Functional analysis is the study of infinite-dimensional vector spaces, often with additional structures (inner product, norm, topology), with typical examples given by function spaces. The subject also includes the study of linear and non-linear operators on these spaces, as well as measure, ...

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Positive Linear Transformations: What good for?

Positivity is a concept appearing quite frequently in the study of algebras and its related spectral theory. Positive elements naturally give rise to an ordering and therefore allows to construct ...
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18 views

Differences between functional calculi.

"Functional calculus" is a word used to describe the practice of taking some functions or formulas defined on complex numbers, and apply them in some way to certain kinds of operators, despite that ...
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1answer
28 views

Reflexivity of $C[a,b]$

I find the statement that the normed, complex or real, linear space $C[a,b]$ is reflexive, i.e. the natural map of the space $C[a,b]$ into the bidual space $C[a,b]^{\ast\ast}$, defined by ...
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2answers
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a custom designed cutoff function whose derivative is bounded above.

I am trying to find a $C^\infty$ function $\phi(t)$ with the following properties. $\phi(t) =1$ for $\lvert t \rvert \le 1$ $\phi(t)$=0 for $t \geq 2$ $\lvert \phi'(t) \rvert \le 2 $ I have tried ...
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1answer
21 views

$L^{1}$ norm of a horizontally shifted measurable function

Suppose we are in $(\mathbb{R}, \mathcal{B}(\mathbb{R}), m)$, where $m$ is Lebesgue measure and $\mathcal{B}(\mathbb{R})$ is the Borel $\sigma$-algebra on $\mathbb{R}$. Also, suppose $g: \mathbb{R} ...
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1answer
12 views

Condition under which a locally convex topological vector space becomes a normed linear space

Is this true that a locally convex topological (Hausdorff) vector space becomes a normed space when its local base has only one element, so only one Minkowski functional and so only one seminorm and ...
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1answer
35 views

$\|x+y\|$ vs $\|x-y\|$ for reverse triangle inequality

So I am using the text "Elementary Functional Analysis" by MacCluer. In it, for Exercise 1.1, it asks us to prove the Reverse Triangle Inequality (which I have done in the past, using the $x=(x-y)+y$ ...
2
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0answers
32 views

Description of a Space of Functions

Here is my question: Denote by $V$ the following space of functions on $\mathbb{R}$: $f\in V$ if and only if there exists a nonnegative integer $k$, complex numbers $a_1,\ldots,a_k$ and purely ...
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33 views

Open problems in variational analysis/PDEs

I wasn't sure whether this question was more appropriate for StackExchange or Overflow, but in any case I would really appreciate it if any active researchers in the field responded. I'm a PhD ...
0
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1answer
13 views

semi-norm determines locally convex topological vector space

Consider a locally convex topological vector space. Now, using Minkowski functional (which are semi-norms) we can define a family of semi-norms indexed by the local basis (convex,balanced, absorbing) ...
3
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3answers
56 views

Prove that every Lebesgue measurable function is equal almost everywhere to a Borel measurable function

Suppose $(\mathbb{R},\Sigma(m),m)$ is our measure space, where $m$ is Lebesgue measure. Also, suppose $f : \mathbb{R} \to [-\infty, \infty]$ is a Lebesgue measurable function. The problem: Prove ...
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13 views

Hypercontractivity of Markov Operator

I have been reading a paper by Ahlswede and Gacs on hypercontractivity of Markov operator (see here 1) and its application to information theory. To be honest, I could not fully understand the ...
2
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1answer
23 views

Arzela-Ascoli and compactness in $C(X), l^p, L^p$

Arzela-Ascoli and compactness in $C(X), l^p, L^p$ $C(X)$ with the uniform norm and $X$ is a compact metric space, a closed and bounded set in $C(X)$ is compact if and only if it is ...
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1answer
37 views

Space of Functions: Characterizations of Positivity

Context The problem here is about the characterization of positivity for real or complex valued functions: $$\sigma(f)\geq 0\iff\sigma(f(x))\geq 0\text{ for all }x\in X\iff f(x)\geq 0\text{ for all ...
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17 views

Fréchet normal cone

Given $x\in \Omega(\subset X)$ (X: Banach space) and $\varepsilon\geq 0$, the set of $\varepsilon-$normals to $\Omega$ at $x$ by \begin{align} \widehat N_\varepsilon(x;\Omega):=\left\{x^*\in X^*\mid ...
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1answer
53 views

Why are the hypotheses of Zorn's lemma met in this proof about decomposing a Hilbert space into invariant subspaces?

Let $H$ be a separable complex Hilbert space and let $\mathcal{A} \subset B(H)$ be an algebra of bounded linear operators on $H$ which is closed under adjoints. I've just read a very short proof that ...
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20 views

Is functional analysis a tool to prove uniform convergence? [on hold]

I am very new to functional analysis. Is functional analysis a tool to prove uniform convergence ?
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10 views

Separability=$T_1$ for TVS?

Let a topological linear space be defined by the continuity of the linear operations only. I read on an Italian language functional analysis book, which doesn't show the proof, that any locally ...
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18 views

motivation for the notion of locally convex topological vector space

Is the only motivation for the notion of locally convex topological vector space that the local bases have some nice property i.e. convex, balanced, absobing ?
8
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1answer
86 views

Pointwise estimate for a sequence of mollified functions

In the answer to Characterisation of one-dimensional Sobolev space Tomás wrote ... let $\eta_\delta$ be the standard mollifier sequence. Let $u_\delta=\eta_\delta\star u$ and note that for any ...
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25 views

Besov spaces---concrete description of spatial inhomogeneity

Some very pedestrian questions about Besov spaces. Just to fix notation: 1.Let $f \in \mathcal{S}'$, the space of tempered distributions. 2.$\Psi, \{ \Phi_n \}_{n \geq 0} \subset \mathcal{S}$ such ...
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0answers
36 views

Prove that $l^{\infty}(\mathbb{Z^+})$ is not separable.

Let $l^{\infty}(\mathbb{Z^+})$ be the set of all bounded complex functions on $\mathbb{Z^+}$. Then prove that $l^{\infty}(\mathbb{Z^+})$ is not separable. My attempt: Suppose $E\subset ...
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3answers
42 views

Selfadjoint Operator: Empty Spectrum

Can a selfadjoint operator have empty spectrum? (As far as I remember, yes; but just to be sure.) The point is that if so then the closure of its spectrum cannot equal the convex hull of its ...
2
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1answer
44 views

The set $\{\|f\|_\alpha \leq 1 \}$ has compact closure in $C([0,1])$

Recall the Holder norm $(0<\alpha\leq 1) $ $$\|f\|_\alpha = \max\bigg\{ |f(x)| + \frac{|f(x) - f(y)|}{|x-y|^\alpha} : x,y \in [0,1], x\neq y\bigg\}$$ I want to show that the set ...
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1answer
44 views

Uniform Boundedness Principle for $L^p( \mathbb{R})$

Suppose $\{f_n\}$ is a sequence in $L^p$ such that for each $g\in > L^q$, the sequence $\{\int f_n g\}$ is bounded. Then $\{f_n\}$ is bounded in $L^p$. $(1\leq p<\infty)$ Proof: Argue by ...
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3answers
66 views

Matrices with $n$ eigenvalues [on hold]

My question is: how can I prove that the set of matrices with $n$ distinct eigenvalues is open in the space of $n\times n$ matrices over $\mathbb{C}$ ?
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0answers
24 views

weak convergent sequence in $L^p(\mathbb{R})$ with $(1\leq p < \infty)$ implies norm is bounded

$f_n \rightharpoonup f$ in $L^p(\mathbb{R})$ with $(1\leq p <\infty)$ implies $||f_n||_p$ are bounded. And for $p = \infty$, if $f_n \xrightarrow{w^*} f$, then $||f_n||_\infty$ are ...
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0answers
17 views

Find $u:[0,T]\to H^2$ such that $u(0)=u_0\in H^2$ and $u_t(0)=u_1\in H^1$.

Let $u_0\in H^2$ and $u_1\in H^1$. If we define $$ \begin{align*}u:[0,T]&\longrightarrow L^2\\ t&\longmapsto u_0+\int_0^tu_1\;ds \end{align*}$$ then $u(0)=u_0$. Furthermore, the weak ...
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0answers
9 views

Most general type of $L^p(X,\ V)$ space where compactly-supported continuous functions are dense

Let $(X,\ \tau)$ be a topological (locally compact?) space, $(X,\ \mathcal{F},\ \mu)$ a measure space, $(V,\ \|\cdot\|)$ a Banach space, $1\leq p < \infty$ and $\|\cdot\|_p$ a function defined for ...
2
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1answer
52 views

Prove a condition for a Banach algebra to be isometrically isomorphic to $\mathbb C$

Can anyone help me by providing a detailed verification of the following theorem? Let $\mathcal{A}$ be a Banach algebra. If there exists $M<+\infty$ so that $$\Vert a \Vert\Vert b \Vert\leq M ...
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23 views

continuity of bilinear

Let $B: E\times F\rightarrow G$ be a continuous bilinear map of normed spaces, where $\|(e,f)\| = \|e\| _E+\|f\|_F$. Show that $\dfrac{\|B(e,f)\|}{\|(e,f)\|} \rightarrow 0$ as $(e,f) \rightarrow 0$. ...
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14 views

Prove $\mu(\{x:f(x)>t\})=m(\{s>0:f^*(s)>t\})$ for every $t>0.$ [on hold]

Let $f$ be positive measurable function on space $X$ with $\sigma$ finite measure $\mu$ for which $\mu (\{x:f(x)>t\})<+\infty$ for every $t>0$. Define $f^* (s)=sup\{s\geq ...
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0answers
15 views

Linear functional separating convex sets

Let $J(A)$ be the algebraic interior of set $A$. I know a theorem saying that if $A$ and $B$ are convex subset of a normed space $X$, $J(A)\ne\emptyset$ and $J(A)\cap B\ne\emptyset$, then there is a ...
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0answers
11 views

Completeness condition for periodic function

I know that for a real-valued function set $\{f_n(x)\}$, its completeness condition is $\Sigma_n f_n(x)=\delta(x-x')$. That is, this condition guarantees that a well-behaved function can be write as a ...
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1answer
16 views

Strong approximation of operators.

If I want to approximate strongly an operator $T$ with another in a subset $A \in L(H)$ why is not enough to ask "for every $\epsilon>0$ there is an operator $S\in A$ such that for every $\eta \in ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

If $\varphi f\in L^1(\mu)$ for every $f\in L^1(\mu),$ then $\varphi \in L^\infty$

Let $\varphi$ be a measurable function for which $\varphi f\in L^1(\mu)$ for every $f\in L^1(\mu).$ Show that $\varphi \in L^\infty(\mu).$
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0answers
23 views

Strong maximum principle for weak solutions?

For a general linear parabolic equation, is a strong maximum principle possible when the solutions are merely weak solutions (i.e. they lie in a Bochner space)? Is there some proof possible that does ...
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0answers
23 views

Question about the Averson's proof of the bicommutant theorem.

In the Averson's proof of the bicommutant theorem is proved that, if $A$ is a self-adjoint algebra of operators with trivial null space and $T \in A''$, for every $\epsilon>0$, $n=1,2..$ and every ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

List of functions $f(cx) = C\cdot f(x)$

I was looking for some complex functions f(x), which satisfies the condition: $$\exists (c, C) \in \Bbb C^2 \backslash\{(1,1)\}, \forall x \in \Bbb C, f(cx) = C\cdot f(x)$$ Till now I have got ...
3
votes
0answers
32 views

$\sin(nx)$ does not contain Cauchy subsequence in $L^p([0,2\pi]) $ for $1\leq p < \infty$

$\sin(nx)$ does not contain Cauchy subsequence in $L^p([0,2\pi]) $ for $1\leq p < \infty$ My attempt: Set $f_n(x) = \sin(nx)$. Argue by contradiction, suppose there exists a Cauchy ...
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1answer
56 views

There is no continuous mapping from $L^1([0,1])$ onto $L^\infty([0,1])$

There is no continuous mapping from $L^1([0,1])$ onto $L^\infty([0,1])$. Proof: suppose $T:L^1 \rightarrow L^\infty$ continuous and onto. $L^1$ is separable, let $\{f_n\}$ be a countable dense ...
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1answer
30 views

Norm of functional associated to vector $p$-norm [duplicate]

I read that the norm of a linear functional $f:V\to K$, with $K=\mathbb{R}\lor K=\mathbb{C}$, associated to the $p$-norm $\|x\|=(\sum_{i=1}^n|x_i|^p)^{\frac{1}{p}}$, for $p>1$, is ...
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2answers
28 views

Question about a passage in the Bicommutant Theorem's proof.

In the Averson's book, in the proof of the Von Neumann's Bicommutant theorem there is this passage: ($A $ is a self-adjoint algebra of operators in $L(H)$) "Let $\xi_1$ be an element of the Hilbert ...
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2answers
30 views

Banach Spaces: Totally Bounded Subsets

As an easy consequence of Riesz' lemma it is known that infinite dimensional Banach spaces possess bounded subsets that fail to be totally bounded. On the other hand in finite dimensional Banach ...
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1answer
31 views

Lipschitz constants of projections

Consider two compact sets $A, B \subset \mathbb{R}^n$. Assume that the projection mappings $P_A: \mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow A$, $P_B : \mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow B$ have Lipschitz constant $1$ and $L$, ...
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1answer
17 views

Is there any difference between formally symmetric and formally self-adjoint differential operators?

I work with the well known book of Dunford/Schwartz "Linear Operators (Part II)". At first I should mention that the general difference between self-adjoint and symmetric operators is obvious to me. ...
3
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1answer
51 views

Sums of special vectors

Let $v$ be a vector obtained by taking a sum of $k$ vectors the of the form $(0,0,\ldots,0, -n, *,*,\ldots,*)$, where $"*"$ stands for either $0$ or $1$, and the position of the $-n$ entry can vary ...
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1answer
23 views

Question about total variation

When I was reading http://mathpost.la.asu.edu/~ylin/YLin_thesis.pdf , I didn't understand the following. Why is TV the sum of "jumps". It seems to me that (1.24) is a formula of arc length. But why ...
0
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1answer
29 views

Understanding the scalar product in the duality

I was trying to solve an exercise for my class, but then I have found somewhere a solution. I need to understand the meaning of a certain step. The exercise and the solution read as follow. Exercise ...
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1answer
54 views

Banach Spaces: Totally Bounded vs. Bounded

Are the finite dimensional Banach spaces precisely those ones in which subsets are totally bounded iff they're bounded?