Functional analysis is the study of infinite-dimensional vector spaces, often with additional structures (inner product, norm, topology), with typical examples given by function spaces. The subject also includes the study of linear and non-linear operators on these spaces, as well as measure, ...

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Spectrum of a product of operators on a Banach space

Let $A$ and $B$ be two operators on a Banach space X. I am interested in the relationship between the spectra of $A$, $B$ and $AB$. In particular, are there any set theoretic inclusions or everything ...
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775 views

Characterization of weak convergence in $\ell_\infty$

Is there some simple characterization of weak convergence of sequences in the space $\ell_\infty$? If yes, is there some similar claim for nets? I was only able to come up with a characterization ...
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953 views

Why is every positive linear map between $C^*$-algebras bounded?

We know that every positive linear functional on a $C^*$-algebra is bounded. How can we prove every positive linear map between $C^*$-algebras is bounded?
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Inclusion of $L^p$ spaces

Let $X \subset L^1(\mathbb{R})$ a closed linear subspace satisfying \begin{align} X\subset \bigcup_{p>1} L^p(\mathbb{R})\end{align} Show that $X\subset L^{p_0}(\mathbb{R})$ for some ...
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Smooth functions with compact support are dense in $L^1$

Here is another homework question that I did and I'd be glad if you could tell me if it's right. We now strengthen the result of Question Two for $R$ where we have the notion of differentiability. ...
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spectrum of the right shift operator

Here is the question: Considering the right shift operator $S$ on $l^2({\bf Z})$, what can one know about ran$(S-\lambda)$? Here is what I thought: If one wants to prove that the operator ...
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927 views

The group of invertible linear operators on a Banach space

Let $X$ be a Banach space. Let $G$ be the group of invertible linear operators from $X$ to itself. Now my questions are: If $G$ is equipped with the operator norm topology, how do you show that it ...
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747 views

Resolvent: Definition

Given a Banach space. Consider linear operators: $$T:\mathcal{D}(T)\to E:\quad T(\kappa x+\lambda y)=\kappa T(x)+\lambda T(y)$$ (No other assumptions on the operator!) Denote for shorthand: ...
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418 views

Graph of symmetric linear map is closed

A homework problem: Let $H$ be a Hilbert space. Let $T:H\rightarrow H$ be a symmetric linear map ($\langle Tx,y\rangle=\langle x,Ty\rangle$). Show that $S$ is bounded. My attempt: I'd ...
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559 views

Is the closedness of the image of a Fredholm operator implied by the finiteness of the codimension of its image?

Let $X$ and $Y$ be Banach spaces. A bounded operator $T\colon X\to Y$ is called Fredholm iff The dimension of $\ker(T)$ is finite, The codimension of the image $\mathrm{im}(T)$ is finite, The image ...
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Space of bounded functions is reflexive if the domain is finite

Let $C_b(X)$ be a space of bounded continuous functions on a locally compact space $X$ equipped with the supremum norm. How to show that $C_b(X)$ is reflexive if and only if $X$ is finite?
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Compact operator

If $H$ and $K$ are Hilbert spaces,show that if $T:H\longrightarrow K$ is a compact operator and $\{e_{n}\}$ is any orthonormal sequence in $H$ then $\|Te_{n}\|\to0$.Is the converse true? thanks.
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260 views

Proving the closed unit ball of a Hilbert space is weakly sequentially compact

I bumped into this statement in Hofer-Zehnder in the middle of proving a Hamiltonian field always has a periodic orbit over a level set of the hamiltonian if that set is a regular compact and strictly ...
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435 views

Every Hilbert space operator is a combination of projections

I am reading a paper on Hilbert space operators, in which the authors used a surprising result Every $X\in\mathcal{B}(\mathcal{H})$ is a finite linear combination of orthogonal projections. The ...
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868 views

Weak-* sequential compactness and separability

Let $X$ be a Banach space, and let $B$ be the closed unit ball of $X^*$, equipped with the weak-* topology. Alaoglu's theorem says that $B$ is compact. If $X$ is separable, then $B$ is metrizable, ...
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5answers
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Fixed point Exercise on a compact set

Let $K$ a compact normed space and $f:K\rightarrow K$ so that $$\|f(x)-f(y)\|<\|x-y\|\quad\quad\forall\,\, x, y\in K, x\neq y.$$ Prove that $f$ have a fixed point.
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256 views

Fredholm Equations

I have the following problem to solve $$\phi (x)=\lambda \int_{o}^{\pi }\cos(2x+y)\phi (y) dy+ \sin x$$ following the instructions from the following link early to conclude that: $$\phi (x)=\lambda ...
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481 views

The $L^1$ convergence of $f(x - a_n) \to f(x)$

I'm trying to solve something, and I'm stuck. Suppose you have a function $$f \in L^1(\mathbf R) $$ and a sequence of real numbers that converges to zero: $$ a_n \rightarrow 0 $$ define a sequence ...
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How to prove that if a normed space has Schauder basis, then it is separable? What about the converse?

Can we take as a dense subset the collection of all the linear combinations of the vectors of the Schauder basis using the rationals as scalars (or the complex numbers with rational real and imaginary ...
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1answer
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Is any closed ball non-compact in infinite dimensional space?

It is known that the closed unit ball $\overline{B_1(0)}$ in a normed space $X$ is compact if and only if $\dim X < \infty$. In particular, the $\overline{B_1(0)}$ is not compact if $\dim X = ...
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432 views

How to prove that $C^k(\Omega)$ is not complete

Let $\Omega \subset\mathbb{R}^n$ be some bounded domain. And Consider the set of all k-times differentiable functions $C^k(\Omega)$. I want to prove that this set is not complete with the inner ...
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255 views

Can all real/complex vector spaces be equipped with a Hilbert space structure?

Let $X$ be a vector space over $\mathbb K \in \{\mathbb R, \mathbb C\}$. Does there exists a pairing $X \times X \rightarrow \mathbb K$ that induces a Hilbert space structure on $X$? I have been ...
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2answers
89 views

$\int_{\mathbb{R}}f(x)e^{-ixz}d\mu_x$ analytic for $f\in L_1$

Let $f\in L_1(-\infty,\infty)$ be a Lebesgue-summable function on $\mathbb{R}$ and let $x\mapsto e^{\delta|x|}f(x)$ also be Lebesgue-summable on all the real line. I have added the condition that ...
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539 views

Relation between Sobolev Space $W^{1,\infty}$ and the Lipschitz class

I have a Sobolev space related question. In the book 'Measure theory and fine properties of functions' by Lawrence Evans. I know the result that states that for $f: \Omega \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$. $f$ ...
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772 views

For positive invertible operators $C\leq T$ on a Hilbert space, does it follow that $T^{-1}\leq C^{-1}$?

I need the following result. I think it's quite obvious but I don't know how to prove that: Let $C, T : \mathcal{H} \rightarrow \mathcal{H}$ be two positive, bounded, self-adjoint, invertible ...
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1answer
22 views

Dimension of the quotient space $\frac{C_{0}}{M}.$

Let $C_{0}=\{(x_{n}):x_{n}\in\mathbb{R},x_{n}\rightarrow 0\}$ and $M=\{(x_{n})\in C_{0}:x_{1}+x_{2}+\cdot\cdot\cdot+x_{10}=0\}.$ I have to find dimension of the space $\frac{C_{0}}{M}.$ According to ...
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1answer
130 views

Banach spaces: Convergence in terms of the Schauder basis.

Let $X$ be a Banach space. Suppose $X$ has a normalized Schauder basis $\{x_n\}_{n \in \Bbb N}$. Let $\{y_n\}_{n \in \Bbb N}$ be a sequence in $X$ converging to $0_X$. For each $n \in \Bbb N$, let ...
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1answer
769 views

The vector space formed on C[0,1] and the norm $(\int_{0}^{1}|f(t)|^2 dt)^{1/2} $

How does one show that $(C[0,1], ||.||_{2})$ where $||.||_2=(\int_{0}^{1}|f(t)|^2dt)^{1/2}$ and $C[0,1]$ is the space of all continous function which are mapped from $[0,1]\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, is ...
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Is there a continuous bijection between an interval and a square: $[0,1] \mapsto [0,1] \times [0,1]$?

Is there a continuous bijection from $[0,1]$ onto $[0,1] \times [0,1]$? That is with $I=[0,1]$ and $S=[0,1] \times [0,1]$, is there a continuous bijection $$ f: I \to S? $$ I know there is a ...
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327 views

For which $s\in\mathbb R$, is $H^s(\mathbb T)$ a Banach algebra?

According to Theorem 4.39 in Adams & Fournier Sobolev Spaces: If $mp>n$, $m\in\mathbb N$, then $W^{m,p}(\Omega)$ is a Banach algebra, provided that $\Omega\subset\mathbb R^n$ satisfies the ...
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614 views

non-continuous function satisfies $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$

As mentioned in this link, it shows that For any $f$ on the real line $\mathbb{R}^1$, $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$ implies $f$ continuous $\Leftrightarrow$ $f$ measurable. But how to show there exists such ...
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On the weak closure

Let $\lbrace e_n \rbrace$ for the standard unit vectors in $l_2$. I want to show that $0$ is in weak closure of $\lbrace\sqrt{n}e_n\rbrace$ but no subsequence of $\lbrace \sqrt{n}e_n\rbrace$ weakly ...
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1answer
608 views

Prove that $\sigma(AB) \backslash \{0\} = \sigma(BA)\backslash \{0\} $

Prove that $\sigma(AB) \backslash \{0\} = \sigma(BA)\backslash \{0\} $. Where $A,\ B$ are bounded operators in Banach space and $\sigma$ denotes spectrum.
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How to show that the limit of compact operators in the operator norm topology is compact

When I read the item of compact operator on Wikipedia, it said that Let $T_{n}, n\in \mathbb{N}$, be a sequence of compact operators from one Banach space to the other, and suppose that $Tn$ ...
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1answer
845 views

Show reflexive normed vector space is a Banach space

$X$ is a normed vector space. Assume $X$ is reflexive, then $X$ must be a Banach space. I guess we only need to show any Cauchy sequence is convergent in $X$.
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1answer
527 views

$\ell^1$ vs. continuous dual of $\ell^{\infty}$ in ZF+AD

Let the base field be the real numbers or the complex numbers (I don't think it will matter). Let $(\ell^{\infty})'$ be the continuous dual of the Banach space $\ell^{\infty}$. Let $\: f : \ell^1 ...
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0answers
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An explicit functional in $(l^\infty)^*$ not induced by an element of $l^1$? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Nonnegative linear functionals over $l^\infty$ Setup: Let $l^\infty$ be the set of bounded sequences (with terms in $\mathbb{R}$), and let $l^1$ be the set of sequences ...
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2answers
356 views

Contraction and Fixed Point [duplicate]

How do I show that for $T: X \rightarrow X$ where X is complete and $T^m$ is a contraction that T has a unique fixed point $x_0 \in X$. I know there exists $\lambda_1 \in (0,1)$ for $x, y \in X$ ...
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1answer
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Any two norms equivalent on a finite dimensional norm linear space.

I am trying to understand the proof that every two norms on a finite dimensional NLS are equivalent. I am working with this proof I found on the web: ...
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Hellinger-Toeplitz theorem use principle of uniform boundedness

Suppose $T$ is an everywhere defined linear map from a Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}$ to itself. Suppose $T$ is also symmetric so that $\langle Tx,y\rangle=\langle x,Ty\rangle$ for all ...
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When are two norms equivalent on a Banach space?

I'm working on an exercise from functional analysis. Let $E$ be a vector space and $\|\cdot\|_1$ and $\|\cdot\|_2$ be two complete norms on $E$. Now suppose that $E$ satisfies the following property: ...
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For Banach space there is a compact topological space so that the Banach space is isometrically isomorphic with a closed subspace of $C(X)$.

I want to prove that for Banach space V there is a compact topological space $X$ so that $V$ is isometrically isomorphic to a closed subspace of $C(X)$-continuous function on a (compact) topological ...
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1answer
459 views

Spectrum of the operator

Let $T$ be an operator on Hilbert space. Define $\sigma(T)=\lbrace \lambda\in \mathbb{C} | \lambda I - T~\textrm{is not invertible}\rbrace$. How can I prove that $\sigma(T^n)=\lbrace ...
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1answer
161 views

Please help me prove: $v(a+b)\leq v(a)+v(b)$, and $v(ab)\leq v(a)v(b)$ where $v(x)=\inf{\{\vert x^n \vert}^{1/n}: n\in\mathbb{N}\}$

I'm reading a book functional analysis, and reading and have seen an example of somebody please help me if you can. The example that I've seen is the following: If $A$ is a normed algebra and ...
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2answers
172 views
1
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1answer
91 views

Summary: Spectrum vs. Numerical Range

This thread is only Q&A! Given a Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}$. Consider operators: $$T:\mathcal{D}(T)\to\mathcal{H}$$ Denote for shorthand: ...
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1answer
199 views

Show $\{u_n\}$ orthonormal, A compact implies $\|Au_n\| \to 0$

I'm having a bit trouble with this homework exercise. Let $\mathcal{H}$ be a Hilbert space and $\{u_n\}_{n=1}^\infty$ an orthonormal sequence in $\mathcal{H}$. Let $A$ be a compact operator on ...
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323 views

Complementability of von Neumann algebras

Is every von Neumann algebra complemented in its bidual? It is certainly true for commutative von Neumann algebras as their spectrum is hyperstonian. Is it 1-complemented?
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Representation of a linear functional in vector space

In the book Functional Analysis,Sobolev Spaces and Partial Differential Equations of Haim Brezis we have the following lemma: Lemma. Let $X$ be a vector space and let $\varphi, \varphi_1, \varphi_2, ...
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Part (a) of Exercise 13 of first chapter of Rudin's book “Functional Analysis”

I would really appreciate it if you could give me some advice on the part (a) of Exercise 13 of first chapter of Walter Rudin's book "Functional Analysis": Let $C$ be the vector space of all ...