# Tagged Questions

Questions on fractals, irregular-looking mathematical objects that display the property of self-similarity.

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### Why does the Mandelbrot set contain (slightly deformed) copies of itself?

The Mandelbrot set is the set of points of the complex plane whos orbits do not diverge. An point $c$'s orbit is defined as the sequence $z_0 = c$, $z_{n+1} = z_n^2 + c$. The shape of this set is ...
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### Fractal behavior along the boundary of convergence?

The complex power series $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{z^{n^2}}{n^2}$$ has radius $1$ (Ratio Test) and is absolutely convergent along $|z|=1$. Recalling something that my calculus professor (Ray Mayer, ...
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### Does this Fractal Have a Name?

I was curious whether this fractal(?) is named/famous, or is it just another fractal? I was playing with the idea of randomness with constraints and the fractal was generated as follows: Draw a ...
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### A new kind of fractal?

http://www.gibney.de/does_anybody_know_this_fractal Is this some known kind of fractal? Update: This one got a lot of great feedback from around the net. I summarized it here: http://www.gibney.de/...
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### If $f(x)=x^2-x-1$ and $f^n(x)=f(f(\cdots f(x)\cdots))$, find all $x$ for which $f^{3n}(x)$ converges.

Let $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ be the polynomial defined by $$f(x)=x^2-x-1$$ and let $$g_0(x)=f(x),\quad g_1(x)=f(f(x)),\quad\ldots\quad g_n(x)=f(f(f(\cdots f(x)\cdots)))$$ The positive root of $f(x)$...
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### What exactly are fractals

I have always been amazed by things like the Mandelbrot set. I share the view of most that it and the Koch snowflake are absolutely beautiful. I decided to get a deeper more mathematical knowledge of ...
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### Why does this distribution of polynomial roots resemble a collection of affine IFS fractals?

Consider the following spectacular image, created by Sam Derbyshire and described in John Baez's article "The Beauty of Roots": In this image are plotted all the complex roots of all polynomials of ...
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### Why does the Hilbert curve fill the whole square?

I have never seen a formal definition of the Hilbert curve, much less a careful analysis of why it fills the whole square. The Wikipedia and Mathworld articles are typically handwavy. I suppose the ...
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### Fractals reference

I want to present an elementary lecture about Fractals in the Nature. So, I am searching open or online references with good pictures like the following one: I prepared a good program that makes ...
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### What is this pattern found in the first occurrence of each $k \in \{0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9\}$ in the values of $f(n)=\sqrt{n}-\lfloor \sqrt{n} \rfloor$?

Learning how to generate the Mandelbrot set, I came across the definition of the "escape condition" which is the one that decides the color that is applied to each point of the plane where the ...
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### Supremum of all y-coordinates of the Mandelbrot set

Let $M\subset \mathbb R^2$ be the Mandelbrot set. What is $\sup\{ y : (x,y) \in M \}$? Is this known? To be more descriptive: What is the supremum of all y-coordinates of all black points in the ...
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### Fractal dimension of the function $f(x)=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{\mathrm{sign}\left(\sin(nx)\right)}{n}$

Consider the function $$f(x)=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{\mathrm{sign}\left(\sin(nx)\right)}{n}\, .$$ This is a bizarre and fascinating function. A few properties of this function that SEEM to be true: ...
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### Mandelbrot fractal: How is it possible?

I'm a programmer and have recently played around a bit with rendering Mandelbrot fractals / zooming into them. What I can't grasp: How can such infinite, complex shapes come out of somewhat 10 lines ...
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### Has anyone found a “pattern” in prime numbers?

Yesterday I was having some fun trying to look for some patterns in primes; and I think I found something interesting (to me at least). I still have not found any lists of patterns already found, ...
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### Do Integrals over Fractals Exist?

Given, for example, a line integral like $$\int_\gamma f \; ds$$ with $f$ not further defined, yet. What happens, if the contour $\gamma$ happens to be a fractal curve? Since all fractal ...
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### Mandelbrot set and prime numbers

I have written a simple program in C to generate Mandelbrot set. Wherever I zoom in, it seems to me that I see prime numbers, most often 11, 17, 19. For example the object on the attached image has 11 ...
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### Mandelbrot-like sets for functions other than $f(z)=z^2+c$?

Are there any well-studied analogs to the Mandelbrot set using functions other than $f(z)= z^2+c$ in $\mathbb{C}$?
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### Calculate moment of inertia of Koch snowflake

That's just a fun question. Please, be creative. Suppose having a Koch snowflake. The area inside this curve is having the total mass $M$ and the length of the first iteration is $L$ (a simple ...
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### What is the moment of inertia of a Gosper island?

We know that regular hexagons can tile the plane but not in a self-similar fashion. However we can construct a fractal known as a Gosper island, that has the same area as the hexagon but has the ...
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### Has this chaotic map been studied?

I have recently been playing around with the discrete map $$z_{n+1} = z_n - \frac{1}{z_n}$$ That is, repeatedly mapping each number to the difference between itself and its reciprocal. It shows some ...
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### Visualizing the Partition numbers (suggestions for visualization techniques)

So Ken Ono says that the partition numbers behave like fractals, in which case I'd like to try to find an appropriately illuminating way of visualizing them. But I'm sort of stuck at the moment, so ...
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### Mini Mandelbrots, are they exact copies?

(This one was found by magnifying 280,000,000 times.) In popular "zoom movies" of the Mandelbrot set the last image is often what appears to be an exact copy of the original set. This is always very ...
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### H0w have group theory and fractal geometry been combined?

Has there been a significant tie made between group theory and fractal geometry? What are some ways that they have been tied together? I've been inspired to ask this question by this image of a free ...
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### How to explain fractals to a layperson and to someone with more math training?

I have a Ph.D. in computational and theoretical chemistry with advanced but field-oriented knowledge of mathematics. I am fascinated by fractals, but I am unable to understand them from the formal ...
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### Why does the boundary of the Mandelbrot set contain a cardioid?

In a comment to a previous answer it has been mentioned that the boundary of the Mandelbrot set contains the cardioid $$c = e^{it} \, \frac{2 - e^{it}}{4}$$ but how can we prove this?
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### Why are these two definitions of the Mandelbrot set equivalent?

The definition of the Mandelbrot set that most enthusiasts first encounter is that of the set of all complex numbers $c$ for which the sequence $z_{n+1} = z_n^2 + c$ starting from $z_0 = 0$ does not ...
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### Koch snowflake versus $\pi=4$

The only proof I could find of the Koch snowflake having infinite perimeter was by calculating the perimeter $P_n$ after the $n$th iteration $$P_n = 3s\left(\frac{4}{3}\right)^n,$$ where $s$ is the ...
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### How to draw a fractal from $z \mapsto z^2 + c$ explained for a mere mortal?

I am interested in: 1) Understanding in detail how fractals are draw. 2) Coding a computer program to draw a simple fractal. Can someone with good explaining skills take care of 1) for me? I don't ...
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### Geometrical objects whose volumes are fractional powers of their sizes

While studying properties of foams (imagine bubbly soap or microscopical grids/networks), I started wondering on the relationship between the volume occupied by the matter $V_s$ itself and the overall ...
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### Why should Gaussian noise have fractal dimension of 1.5?

In a paper I'm trying to understand, the following time series is generated as "simulated data": $$Y(i)=\sum_{j=1}^{1000+i}Z(j) \:\:\: ; \:\:\: (i=1,2,\ldots,N)$$ where $Z(j)$ is a Gaussian noise ...
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### Number of limit points of a continued exponential

Inspired by the work of C. Bender, I recently played with continued exponentials (like continued fractions but with exponential functions ;) ). Given all prefactors are equal to 1, the continued ...