Functional analysis is the study of infinite-dimensional vector spaces, often with additional structures (inner product, norm, topology), with typical examples given by function spaces. The subject also includes the study of linear and non-linear operators on these spaces, as well as measure, ...

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24 views

A question regarding Parseval's identity.

In most books/websites, Proposition 2 (see below) is either stated for a Hilbert space or proved via Riesz-Fischer. Does the follow approach (which seems to work in an inner product space) fall down ...
2
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1answer
19 views

Identity of the Operator Norm applied to the differential $df$ for convex $U \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ and $f \in C^1(U, \mathbb{R}^k)$

In my Analysis II Script they often use 'special' norms such as the Operator norm to make proofs more 'elegant' or just shorter. There is also the following statement (without a proof) which I can't ...
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0answers
38 views

Showing that the sequence of functions is not Cauchy

I need to show that $ g_n(x)=x^{1/(2n-1)} $ is not a Cauchy sequence in $C[-1,1] $ w.r.t. supremum norm. I tried to find the maximum of the difference of $g_n$ and $g_m$ by just differentiating but ...
1
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1answer
41 views

A rather abstract strongly continuous semigroup

Define $X$ as the Hilbert space $L^{2}(0,\infty)$ and let the operators $T(t):X\to X$, $t\ge 0$ be defined by $(T(t)f)(\zeta):=f(t+\zeta)$ I want to show that $(T(t))_{t\ge 0}$ is a ...
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12 views

C* Algebra, f(x,z)

Let $A$ be a $C^*$ algebra, $x\in A$ and $||x|| < 1$. Let $f(x,z) = (1-x x^*)^{-\frac{1}{2}}(1+zx)$, $|z|=1, z\in \mathbb{C}$, $\mathbb{C}$ is the complex field. How to prove: $$ f(x,z)^* f(x,z) ...
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0answers
18 views

When is it possible to bound a function $f:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ with $\big|\ f(x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n)\ \big| \le {\prod}_{i=1}^n h_i(x_i)$

Is there any result that specifies when a multivariate function $f:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ can be bounded (either locally or globally) by a product of some functions $h_i:\mathbb{R} ...
3
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1answer
28 views

I need help understanding the proof of Lemma 2.4-1 from Kreyszig's Functional Analysis.

Lemma: Let $\{x_1, \ldots, x_n \}$ be a linearly independent set of vectors in a normed space $X$ (of any dimension). Then there is a number $c > 0$ such that for every choice of scalars $\alpha_1, ...
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0answers
39 views

How to prove the space $H$ is Banach?

$H$={$f$:$f$ and its derivative are absolutely continuous and squared integrable in $\mathbb{R}$}. The norm is ...
4
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1answer
38 views

Categorical Banach space theory

Consider the category $\mathsf{NormVect}_1$ of normed vector spaces with short linear maps$^{\dagger}$ and the full subcategory $\mathsf{Ban}_1$ of Banach spaces with short linear maps. Both ...
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0answers
19 views

Weak convergence in $D^{1,p}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ and in $\mathcal{M}(\mathbb{R}^n)$

What it means: $$u_n\rightharpoonup u ~\text{weakly in }~ D^{1,p}(\mathbb{R}^n)\\ |\nabla(u_n-u)|^p\rightharpoonup\mu ~\text{weakly in}~ \mathcal{M}(\mathbb{R}^n)\\|u_n-u|^{p^{*}}\rightharpoonup\nu ...
1
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1answer
26 views

Time derivative of logistic function [on hold]

I was wondering whether there is a possible solution to this. If we have function $$ y_t = \frac{x_t}{1+x_t}. $$ given that $x_t>0$ we can represent it as a logistic function $$ y_t = ...
3
votes
1answer
29 views

How can I prove that $f$ is inner product function

We know the polarization identity in inner product space : $$\langle x,y\rangle= \frac{1}{4} (\|x+y\|^2-\|x-y\|^2) + \frac{i}{4} (\|x+iy\|^2-\|x-iy\|^2) $$ But the question is if we have ...
0
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1answer
23 views

Obtain the triangle inequality from the Minkowski inequality

I want to prove: $$\|f-h\|_p \leq \|f-g\|_p + \|g-h\|_p$$ Minkowski inequality: $$\|f+g\|_p \leq \|f\|_p + \|g\|_p$$ Is $\|f-g\|_p \leq \|f\|_p + \|g\|_p$? It looks like we have: $$\left(\int_a^b ...
1
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0answers
20 views

$c_{00}$ is a dense subset of $c_0$

I would like to show that $c_{00}$ is a dense subset of $c_0$. I am not sure if I am overly simplifying the argument or even making the right argument for that matter. proof: Suppose that $x \in ...
2
votes
1answer
20 views

For fn(z)= 1/nz, If we make fn(0)= 1, does that make the family of functions bounded?

I have a problem that requires me to use a theorem requiring a bounded family of functions. The family provided that I am supposed to use this theorem for is $f_n (z) = \frac 1 {nz}$ when $z \neq 0$ ...
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0answers
19 views

Energy inequalities with negative sobolev number.

Let $\phi\in H^{s}$ such that the following energy inequality is true: $$\|\phi(t,\cdot)\|_s \le\int^t_0 C \| P\phi(t,\cdot)\|_s \, dt $$ where $P$ is a strictly hyperbolic linear operator. For ...
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0answers
12 views

What is the Fourier basis for all 2 dimensional functions?

Let us say we have a set of all 2-dimensional functions (E.g. 1 time and 1 space dimension). What is the (Schauder) basis for this set?
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13 views

First order elliptic pseudodifferential operator and Sobolev space

Let $P$ be an elliptic pseudodifferential operator of order 1 on a compact manifold $M$. Also let the spectrum of $P$ lie inside $(0, \infty)$. I am trying to see how one could prove that $P : H^1(M) ...
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2answers
32 views

Swapping series and linear operators

If $T$ is a continuous linear transformation between normed spaces. Under what conditions of $T$ and $(a_n)_n$ we have $T(\sum_{n=0}^\infty a_n)=\sum_{n=0}^\infty T(a_n)$?
3
votes
1answer
18 views

Lower semicontinuous energy functional on compact space of Lipschitz functions

Let $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^{n}$ be a bounded open subset containing $0$ and let $L>0$ be some positive constant. Consider the space $A_{0}=\{f \in C^{\infty}(\overline{\Omega}) \mid f \text{ ...
0
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1answer
26 views

how can we get Pythagoras from the parallelogram law

When using the definition and properties of the inner product, we get the parallelogram law: $||x+y||^2= \langle x+y, x+y\rangle= \langle x, x\rangle + \langle x, y\rangle +\langle y, x\rangle ...
1
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1answer
22 views

Evaluating norm of the operator

I have to calculate norm of the operator $\varphi : l_{1} \rightarrow \mathbb{C}$, where $$ \varphi( (x_n)_{n=1}^{\infty} ) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} (-4)^{-n} x_{2n}.$$ My attempt was as follow: Let ...
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0answers
13 views

Definition of equi-absolute continuity

Could someone provide (or point me to) a definition of equi-absolute continuity for functions defined on an open bounded subset $\Omega \subseteq\mathbb{R}^n$? I only managed to find a definition for ...
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votes
0answers
23 views

Estimating a sum

i want to show the following: Assume that $\sum_{m\in\mathbb{N}}{|i+\lambda_m|^{-p}}<\infty$ (where $(\lambda_m)_m$ is a sequence of real numbers). I want to show that then also holds for each ...
0
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0answers
33 views

Question about convergence in $L^2$ (revisited)

Yesterday I asked the folowing question: Question about convergence in $L^2$ which was answered negatively with a counterexample. Here, I wonder if one can find the right set to look at: Assume we ...
4
votes
1answer
33 views

Is the following statement true on $L^0$ spaces?

Let $(\Omega,\mathcal{F},P)$ be a probability space. Let $X,Y\in L^0(\Omega;\mathbb{R})$ two random variables taking values in $\mathbb{R}$. Is it true that: $$\int_{A} f(X(\omega)) P(d\omega) = ...
0
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2answers
35 views

Inequality error possibly. How are two inequalities equal?

Notation: $\underline{x}\in \Bbb R^n,||\cdot||_p =\left(\sum \limits_{i=1}^n |\cdot|^p\right)^{\frac1p}$ $$||\underline{x}||_p\left( \sum \limits_{i=1}^n |x_i + ...
0
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0answers
17 views

Elliptic regulartiy for nonlinear elliptic equations

Here is the question: Let us consider the Schrodinger type equation $$ \left\{ \begin{aligned} &-\Delta u + u = |u|^{p-2}u \quad \text{in } \mathbb{R}^N \\ &u\in H^1(\mathbb{R}^N) \qquad ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Determine if the set of all $f \in C(\mathbb{R})$ such that $f(1/2)$ is a rational number is a subspace of $C(\mathbb{R})$

Let $C(\mathbb{R})$ denote the vector space over $\mathbb{R}$ of all continuous functions on $\mathbb{R}$. Determine if the set of all $f \in C(\mathbb{R})$ such that $f(1/2)$ is a rational number is ...
1
vote
2answers
32 views

Hölder inequality conditions for $L_p$ spaces?

The Hölder inequality is the statement that if $f,g$ are measurable functions then $$ \|fg \|_1 \le \|f\|_p \|g\|_q$$ if $p,q$ are such that ${1\over p}+ {1 \over q} =1$. But it's not clear to me ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

About the self-adjoint extension of an operator.

Let $B$ be a selfadjoint extension of an operator $A$ on a Hilbert space $H$. Let $\varphi \in \ker(A^\ast-z_0)$. Then i want to show that $\varphi + (z- z_0)(B-z)^{-1} \varphi \in \ker(A^\ast-z)$. I ...
0
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0answers
26 views

Continuous homorphism from $(\mathbf{R},+)$ to group of invertible elements in Banach algebra is differentiable

Let $A$ be a Banach algebra with $1$ and $\varphi\colon \mathbf{R}\to A$ be continuous such that $\varphi(0)=1$ and $\varphi(x+y)=\varphi(x)\varphi(y)$ for each $x,y\in \mathbf{R}$. The claim is ...
1
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0answers
15 views

Getting the minimum of a mixed functional

I have a functional $T$ defined on the attached picture. The functional always gives non-negative values. So it has a non-negative infinum I'm trying to figure out whether this infinum is ...
1
vote
2answers
38 views

Suppose that $f$ is differentiable on $\mathbb{R}$ and $\lim_{x\to \infty}f'(x)=M$. Show that $\lim_{x\to \infty}f(x+1)-f(x)$ exists and find it.

I've been stuck on this question for a long time now and was wondering if anyone could show me how it's done. So far I have done the following: Since $\lim_{x\to \infty}f'(x)=M$ then $\forall \epsilon ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

Prove that a function is decreasing

Let $\left(\,c_m\,\right)_{m \in \mathbb{N}}$ be some coefficients which are all positive natural, $c_0=1$, and they are increasing in $m$. Define $$ f(y) = \frac{\sum\limits_{m=0} c_m \, \, ( y ...
1
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2answers
39 views

Misunderstanding a result from functional analysis

While reading page 111 of this book I got confused as to what the authors were doing in their counterexample of why strong convergence doesn't imply uniform convergence. I summarise it below Let ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Matrix induced norm by vector norm defined via a non-square weighting matrix

Let $W$ be a full-rank $m \times n$ matrix with $n<m$, i.e. it has linearly independent columns Define the wieghted norm on $\mathbb R^n$ as $\|x\|_W=\|Wx\|_{\infty}$. Is there a formula for the ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Convergence of spectrum with multiplicity under norm convergence

This article by Joachim Weidmann claims that, if a sequence $A_n$ of bounded operators in a Hilbert space converges in norm topology, i.e., $\|A_n - A\| \rightarrow 0$, then "isolated eigenvalues ...
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0answers
27 views

Proving a result on a sum of convex functions

Let $P=(p_{1} ,...,p_{n})$ and $Q=(q_{1} ,...,q_{n} )$ be two vectors of probabilities (do not sum to 1 so are not each a distribution). Define a function $F: (0,1)\to(0,1)$ with parameters $P$ and ...
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votes
0answers
23 views

Locally Lipschitz complex function [on hold]

I want to study the property of being locally Lipschitz for the following function $$f(z)=\vert z\vert^\gamma z^2$$ with $\gamma\in\mathbb{R}$. Some hints to study this problem?
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Question about convergence in $L^2$

Assume we have a sequence of functions $\{f_n\}_{n\geq 0}\subset L^2([0,1])$ such that $f_n \rightarrow f$ in $L^2([0,1])$, i.e. $$\lim_{n\to \infty} \int_0^1 |f_n(x)-f(x)|^2dx =0.$$ Is it then true ...
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0answers
35 views

Schauder basis for $c_0$

So, I am trying to prove that $c_0$ has the dual space $\ell^1$ (I know this proof is out there). Except my professor told me that a Schauder basis for $c_0$ is $(e_k)$ where $ e_k = \delta_{j,k}$ ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Supremum of continuous, bounded function [on hold]

If $f\colon [0,\infty)\to [0,\infty)$ is a continuous, bounded function such that $f(x)<x$ for all $x\in(0,\infty)$, and $x_n \in[0,\infty)$ is such that $s=\sup_{n\in\mathbb{N}}x_n<\infty,$ ...
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0answers
21 views

Show trigonometric function are complete on $L^2[0,2\pi]$

The proof is in the book but I couldn't understand it. Will appreciate your help. My doubts are in blue. Proof: Suppose $f(\theta)$ is any continuous, $2\pi$ periodic function ...
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votes
0answers
23 views

Disjoint simple functions dense in $L^2(I^2, R^2)$

Suppose $$S=\{f\in L^2(I^2,R^2)| \exists h_1(x), f_1(x,y)=h_1(x), a.e. (x,y)\in I^2, \\ \exists h_2(x), f_2(x,y)=h_2(y), a.e. (x,y)\in I^2\}$$ For any $f=(f_1,f_2)\in L^2(I^2, R^2)$ and any ...
1
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0answers
23 views

A Lemma about the operator space

The following lemma comes from the book "C*-algebras Finite-Dimensional Approximations" by N.P. Brown and N. Ozawa P379 Lemma 13.2.3 Let $X_{i}\in B(H_{i})$ (i=1,2) be unital operator subspaces ...
1
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0answers
28 views

Name of the metric: $d(f,g)=\max \limits_{a\leq x \leq b} |f(x)-g(x)|$

What is the name of the metric: $$d(f,g)=\max \limits_{a\leq x \leq b} |f(x)-g(x)|$$ Where $f,g\in X$ where $X$ is the space of all continuous functions. I can't find any documentation on this ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

Determining spectral bounds variationally.

I'm learning C0-semigroup theory (mainly from Arendt et al. (vector-valued Laplace-transforms and Cauchy problems), Engel & Nagel (One par. semigroups for linear evolution eq.),Evans (partial ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

why is $f(xx^*)$ is defined and $xf(x^*x)=f(xx^*)x$?

Let $A$ be a $c^*$algebra, $x\in A$ and $f:\sigma(x^*x)\to\mathbb{C}$ continuous and $f(0)=0$ ($\sigma(x^*x)$ is the spectrum of $x^*x$). Why is $f(xx^*)$ is defined and $xf(x^*x)=f(xx^*)x$? It is ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

How to find the Dual space

If i consider the following space $$L^p_{\theta}=\{u:\Omega\rightarrow \mathbb{R}~\text{ mesurable}, \int_{\Omega} ||x|^{\theta} u(x)|^p dx<\infty\}$$ where $\Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^n$ is an open ...