For questions about the composition of functions: If $f\colon A\to B$ and $g\colon B\to C$ are functions, their composition $g\circ f\colon A\to C$ is given by $x\mapsto g(f(x))$.

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2
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4answers
52 views

Show that the standard integral: $\int_{0}^{\infty} x^4\mathrm{e}^{-\alpha x^2}\mathrm dx =\dfrac{3}{8}{(\dfrac{\pi}{\alpha^5})}^\dfrac{1}{2}$

In my physics course this standard formula is used a lot without proof so it would be interesting to see a neat proof for it. From a previous thread by me I know the proof for $\int ...
-3
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0answers
28 views

how can I evaluate these questions [on hold]

(1) $f(x) = x+2$ and $g(x) = {1\over 2} x+7$
0
votes
1answer
22 views

Derivatives of Implicit Functions (Abstract Case)

I have never been good at differentiation of implicit functions in cases when in a function is given, much less in abstract cases with composite functions. Hopefully someone can help me get started on ...
2
votes
2answers
27 views

Why is this proof for an arbitrary function constrained to a constant one?

Sorry if this seems trivial, I'm having some difficulty understanding a proof. I'm doing exercise 5.1.14 of Velleman's How to Prove It and a solution posted in this question, including the comments, ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

Compose $(1243)$ and $(5)$

Checking my work. In either direction: $(1243)[1] = 2$ and $(5)[2] = 2$, so far we have $(1, 2,\ldots$ $(1243)[2] = 4$ and $(5)[4] = 4$, so far we have $(1, 2, 4,\ldots$ $(1243)[4] = 3$ and ...
2
votes
0answers
51 views

Composition factoring into nonnegative integer polynomials

Consider the integer polynomials with nonnegative coefficients, such as: $$ 1 + 2x +2x^2 $$ $$ 3 + 3x^4 + 11x^{10}$$ $$ 13 + 7x + x^2 $$ I asm interested in knowing "what is a composition ...
4
votes
1answer
56 views

General closed form solution to $f'(x) = P(f(x))/P(x)$

Does there exist a general closed form solution (in terms of elementary or special functions) to the differential equation: $$ \frac{df(x)}{dx} = \frac{P(f(x))}{P(x)} $$ when $P(x)$ is a polynomial ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Composition of analytic functions is analytic

I want to find a proof that shows the composition of two analytic functions is analytic. I know I should prove this using Cauchy-Riemann equations, but I wasn't able to use them in the proper way in ...
1
vote
0answers
11 views

Matrix representation of function concatenation using other basis than polynomials.

I have now familiarized myself with the Carleman-matrices which represent function composition of polynomials (actually taylor series terms) and built some of my own. I noticed that for any finite ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Function composition as representable by matrices?

I know from linear algebra that for different sets of functions differentiation can be expressed using matrix multiplication on a vector representation of the function. For instance polynomials and ...
2
votes
2answers
56 views

The limit of a composed function

Let $g_n: \mathbb{N} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ and $f_n(x): \mathbb{N\times R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$. If $g_n \rightarrow g$ and $f_n(g) \rightarrow f(g)$, can we deduce $f_n(g_n) \rightarrow f(g)$? ...
1
vote
3answers
61 views

Composite Function Equality

Let f, g be functions$: \mathbb{R} \mapsto \mathbb{R}$ with $f(x)=x^2+ax+b$ with $a,b \in \mathbb{R}$, such that $(f\circ g)=(g\circ f)$. If the equation $g(x)=x$ has precisely one solution for all ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Composition operators on fractional-order Sobolev spaces

Preliminaries: We know that the fractional-order Sobolev spaces $\mathrm{H}^s(\mathbb{R})$ and $\mathrm{H}^s(\mathbb{T})$ are closed under multiplication provided $s > 1/2$. This is proved for ...
6
votes
1answer
43 views

Find: $\lim_{x\to0}\left(\lim_{n\to\infty}2^{2n}\left(1-\left(f ^{\circ n}(x)\right)\right)\right)$

Let $$f:[0,1]\to\Bbb R\;\;\mbox{defined by}\;\;\; f(x)=\sqrt{\frac{1+x}{2}}$$ Find: $$\lim_{x\to0}\left(\lim_{n\to\infty}2^{2n}\left(1-\left(\overbrace {f \circ f \circ f \cdot\cdot\cdot \circ ...
11
votes
7answers
356 views

Why associativity $h \circ (g \circ f) = (h \circ g) \circ f$ is required in composition?

An introduction into category theory says that A category is a quadruple $A = (O, \mathrm{hom}, \mathrm{id}, \circ)$ consisting of blah-blah and is subject to the following conditions: (a) ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Are these two compositions of two functions differentiable?

Assuming $U=\{x\in\mathbb{R}^2:x_1^2+x_2^2<1\}$ is the open unit circle in the plane and $f,g:U\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^2$ two functions with $f(0)=g(0)=0$. $f$ is Fréchet-differentiable in $0$, and ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

Finding a (nonidentity) rational map of the plane with period $7$

Does there exist a nonidentity (which also is not a rotation) rational map $f:\mathbb{R}^2 \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^2$ with period $7$, i.e., for which the seventh iteration $f^7$ is the identity ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Composition of Lp convergent function and continuous function

Let $f$ be a continuous function on $\mathbb R$ such that for $U\subset \mathbb R ^n$ bounded it holds that $\forall w\in L^p(U) ~~ f(w)\in L^q(U)$. Let $~u_k \rightarrow u$ in $L^p(U)$ . Does ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Convergence in probability of function composition.

I need to show that $G_n \stackrel{P}{\to}_n F_0$, i.e. for any $\epsilon>0$ $$ P(|| G_n - F_0||>\epsilon) \to_n 0 $$ We know the following: $G_n$ and $F_0$ are a bilinear functions from ...
1
vote
1answer
17 views

While finding points of discontinuity for a composite function do I need to consider the points of discontinuity of individual functions too.

I'm solving problems based on composition of functions and stuck in this problem. If $f(x)=\frac{1}{(x-1)(x-2)}$ and $g(x)=\frac{1}{x^2}$, then find the points of discontinuity of $f(g(x))$. We ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Struggling with a problem in functions.

Suppose '$f$' is a continuous function from $\mathbb{R}$ to $\mathbb{R}$ and $f(f(a))=a$ for some $a \in \mathbb{R}$ then find the number of solutions of the equation $f(x)=x$. Options given: ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Composition of functions class $C^n$

Suppose I have 2 functions class $C^n$ and I consider their composition. Would that still be a $C^n$ function? If so why (I demand a proof). It seems logical to me that it is true but I can't find a ...
0
votes
3answers
76 views

For a function Y : X→X , if Y is injective, then Y∘Y∘Y is injective.

For a function Y : X→X , if Y is injective, then Y∘Y∘Y is injective. My attempt: Using contrapositive, if Y is not injective. then Y ∘ Y is not injective, the there exist x, x' ∈ X with x ≠ x' but ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

Composing Linear Transformations

Hello and thank you in advance; The problem: "Let V be a vector space and T a linear operator $T:V\rightarrow V $, show that $$[T^m]_B =[T]_B^m$$ Where $B$ is a basis(any) of $V$ and $T^m=T\circ T ...
6
votes
1answer
50 views

which functions can be obtained as a composition of a continuous function with itself? [duplicate]

let $f(x)=x^2$, then $f(f(x))=x^4$, so $x^4$ is a continuous function from $\Bbb R$ to $\Bbb R$ which can be obtained as $f\circ f$ for a continuous $f\colon \Bbb R\to \Bbb R$. general example: for ...
-2
votes
1answer
27 views

How to find $g(x)$, if: $f(x)=(x+1)/x$, and $f(g(x))=x$?

How to find $g(x)$, if: $f(x)=\frac{(x+1)}{x}$, and $f(g(x))=x$? I know that the answer is that $g(x)=\frac{1}{(x-1)}$ But how to come to that answer remains a mystery to me Please give me some ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Differentiate $g\circ f$ transformation

Differentiate $g \circ f$ of the following functions: $$f: \mathbb{R}^2 \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^2 $$ $$f(x,y)=(x-y,x+y)$$ $$g: \mathbb{R}^2 \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^2 $$ $$g(x_1,x_2)=(e^{x_1} \cos ...
1
vote
1answer
16 views

How to determine a function from a sequence of consecutively composed functions?

Let $ f(x) = x+1 $ and $g(x) = 2x$ Prove $f^2g = gf $ and determine $f^igf^jgf^k(x)$ explicitly as a function of x and in terms of i,j,k. I got through the proof but I don't understand what the ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

If a composition of two maps is smooth, as well as one of the maps, then so is the other.

Let $M$, $N$, and $K$ be smooth manifolds, and consider the maps $g:M\to N$, and $f:N\to L$. Assume that the composition $f\circ g$ is smooth. If any of $f$ and $g$ is smooth can we conclude that the ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Permutations, compositions and associativity properties

Let n be a postive integer, and let σ : {1, . . . , n} → {1, . . . , n} be a one-to-one and onto map. Then σ is called a permutation on n elements. The set of all permutations on n elements is denoted ...
5
votes
2answers
183 views

The composition of a nowhere-differentiable function with a differentiable function.

This is actually Problem $ 17 $ from Chapter $ 10 $ of the Fourth Edition of Michael Spivak’s Calculus. The statement is quite simple, but I have not had any success in finding an example. Here is the ...
0
votes
3answers
87 views

If $ f $ is injective and $ g $ is injective, then $ f \circ g $ is surjective. [duplicate]

I can prove that if $ f $ and $ g $ are both injective, then $ f \circ g $ is injective, but I don’t know how to prove that $ f \circ g $ is surjective.
1
vote
2answers
49 views

Show that $g$ is one-one if and only if $g$ is onto.

Original problem A function $g$ from a set $X$ to itself satisfies $g^m=g^n$ for positive $m$ and $n$ with $m>n$. Here $g^n$ stands for $g\circ g\circ \dots g$(n times). Show that $g$ is one-one ...
0
votes
1answer
17 views

Taylor Expansion of Composition of Functions

I have in my lecture notes that $$f(g(x+h))-f(g(x))\approx f'(g(x))\left(g(x+h)-g(x)\right)+f''(g(x))(g(x+h)-g(x))^2$$ He explained can found via taylor expansion, but I try to expand it and am not ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

Linear transformation of eigenspace is subset of eigenspace

Let $V$ be a vector space over a field $\mathbb{F}$ and let $L$, $M$ be two linear transformations from $V$ to itself. a. Show that the subset $W= {x ∈ V : L(x) = M(x)}$ is a subspace of $V$ b. ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

Composition of 2 monotonic functions

Let $f$ be a monotonic function $f:[a,b] \rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ and $g$ be a monotonic function $g:[c,d]\rightarrow[a,b]$. Show that $f\circ g$ is monotonic
0
votes
2answers
19 views

Given two piece-wise functions, prove their composition is periodic.

I know how to graph h(f(x)), however, I am having trouble proving it is periodic. i. We must prove that h(f(x + k)) = h(f(x)) for all x ∈ ℝ and for some k ≠0 ∈ ℝ in order to prove that h(f(x)) is ...
0
votes
2answers
30 views

$f \circ f^{-1} = i_B$ proof using the fact that $f^{-1} \circ f = i_A$

Suppose f is function from A to B, and suppose that $f^{-1}$ is a function from B to A. Assume $f^{-1} \circ f = i_A$. Then show therefore that $f \circ f^{-1} = i_B$. I tried applying left ...
2
votes
0answers
77 views

We all know about compositions of functions, but what about decomposition. Is there a way with math, not just heuristics?

The composition operator is a well know and quite often used method in integration and differentiation, think u-substitution. However, given a composition like $$f(f(f(...f(x)...)))$$ Where there are ...
2
votes
0answers
29 views

functions compositions, three sets, counting compositions

Given three sets $P, Q, R$ such that $|P|=p, |Q|=q, |R|=r,$ and $p,q,r > 1$ let $f(x): P\rightarrow Q$, and $g(x):Q\rightarrow R$ be two functions. Find the number of functions which can be ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

Internalizing results about composition and surjectivity/injectivity

I'm trying to see if there is any intuition pump / analogy that allows me to internalize ( and readily derive them) a series of results about the concepts of composition mixed with ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

How to find $s(\exp(d(x)))$ ~ $ x + 2 $?

Let $x$ be a positive real. I want to find a pair of analytic functions $s(x),d(x)$ such that $s(d(x)) = x$ and $ s(\exp(d(x)))$ ~ $ x + 2 $ More presicely I Also want : $$ \lim_{x \to \infty} ...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

Geometric description of composition of two convex polygons? [duplicate]

The composition was defined as follow: $(a,b)$ $\in$ $(R;S)$ $\Leftrightarrow$ $\exists c | (a,c) \in R \\ $&$ (c,b) \in S$ . Also the composition was defined as the binary product of two ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Writing a set in terms of compositions of known functions.

for this problem we are to write a the given set using a composition of known functions like map, dist, seq, pairs, ., +, -, etc. The given set is: $\langle n, n - 1, n - 2, ..., 0 \rangle$. I am ...
3
votes
0answers
57 views

Which symbol to use for composition of a sequence of functions [duplicate]

I know how to write the composition of two functions: $f\circ g$ but I don't know whether there's a standard symbol for a sequence (similar to $\sum_i{f_i}$, $\prod_i{f_i}$ or $\bigotimes_i{f_i}$, ...
3
votes
1answer
56 views

If $ f(x) = \left\{\frac{3x}{2}\right\}\;,$ Where $\{x\}=x-\lfloor x \rfloor$. Then real solution of $f(f(x))=0$

If $\displaystyle f(x) = \left\{\frac{3x}{2}\right\}\;,$ Where $\{x\}=x-\lfloor x \rfloor$. Then no. of solution of the equation $f(f(x))=0$ and $f(f(f(x)))=0$ and $f(f(f(f(x))))=0$. ...
1
vote
1answer
90 views

What is a composition of two binary relations geometrically?

the composition was defined as follow: (a,b) \in (R;S) <=> there is c | (a,c) \in R and (c,b) \in S . If our two relations R and S are two convex polygon ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

When does differentiability of $g\circ f$ and $f$ resp. $g$ imply differentiablity of $g$ resp. $f$?

To me the following seems intuitively true: If $f$ is differentiable at $x$ with surjective derivative then $g$ is differentiable at $f(x)$ iff $g\circ f$ is differentiable at $x$. On the other ...
1
vote
3answers
56 views

Can the composition of two non-invertible functions be invertible?

(Context: I came across this exercise in the textbook "Coding the Matrix" when reading it to supplement my studies in the Coursera class "Coding the Matrix".) After proving that the composition of ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

Continuity of a nonlinear operator on fractional-order Sobolev spaces

Let $N\colon \mathrm{H}^s(\mathbb{R}) \to (\mathrm{H}^s(\mathbb{R}))^*$, where $s > \frac{1}{2}$, be an operator given by $N(u) = \langle u^p, \cdot \rangle_{\mathrm{L}^2(\mathbb{R})}$ for a fixed ...