Functional analysis is the study of infinite-dimensional vector spaces, often with additional structures (inner product, norm, topology), with typical examples given by function spaces. The subject also includes the study of linear and non-linear operators on these spaces, as well as measure, ...

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What does a well-posed problem imply?

A well-posed problem in the sense of Hadamard states that: A solution exists The solution is unique The solution's behavior changes continuously with the initial conditions. Now in order to prove ...
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Pointwise approximation of a closed operator

If $T:\mathcal D(T) \rightarrow \mathcal Y$ is a closed operator from a Banach space $\mathcal X$ to a Banach space $\mathcal Y$, is it possible to find bounded operators $T_n\in \mathscr B(\mathcal X,...
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88 views

Check proof about range of bounded linear operator.

I have to prove that the range $\mathcal{R}(T)$ of bounded linear operator $T:X\rightarrow Y$; $X,Y$ normed spaces need not be closed in $Y$. As a hint I'm given that I could consider $T:\mathcal{l^{\...
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119 views

Convergence of the solution of Volterra integral equation with convergent kernel.

Consider the following Volterra integral equation $$ g(t) = \int_0^t K_n(t,s)w_n(s) ds $$ where $g(t)$ and $K_n(t,s)$ are known(continuous) and $K_n(t,s)\geq K_{n+1}(t,s)$ for all $t,s$. Moreover, $...
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85 views

Conditions for Taylor formula

I know that, if $F:X\to Y$, where $X,Y$ are Banach spaces, is a map whose $n$-th Fréchet derivative $x\mapsto F^{(n)}(x)$ is continuous as a function of $x$ in a neighbourhood of $x_0\in X$, then the ...
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303 views

Relationship between functional analysis and differential geometry

I am taking courses on functional analysis (through Coursera.com) and differential geometry (textbook author : O'neil) on my university. I made the following table on my own. Are the similar ...
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75 views

Why should the open mapping theorem be expected?

Soft question alert. I want to know why to expect the open mapping theorem to be true. My thoughts: I know that one nice consequence of the OMT could be thought of as the universal property of ...
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33 views

Is the spectrum of a first order PDO always unbounded from both sides?

Let $E \to X$ be a smooth vector bundle over a compact Riemannian manifold $X$ and assume that $P:\Gamma(E) \to \Gamma(E)$ is a self-adjoint partial differential operator of order $1$. We think of ...
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240 views

Is the left regular representation of an algebra, always faithful?

Let $\mathcal{A}$ be a unital associative algebra with a countable basis $\mathcal{b}$ over $\mathbb{C}$. Let $H=l^2(b)$ be the Hilbert space generated by $\mathcal{b}$. Let $H_0 = \{v \in H \ \vert \ ...
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92 views

Modes of convergence in infinite direct sums of $L^{2}$ spaces

It is known that if a sequence of random variables converges in norm then there exists a subsequence which converges almost surely. That is: let $\left(X_{n}\right)_{n\in\mathbb{N}}\subseteq L^{2}\...
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64 views

$H^{1/2}$ function but not better

I am looking for an example of a function $f: [0, 1] \longrightarrow \mathbb{R}$ that is in the Sobolev space of order $1/2$, $H^{1/2}([0, 1])$, but not in the Sobolev space of order $1/2 + \...
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169 views

Isomorphism between $C^\infty_0(B_1)$ and $\mathscr{S}(\mathbb{R}^n)$

Background: Related question I am trying to prove, that the countably-normed spaces $C^\infty_0(B_1)$ on the open unit ball (i.e. function and all derivatives vanish at the boundary) in $\mathbb{R}^n$...
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90 views

Weak*-complemented subspaces of $\ell_\infty$

Consider $\ell_\infty$ as $\ell_1^*$. Let $X$ be an infinite-dimensional complemented subspace of $\ell_\infty$ (in partiuclar, $X$ is isomorphic to $\ell_\infty$). Can we find a further subspace $Y\...
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239 views

Functions with compact support

I have a question about a convergence of functions with compact support. SETTING Let $d\geq 3$ and $U \subset \mathbb{R^{d}}$ be open and $dx$= Lebesgue measure on $U$. Let $b_{i},c,d_{i} \in L^{1}...
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98 views

a question about Tsirelson's space

Background. Let $T$ denote the Figiel-Johnson construction of the Tsirelson space, that is, the completion of $c_{00}$ under the implicitly-defined norm \begin{equation*}\|x\|_T=\max\left\{\|x\|_{\...
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142 views

Connections and dependences between topological and algebraic basis in topological vector space

On my last functional analysis exam, one of the tasks was to show that if normed vector space $X$ have countable Hamel basis, then $X$ is separable space (over field $\mathbb{R}$). I am not sure if ...
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140 views

Representation of Stochastic Integrals as Lebesgue/Bochner Integrals

Just as the Riemann–Stieltjes integral can be equivalently defined as a Lebesgue integral with the corresponding Lebesgue–Stieltjes measure, I am looking for the corresponding results for the ...
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91 views

Equivalence of definitions of $C^k(\overline U)$

let $U$ be an open set of $\mathbb{R}^n$, that contains at least some open set. In Evans book we find the definition $$C^k(\overline U)=\{f \in C^k(U): D^\alpha f \text{ is uniformly continuous on ...
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76 views

In which cases the spectrum of an operator contains only eigenvalues?

Let $X\neq \{0\}$ be a complex normed spaces (not necessarily finite-dimensional) and $T:D(T)\subset X\to X$ a linear operator (not necessarily bounded). I would like to know under what conditions can ...
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160 views

Gradient on Sobolev spaces

Suppose I have a function $\Phi \in L_p(\Omega)$ and $\nabla\Phi \in W^{-\alpha}_p(\Omega)$, $1<p<\infty$ and where $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ is a bounded domain. Can I conclude that $\Phi\in ...
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How can I show that given a norm one linear functional on $c_0$ that there is a unique extension to a norm one functional on $\ell_\infty$?

We are given that our Banach space is $c_0 \subset \ell_\infty(\mathbb{N})$ and there is a functional $y^* \in c_0^*$ such that $||y^*|| = 1$. We are guaranteed that this extends, via Hahn-Banach to a ...
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279 views

Dyadic approach to Marcinkiewicz interpolation for Lorentz Spaces

In Exercise 21 , in a note for professor Terrence Tao on his own blog http://terrytao.wordpress.com/2009/03/30/245c-notes-1-interpolation-of-lp-spaces/ Exercise 21 Suppose we are in the ...
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157 views

Showing a sequence $x_{n+1} = Tx_n$ forms a contraction mapping

I want to show that the sequence given by $$x_{n+1} = Tx_n = x_n-\frac{(x_n^2-2)}{x_n+x_{n-1}}$$ forms a contraction mapping. That is $$|Tx_1-Tx_2|\leq c|x_1-x_2|.$$ Where $c$ is to be determined. I ...
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171 views

Moduli of smoothness, Besov spaces, and Sobolev spaces

For $1\leq p\leq\infty$, the $r$-th order $L^p$-modulus of smoothness is \begin{equation} \omega_r(u,t,\Omega)_p=\sup_{|h|\leq t}\|\Delta_h^ru\|_{L^p(\Omega_{rh})} \end{equation} where $\Omega_{rh}=\{...
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65 views

Masas in quotients

Let $A$ be a von Neumann algebra and let $B$ be a norm-closed ideal of $A$ (but not necessarily WOT-closed). What one has to assume about $A$ and $B$ to ensure that if $M\subset A$ is a maximal ...
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271 views

Invertibility of elements in a Banach algebra

Let $X=L^1\cap L^2$, and $\hat{X}$ be the Banach algebra of the image under Fourier transform of $X$. Then do the unital extension $1\dot{+}\hat{X}$ of $X$ by adding a constant function with the norm ...
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174 views

Don't understand this proof of equivalence of weak solutions to PDE

I'm trying to understand the proof that (c) implies (a) here in the following proposition (here, $\mathcal{V} = L^2(0,T;V)$). See the very last line in the image for that part: $$$$ $$$$ I give here ...
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124 views

Is this a spectral decomposition/embedding/isometry?

Given a symmetric p.s.d matrix G, we know that a gram matrix/inner-product representation, X exists where $G=X^TX$ and $X=U\lambda^{1/2}$ via the eigen decomposition of $G$. Now if I take the same ...
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155 views

Operator completly continuous

For $\lambda>0$, let $v(t)=\lambda \phi(t)$. Consider the BVP consisting of the equation $$u'''=\lambda[f(t,[u-v]^*+\gamma)+M(t)] ,t\in (0,1)$$ and (BC):$u(0)=u'(p)=\int_q^1 w(s)u''(s)=0 , (\...
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95 views

Solution to $\Delta_g u = \delta-1$ on a 2-sphere.

Let $S^2$ be the two-sphere, endowed with a Riemannian metric $g$, such that the volume of the sphere w.r.t. this metric is $4\pi$. Let $a \in S^2$. I am looking for an easy way to prove that the ...
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268 views

Problem of Scottish Book

Does anyone know if the problem 50 to Banach written in The Scottish Book is resolved? The problem is: Prove that the integral of denjoy is a Baire functional in the space M ( that is to say, in ...
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Interpretation for the Functional Determinant

Let $S:V \rightarrow V$ be a linear operator on the function space $V$. It is possible to define a functional determinant for $S$ via the zeta function regularization process. In specific we define ...
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137 views

What is visualization of gradient flow of a functional?

I don't work on functional analysis but during my study, I faced gradient of a functional. I read its definition, but I can not understand why it is a useful tool? Why if a flow can be written as a ...
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589 views

Topics of advanced functional analysis

I did a course in introductory functional analysis and liked it. Now I want to learn more functional analysis with the goal of maybe eventually doing research (phd). I tried to find out what (advanced)...
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191 views

How to decompose a representation into direct sum of cyclic representation?

Let $U$ be the bilateral shift operator on $l^2 (\mathbb Z)$, let $T=U+U^*$. How to calculate $\sigma(T)$? And how to show there is no cyclic vector for the action of $C^*(T,I)$. Further how to ...
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Is this function in the Sobolev space $H^{2,-s}(\mathbb{R}^3)$?

I have the function $$f(x)=\frac{e^{iz|x-y|}}{4\pi|x-y|}$$ with $y\in\mathbb{R}^3$ and $\Im z>0$. Let $s>\frac{1}{2}$. Clearly it is not in $H^{2,-s}(\mathbb{R}^3)$ for the singularity of order $...
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69 views

$e^{iBt}e^{-iAt}$converges as operator norm

Let $A,B$ be self-adjoint operators on $H$,then we can define the strong limit $$ W=s-\lim_{t\to+\infty}e^{iBt}e^{-iAt} $$ If the limit exsists, then W is called the wave operator, which is ...
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149 views

Splitting the action of functionals in duals of Sobolev spaces

Update: After some more thinking and asking I've come to the conclusion that there is no reasonable way to achieve this for all possible $\varphi$ because of the mixed terms. I believe something ...
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79 views

Proving continuity on spaces of distributions?

Let $\mathcal{D}'(\Omega)$ be the space of distributions on an open set $\Omega$, and $\mathcal{E}'(\Omega)$ the compactly supported ones. When you have a linear operator $T:\mathcal{D}'(\Omega)\...
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129 views

Proofing an inequality with a slowly varying function

I am working right now with "Independent and Stationary Sequences of Random Variables" from Ibragimov 1971. I am trying to understand the proof of the following Lemma (18.2.4): $h: \mathbb N \...
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651 views

Distinct eigenvalues for integral operator?

Is there some sufficient condition on the kernel $K$ of a (say, finite rank, to simplify) integral operator $$ \mathcal K:f(x)\in L^2(\mathbb R)\mapsto \int K(x,y)f(y)dy $$ so that it has all its non-...
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Question about proof of Tychonoff-Alaoglu

I'd like to check that I understand the proof in full detail. Can you tell me if the following is correct? Thanks for your help. Claim: The closed unit ball $B_{\|\cdot\|_{op}}(0,1)$ in $X^\ast$ is ...
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467 views

Question about proof of Hahn-Banach lemma

I think they do something unnecessary in my notes in the proof of the following lemma: The idea of the proof is to partially order the set $\Sigma$ of pairs $(X_i, f_i)$ where $X_i$ is a linear ...
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Gradient operator the adjoint of (minus) divergence operator?

Recently I found this statement -- the gradient operator is the adjoint of the minus divergence operator -- in one of my lecture notes. Knowing only a little about functional analysis, I'm looking for ...
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192 views

Distributional derivative of bounded functions

Let $f$ be a bounded measurable function on $\mathbb{R}$. We may consider its derivative $f'$ as a distribution on $\mathbb{R}$. Is there a reasonable description of those distributions $\psi$ ...
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215 views

Relations between spectrum and quadratic forms in the unbounded case

Let $H$ be a complex Hilbert space. If $B$ is a bounded self-adjoint operator on $H$ then its spectrum is a closed and bounded subset of the real line and we can find its extremes in terms of the ...
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130 views

Direct limits of completely positive maps on $C^*$-algebras vs. operator systems

I believe I've heard, as part of the "lore," that the category (operator systems, completely positive maps) has direct limits, whereas the category ($C^*$-algebras, completely positive maps) does not. ...
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141 views

Convergence of integrals of Radon measures

Let $X$ be a locally compact Hausdorff space and let $\mu_n$ be a sequence of bounded variation Radon measures on $X$ such that $\int_X g \;d\mu_n \rightarrow \int_X g \;d\mu$ for each $g \in C_0 (X)$ ...
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371 views

Weakest topology with respect to which ALL linear functionals are continuous

One often considers a Banach space $X$ under the "weak topology", ie. the weakest topology such that all bounded linear functionals are continuous. This leads me to wonder about the weakest topology ...
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212 views

Fractional iteration of the Newton-approximation-formula: how to resolve one unknown parameter?

For my own exercising I tried to find a closed form expression for the Newton-approximation algorithm, beginning with the simple example for getting the squareroot of some given $ \small z^2 $ by ...