $L^2$ space in engineering/physics? Having a background in all the introductory mathematics courses offered in ...
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802 views

About example of two function which convolution is discontinuous on the “big” set of points

I want to ask about example of real valued functions defined on the real line such that their convolution exist in every point and is discontinuous on a "large" set, for example on each point of some ...
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1answer
828 views

Why no trace operator in $L^2$?

We have trace operator which allows us to define boundary values of an $H^1$ function. This is because of the fact that $C^\infty$ is dense in $H^1$ under the $H^1$ norm, I believe. I'm sure either ...
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1k views

Applications of the Hahn-Banach Theorems

Question: What are some interesting or useful applications of the Hahn-Banach theorem(s)? Motivation: Most of the time, I dislike most of Analysis. During a final examination, a question sparked my ...
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220 views

General “Hodge theorem”

I know basically zero Hodge theory, so this question might be weird. Let $$A \stackrel{S}{\longrightarrow} B \stackrel{T}{\longrightarrow} C$$ be a sequence of closed, densely defined maps of ...
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1answer
2k views

Norm on a Hölder's space

I want to prove that Hölder space is a Banach space under the "Hölder Norm" ie. $\|\cdot\|_{C^{k,\alpha}}$. Any hints would be appreciable .
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136 views

What is the main purpose of learning about different spaces, like Hilbert, Banach, etc?

I just started to learn about functional analysis and have started to learn about various spaces, like $L^{p}$, Banach, and Hilbert spaces. However, right now my understanding is rather mechanical. ...
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953 views

A net version of dominated convergence?

Let $G$ be a locally compact Hausdorff Abelian topological group. Let $\mu$ be a Haar measure on $G$, i.e. a regular translation invariant measure. Let $f$ be fixed in $\mathcal{L}^1(G, \mu)$. ...
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146 views

When is an operator on $\ell_1$ the dual of an operator on $c_0$?

Suppose $T:\ell_1\to\ell_1$ is a continuous linear operator. When can we say that $T$ is a dual, or adjoint, of an operator on $c_0$? In other words, under what conditions can we find a continuous ...
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665 views

$\ell_\infty$ a Grothendieck space

The problem I am considering stated formally is this: Show that if a sequence in $\ell_\infty^*$ is weak*-convergent, then it is also weakly convergent. We may reduce this to the case where the ...
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1answer
343 views

$(n^2 \alpha \bmod 1)$ is equidistributed in $\mathbb{T}^2$ if $\alpha \in \mathbb{R} \setminus \mathbb{Q}$

I did the following homework question, can you tell me if I have it right? We want to show that the sequence $(n^2 \alpha \bmod 1)$ is equidistributed if $\alpha \in \mathbb{R} \setminus \mathbb{Q}$. ...
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1answer
752 views

Does separability follow from weak-* sequential separability of dual space?

Let $E$ be a Banach space. Suppose that $E'$ is weakly-* sequentially separable, that is, that there exists a countable $D \subset E'$ s.t. every $x' \in E'$ is a limit point of a ...
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1answer
245 views

Is the function characterized by $f(\alpha x+(1-\alpha) y) \le f^{\alpha}(\alpha x)f^{1-\alpha}(y)$ convex?

Is a non-negative function $f(x)$ convex ? If for $x \ge y$ it satisfies for any $\alpha \in [0,1]$. \begin{align} f(\alpha x+(1-\alpha) y) \le f^{\alpha}(\alpha x)f^{1-\alpha}(y) \ \text{ ...
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1answer
135 views

There is no continuous mapping from $L^1([0,1])$ onto $L^\infty([0,1])$

There is no continuous mapping from $L^1([0,1])$ onto $L^\infty([0,1])$. Proof: suppose $T:L^1 \rightarrow L^\infty$ continuous and onto. $L^1$ is separable, let $\{f_n\}$ be a countable dense ...
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124 views

Properties of function $f(x) = (1 + x^2)^{-\alpha/2}(\log(2+x^2))^{-1},\text{ }x \in \mathbb{R}$ with $0 < \alpha < 1$.

Consider the function$$f(x) = (1 + x^2)^{-\alpha/2}(\log(2+x^2))^{-1},\text{ }x \in \mathbb{R},$$with $0 < \alpha < 1$. How do I see that $f \in W^{1, p}(\mathbb{R})$ for all $p \in [1/\alpha, ...
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170 views

Not every function on $[0,1]$ is a pointwise limit of continuous functions on $[0,1]$

How to show that not every $\mathbb{R}$-valued function on $[0,1]$ is a pointwise limit of continuous $\mathbb{R}$-valued functions on $[0,1]$? There is a theorem that states that the set of points ...
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611 views

Extension and trace operators for Sobolev spaces

Given that $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^{n}$ is an open, convex, Lipschitz bounded set. Let $O \subset \Omega$ be open bounded set then consider. $$u_{m} \rightharpoonup^{*} u \text{ in } ...
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1answer
170 views

Non-divergence form of a 2nd order PDE

This might be a trivial question but I'm very rusty with regards to calculus and am new to PDEs. How would you write the following second order quasilinear equation in it's non-divergence form: The ...
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3answers
364 views

Problem with infinite product using iterating of a function: $ \exp(x) = x \cdot f^{\circ 1}(x)\cdot f^{\circ 2}(x) \cdot \ldots $

[update]: I made the question more precise, more general and added a follow up question Considering the iteration of functions (with focus on the iterated exponentiation) I'm looking, ...
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1answer
645 views

Motivation of Feynman-Kac formula and its relation to Kolmogorov backward/forward equations?

Kolmogorov backward/forward equations are pdes, derived for the semigroups constructed from the Markov transition kernels. Feynman-Kac formula is also a pde corresponding to a stochastic process ...
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1answer
343 views

Practical applications of the $L^p$ norm when $p \neq 1,2,\infty$

I'm roughly familiar with the concept of $L^p$ norms -- what they represent and how they are computed -- though I am far from educated in functional analysis in general. For reasons that are more or ...
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1answer
442 views

Every Hilbert space operator is a combination of projections

I am reading a paper on Hilbert space operators, in which the authors used a surprising result Every $X\in\mathcal{B}(\mathcal{H})$ is a finite linear combination of orthogonal projections. The ...
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2answers
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How to prove that a bounded linear operator is compact?

I encountered a homework problem that says: If $A$ is a bounded linear operator from $X$ to $Y$. And $K$ is a compact operator from $X$ to $Y$, where $X$ and $Y$ are both Banach spaces, and ...
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1answer
487 views

Stone-Weierstrass implies Fourier expansion

To prove the existence of Fourier expansion, I have to solve the following exercise, which supposedly follows from the Stone-Weierstrass theorem: Let $G$ be a compact abelian topological group ...
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3answers
238 views

Prove that there exist linear functionals $L_1, L_2$ on $X$

Let $X$ be a linear space, $p, q$ sublinear functionals on $X$, and $L$ a linear functional on $X$ such that $|L(x)| ≤ p(x) + q(x),$ for all $x ∈ X$. Prove that there exist linear functionals $L_1, ...
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1answer
432 views

Approximate spectral decomposition

A detailed attempt below. I am interested in effective and constructive computations for finding approximate spectral decompositions in some suitable format. Namely, let $A: H \rightarrow H$ be a ...
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180 views

average of maximal function is less than its infimum?

Let M be the dyadic Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator. Prove the following: there is a constant $C$ such that for any $f$, $$ \inf_{x\in I}Mf(x)\le C 2^k\inf_{x\in J} Mf(x) $$ where $I$ and $J$ are ...
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1answer
535 views

Osgood condition

Let $h$ and $g$ be continuous, non-decreasing and concave functions in the interval $[0,\infty)$ with $h(0)=g(0)=0$ and $h(x)>0$ and $g(x)>0$ for $x>0$ such that both satisfy the Osgood ...
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1answer
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How is Riemann–Stieltjes integral a special case of Lebesgue–Stieltjes integral?

Thanks for reading! My questions are based on the following quotes from Wikipedia: About the existence of Lebesgue–Stieltjes integral: The Lebesgue–Stieltjes integral $ \int_a^b f(x)\,dg(x)$ ...
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1answer
114 views

Extending the domains of densely defined bounded integral transforms on $L^2(\Bbb R)$

This is a question I've contemplated for quite some time since it's pretty closely related to Fourier theory (particularly choosing the "right" space to define the Fourier transform on). However I've ...
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1answer
184 views

What is the strongest possible statement of the idea that “the tangent line is the best linear approximation”?

For instance, I've just checked that that if you take the best linear approximation (in the $L^2$ sense) to a sufficiently nice function $f$ on the interval $[-\varepsilon, \varepsilon]$, and then let ...
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1answer
436 views

Can the “inducing” vector norm be deduced or “recovered” from an induced norm?

Can the "inducing" vector norm be deduced or "recovered" from an induced (operator) norm? This question occurred to me after seeing this question. I'm hoping that perhaps there exists something like ...
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1answer
791 views

Hille Yosida theorem application

Disclaimer: pretty long and specific (contraction semi groups involved). I have fourth order parabolic equation $$ u_t + \Delta^2 u = 0 $$ on $U_T = U \times [0,T]$. $U \subset \mathbb{R}^m$ is a ...
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1answer
648 views

Elementary applications of Krein-Milman

Recall that the Krein-Milman theorem asserts that a compact convex set in a LCTVS is the closed convex hull of its extreme points. This has lots of applications to areas of mathematics that use ...
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2answers
183 views

Is there a direct proof that a compact unit ball implies automatic continuity?

One of the fundamental theorems in functional analysis is that if $X$ is a Banach space (say over $\Bbb C$) with a compact closed unit ball, then $X$ is finitely dimensional. The usual proof is by ...
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1answer
142 views

Does $L^p$ have a basis for which the Pythagorean identity with exponent $p$ holds?

In the $\ell^p$ spaces with $1\leq p<\infty$, let $\{e_n\}$ be the standard basis. If $x=\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_ne_n$ is in $\ell^p$, then for any $k$ we can write $$||x||^p=\sum_{n=1}^k ...