Functional analysis is the study of infinite-dimensional vector spaces, often with additional structures (inner product, norm, topology), with typical examples given by function spaces. The subject also includes the study of linear and non-linear operators on these spaces, as well as measure, ...

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25 views

Is the shift operator on square integrable periodic functions compact?

I'm considering the space $L^2[0,2\pi]$ of square integrable $2\pi$-periodic functions equipped with the inner product $$\langle{f},g\rangle=\int_0^{2\pi}f(x)\overline{g(x)}\,dx$$ and the shift ...
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17 views

Is the charateristic function $\chi _{\Omega }$ in the Sobolev space $W^{1,2}_{0}(\Omega)$?

Given $\Omega$ is a bounded, $C^1$ domain in $\mathbb{R}^n$. $\chi _{\Omega }(x)$ is the characteristic function of $\Omega$. I have done the followings: We can get $\chi _{\Omega }(x) \in L^2(\...
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35 views

Notation in Double Dual Mapping

I am quite confused at the notation used for $J$ in the following question: For a normed space $\Omega$, let $\Omega^{**}$ denote the dual space of the dual space. Let $J: \Omega \rightarrow \...
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45 views

Zero gradient in $L^2(M)$

I'd like to show that for $u \in L^2(M)$, for M a compact, connected Riemannian manifold, if $\nabla_g u = 0$ (i.e $\forall X$ $C^{\infty}$- vector field on $M$, $\int_M u \hspace{1mm} \text{div}_g X =...
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30 views

t-convex envelopes of double sequence spaces

Does anybody know if the t-convex envelope of the double sequence space l^q(l^p) is l^q(l^t) in the case 0 < p < t < 1 < q < infinity? Also the same question is asked for q = infinity. ...
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18 views

Given an operator $Q$ between a Hilbert space $U$ and $L^2(ℝ^d;ℝ^d)$, is it possible to make sense of $U∋u↦(Qu)(x)$ for a fixed $x∈ℝ^d$?

Let $U$ be a Hilbert space $H:=L^2(\mathbb R^d;\mathbb R^d)$ for some $d\in\left\{2,3\right\}$ $Q$ be a Hilbert-Schmidt operator from $U$ to $H$. I want that $\tilde Q(x)$, where $$\tilde Q(x):=...
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34 views

Some intuition about the second dual of $l^1$

In Functional Analysis we treated the Hahn-Banach theorem, and if I understood correctly, the dual space of $l^1$ (space of all absolutely summable sequences) is isomorphic to the space of all bounded ...
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23 views

Show that the following are equivalent for $u \in C^{1}(0,1)$

Let $u \in C^{1}(0,1)$. Prove that the following are equivalent: (a) $u \in W^{1,1}(0,1)$ (b) $u' \in L^{1}(0,1)$ (where $u'$ means the derivative in the usual sense) (c) $u \in BV(0,1)$ My try: ...
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17 views

Find $\langle f,g \rangle$ w.r.t. $L_0 \perp L_1$.

Let $X=C[-1,1]$, and $L_k= \{ <t^{k+2i}, i=0,1,2,... > \} $. Define an inner product on $X$ with respect to $L_0 \perp L_1$. Then confirm that $L_0 \perp L_1 $ on your inner product. Can we ...
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18 views

Characterizing when kernels in Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS) are linearly independent

In my studies of RKHS i.e. Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces stating the following Let $ \mathbb{H} $ be a RKHS on a set X. We are asked to characterize when the following set of kernels $ \{ k_{...
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28 views

Question about the proof of $W^{1,p}_0(\Omega) \Rightarrow u=0 $ on $\partial \Omega$

I am reading the proof of Theorem 9.17 in the book Functional Analysis, Sobolev Spaces and Partial Differential Equations, by Haim Brezis. The theorem says: Suppose that $\Omega$ is of class $C^1$...
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29 views

Nearest Toeplitz matrix

Consider I have an arbitrary $NXN$ Hermitian matrix $A$. I want to derive a "suitable" Toeplitz matrix from $A$. I understand that there may be several ways to get a Toeplitz matrix from $A$ so ...
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34 views

How to show Plancherel's Theorem for Fourier Transform implies $L^2$ Transform Convergence.

The Plancherel Theorem for the Fourier transform $\hat{f}(s)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}}\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}f(t)e^{-ist}dt$ on $\mathbb{R}$ states that $$ \int_{-\infty}^{\infty}|\hat{f}(s)|^...
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20 views

Two definitions of the operator $\exp(x)$ in $L^2(\mathbb R)$

The operator $x$ acts on a dense subspace of $L^2(\mathbb R)$ and is not bounded. So if we define $\exp(x)$ via the power series $\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac {x^n}{n!}$, convergence will not follow in the ...
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31 views

Dual space is isometrically isomorphic

Let $\{X_i:i\in I\}$ be a collection of normed spaces. If $1\leq p < \infty$, show that the dual space of $\bigoplus_p X_i$ is isometrically isomorphic to $\bigoplus_q {X_i}^\ast$, where $1/p+1/q=1$...
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24 views

Show that $\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}f(\xi+i\eta,z_2,\ldots,z_n)e^{i[t_1(\xi+i\eta)+t_2z_2+\cdots+t_nz_n]}d\xi$ is independent of $\eta$

Show that $$\int_{-\infty}^\infty f(\xi+i\eta,z_2,\ldots,z_n) e^{i[t_1(\xi+i\eta) + t_2z_2+\cdots+t_nz_n]} \, d\xi$$ is independent of $\eta$, for arbitrary real $t_1,\cdots,t_n$ and complex $z_1,\...
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30 views

Calculate the trace of $T_nL$ where $L\in L(H)$, $T\in L(H,L(H))$ and $T_n:=\langle T,e_n\rangle_H$ for some ONB $(e_n)_n$ of a Hilbert space $H$

Let$^1$ $(H,\langle\;\cdot\;,\;\cdot\;\rangle)$ be a Hilbert space over $\mathbb R$ $(e_n)_{n\in\mathbb N}$ be an orthonormal basis of $H$ $T\in\mathfrak L\left(H,\mathfrak L\left(H\right)\right)$ ...
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42 views

Graph of a higher-order function

When we deal with functions which work on numbers, we can graph them easily: Just take each of its possible input values and find its corresponding point on one axis, then go straight up in its column,...
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10 views

unicity solution of partial differential equation

let the following problem: $$ \begin{cases} \dfrac{\partial^2 u}{\partial t^2}= a^2 \dfrac{\partial^2 u}{\partial x^2}\\ u(0,t)=u(l,t)=0\\ u(x,0)=f(x)\\ \dfrac{\partial u}{\partial x}(x,0)=g(x) \end{...
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18 views

$\int_{0}^x f_j(t) dt$ converges uniformly to $\int_{0}^x f_0(t) dt$ if $f_j \to f_0$ in $L^2$ sense.

Suppose $\{f_j\}$ converges to $f_0$ in $L^2$ sense. Show that the functions $F_j (x) = \int_{0}^x f_j(t) dt$ converges uniformly to $\int_{0}^x f_0(t) dt$ for all $x \in [-\pi,\pi]$. My proof: Let ...
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18 views

Fourier Sequence Converges Uniformly Implies Almost Everywhere Pointwise Convergence

I'm trying to understand this problem: Let $f$ be Riemann integrable on $[0,2\pi]$ Suppose that the Fourier Series of $f$, $S_{n}^{f}(x)$, converges uniformly on the interval. I want to show that $...
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40 views

Sobolev spaces on Riemannian manifold

I know one can define the Sobolev spaces on a Riemannian manifold as completions, but is there an equivalent definition that uses weak derivatives, like in the case of open sets in $\mathbb{R}^n$ ? ...
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13 views

Given $u \in W^{1,p}(\Omega)$ then $\overline{\alpha u} \in W^{1,p}(\Omega)$, with $\alpha \in C^1 \cap L^{\infty},\nabla \alpha \in L^{\infty}$

Given $u \in W^{1,p}(\Omega)$ and $\alpha$ a function which verifies $\alpha \in C^1(\Omega)$, $\alpha \in L^{\infty}(\mathbb{R}^n)$, $\nabla \alpha \in L^{\infty}(\mathbb{R}^n)^n $ y $supp(\alpha) \...
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30 views

Let $\alpha$ be a real number. Find the value of $\alpha$ for which the given function is continuous and differentiable.

Let $\alpha$ be a real number. Consider the function $$g(x)=(\alpha+|x|)^2e^{(5-|x|)^2}, \ \ \ -\infty<x<\infty $$ $(i)$ Determine the values of $\alpha$ for which $g$ is continuous at all $x$. ...
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15 views

Characterization of noncommutative $L^2$-spaces as ordered vector spaces

If $M$ is a von Neumann algebra and $\tau\colon M_+\to[0,\infty]$ is a normal, semi-finite, faithful trace, the associated GNS Hilbert space is the completion of $\{x\in M\mid \tau(x^\ast x)<\infty\...
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28 views

Proof that inequality holds

Theorem: Let $u \in D'(\Omega)$ and $K \subset \Omega$, $K$ compact $$\exists \lambda \in \mathbb{N} \text{ and } c \geq 0 \text{ such that } \\ |\langle u, \phi \rangle| \leq c \sum_{|a| \leq \...
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31 views

Spectrum of Linear Operator

The spectrum of a linear operator on a finite dimensional space is pure point spectrum, that is, both continuous and residual spectrums are empty. Or we can say that on a finite dimensional space, ...
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45 views

The space of sequences which are eventually zero in $l^2$ is not a Hilbert space.

Define $V$ to be the space of sequences which are eventually zero, i.e. $$V=\bigcup_{N=1}^{\infty}\{(x_n)_{n=1}^{\infty}\in l^2: x_n=0 \; \text{for}\; n\ge N\}.$$ Is $V$ a Hilbert space with ...
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18 views

Aproximation in $W^{1,p}(U)$ with U disconnected.

Consider $U=(-1,0)\cup(0,1)$. Define $$v(x)=\left\{\begin{array}{rc} 0,&\mbox{se}\quad -1<x<0,\\1, &\mbox{se}\quad 0<x<1. \end{array}\right. $$ Clearly $v\in W^{1,p}(U)$ for each $...
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36 views

Lebesgue measurable integration, density

Let $\mathbb{T}$ be the unit circle and $\lambda$ be the Lebesgue measure on $\mathbb{T}$. Let $A_n := e^{2\pi i[1/2^{2n},1/2^{2n+1}]}$, $n\ge 1$. Define a function $f$ on the set of all the Lebesgue ...
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28 views

Mathematical tools for iterative / composed function analysis

Given the following: a. x0 = known scalar b. x1 = known scalar c. x2 = unknown scalar d. an unknown iteratively applied stochastic nonlinear function $\mathbf{g}$ where     &...
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34 views

Proving that the point spectrum of $T$ is not empty

This problem comes from Rudin's Functional Analysis, Chapter 10. It's the problem 15. Suppose $X$ is a Banach space, $T\in\mathcal{B}(X)$ is compact, and $\|T^n\|\geq 1$ for all $n\geq 1$. ...
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32 views

Eigenfunction basis of Laplacian on a manifold

It is a well known result that for $\Omega$ bounded open set in $\mathbb{R}^n$, there exists a basis of $C^\infty$ eigenfunctions of the Laplacian for $L^2(\Omega)$. It is also known that there exists ...
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36 views

Find the function $f(x)$ by using its fourier coefficient

It is easy to find the fourier coefficient and fourier expansion of $f(x)$ function. But I want solve the inverse problem How to find the function $f(x)$, if I know its fourier coefficient (or ...
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32 views

$(x_n)$, $(y_n) \in l_{\infty}$, $x_n \geq y_n$, $\forall n \in \mathbb{N}$, $\Rightarrow f((x_n)) \geq f((y_n))$.

Let c = $\{$real sequencies convergent$\}$. We define $\overline{f}: c \longrightarrow \mathbb{R}$, by $\overline{f}((x_n)) = \lim x_n$. We have $\overline{f}$ linear and bounded, for Hahn-Banach, ...
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21 views

semifinite von Neumann algebra, spectral projection, trace

Let $\mathcal{M}$ be a semifinite von Neumann algebra and $\tau$ be a semifinite faithful normal trace on it. Let $T,P_1,P_2\in \mathcal{M}$, where $P_1,P_2$ are projections with $P_1\perp P_2$. Then, ...
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34 views

About the Mercer's theorem.

Doesn't the the Mercer's theorem say something stronger than just the spectral theory of compact self-adjoint operators on a Hilbert space applied to the reproducing "kernel" function? As in if I ...
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33 views

Finding $\|f\|$

Given $f: \ell^2 \rightarrow \mathbb R$ defined by $$f(a_1,a_2,...)=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^n}{3^{n-1}} a_n$$ Is $f$ a bounded linear functional? If yes, then find $\|f\|$. It is definitely ...
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54 views

Integrating $\int _a^b |f(x)| dx$

Is there a way to calculate these without having to sketch out the function first? Seems like you just plus everything when you evaluate the limits. It doesn't seem like it is simply $|g(b)|-|g(a)|$ ...
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29 views

On the completeness of Weak Operator Topology

Let E,F be any two Banach space and let $\mathcal{B}(E,F)$ be the space of all bounded linear operators from E to F. I can show that this space is a complete space with respect to the norm and strong ...
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35 views

Weak convergence in probability and functional analysis

Let $X$ be a metric space. By definition, the sequence of Borel measures $\mu_n$ on $X$ converges weakly to a measure $\mu$, if for all bounded continuous functions $f:X\to\mathbb{R}$ we have $$\int\...
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14 views

Show $(Au)(x)=v_1(x) \langle u , v_1 \rangle+ v_2 (x) \langle u, v_2 \rangle$ where $(Au)(x)=\int^\pi _0 2u(y) cos \bigg (\frac{x-y}{2} \bigg) dy$

Let $A$ be a linear operator defined on $L^2([0, \pi])$ by $$(Au)(x)=\int^\pi _0 2u(y) cos \bigg (\frac{x-y}{2} \bigg) dy$$ Where $0 \leq x \leq \pi$ I am trying to show that $(Au)(x)=v_1(x) \...
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31 views

Eigenfunction of a selft-adjoint operator?

Let $A = \int_{0}^{\infty} \lambda dE(\lambda)$ be the spectral decomposition of a selft-adjoint operator $A$ on a Hilbert space $H$. Then the restriction operator $P_{\lambda}$ for $A$ is defined by $...
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37 views

Proving the supremum of uniform norms is 1 in a particular continuous funciton vector space

Let $$X=C_{\Bbb R}([0,1])=\{x:[0,1]\to\Bbb R\;\; |\;x \text{ is continuous}\}$$ be a vector space over $\Bbb R$ with $\|x\|_X=\|x\|_{[0,1]}=\sup_{t\in [0,1]}{|x(t)|}$. Let $$M=\Big\{x\in X:\int_0^...
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24 views

Help showing compactness of the support of a function in the Sobolev Space $W^{1,p}$

In Functional Analysis, Sobolev Spaces and Partial Differential Equations, by Haim Brezis, in the proof of Theorem 8.12, it is needed to show that the support of a function is compact. The function ...
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12 views

Variant of conjugate function: $V(s) = \underset{x}\max \{\langle s,x-x_0\rangle-\beta f(x)\}$

Consider one variant of conjugate function: $$V(s) = \underset{x}\max \{\langle s,x-x_0\rangle-\beta f(x)\}$$ You can think $s$ as a linear functional. If I do the following steps: \begin{...
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30 views

Problem understanding compact and Fredholm operators

I'm trying to understand the general interaction/duality between Fredholm and compact operators and I ran into the following: Let $L$ be the Laplacian or some elliptic operator on the Sobolev space $...
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27 views

Help showing $u \in W_0^{1,p}(I)$ if and only if $u=0$ on $\partial I$

I am reading the proof the following statement provided in Functional Analysis, Sobolev Spaces and Partial Differential Equations, by haim Brezis: If $u \in W_0^{1,p}(I)$, then $u=0$ on $\partial ...
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26 views

The concept of Subspace of a Normed Vector Space

I am working with Banach Spaces, which are complete Normed Vector Spaces (NVS). The norm on a NVS $(E, ||\cdot||_1)$ defines a metric which in turn defines a topology. Now let us consider $F \...
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22 views

Is $A(D)$ a complemented subspace of $C(T)$?

Let $T$ be the unit circle and $D$ the open unit disk. A function $f$ belongs to $C(T)$ if it is continuous at $T$. A function $g$ belongs to $A(D)$ if it is continuous at $\overline{D}$ and ...