Questions on Fourier series, the expansion of a function in terms of basis functions that satisfy an orthogonality relation. Usually, complex exponentials or sines and cosines are used.

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4
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2answers
332 views

What is the reason for these jiggles when truncating infinite series?

Plotting the series $$\displaystyle y = \sum_{k} \frac{\sin kx }{k}$$ In the limit it would look like Taking a finite number of terms, I want to understand what is the reason for the jiggling at ...
4
votes
1answer
238 views

Heuristic\iterated construction of the Weierstrass nowhere differentiable function.

I'm very interested in finding a way or hint for the construction of the Weierstrass function which is everywhere continuous but nowhere differentiable - let's call this (ECND). My most humble example ...
4
votes
1answer
710 views

Is the Taylor series comparable to Fourier series and spherical harmonics?

I am currently trying to grasp spherical harmonics and try to digest that we proved that the sine and cosine functions are a basis for the $L^2$ space of the squared-integrable functions. So as far ...
4
votes
2answers
161 views

Nontrivial solutions of $\sum\limits_{-\infty}^\infty\overline{a_n}a_{n+k}=\delta_{k0}$

Let $a=(a_n)$ with $a_n\in\mathbb{C}$ be a vector indexed over all $n\in\mathbb{Z}$, and consider the system of equations $\sum\limits_{-\infty}^\infty\overline{a_n}a_{n+k}=\delta_{k0}$ for all $k\in\...
3
votes
3answers
73 views

Deriving formula from Fourier series: $\frac{\pi^2}{12} = \sum\limits_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^{n+1}}{n^2}$

The equation/formula $$ \frac{\pi^2}{12} = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^{n+1}}{n^2}$$ is to be derived. I know that the Fourier expansion of $f(x)=x$ for $x \in (-\pi,\pi)$ is $$f(x)=x=\sum_{n=1}^{\...
3
votes
2answers
59 views

$C$ such that $\sum_{k\in \mathbb{Z}^n} k_i^2k_j^2|a_{ij}|^2 \leq C \sum_{k\in \mathbb{Z}^n} \|k\|^4|a_{ij}|^2$

More generally, can we find $C_n>0$ such that $$\sum_{k\in \mathbb{Z}^n} k_i^2k_j^2|a_{ij}|^2 \leq C \sum_{k\in \mathbb{Z}^n} \|k\|^2|a_{ij}|^4$$ for all $\{a_k\}_{k\in \mathbb{Z}^n} \in \ell^2(\...
3
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0answers
82 views

Fourier transform and non-standard calculus

The Fourier transform is not as easily formalizable as the Fourier series. For example, one needs to introduce tempered distributions to define the Dirac delta-function. Also, it is impossible to view ...
3
votes
1answer
273 views

Weighted sum of cosines

Consider $$f(x) = \sum_{k=1}^\infty \cos(kx) k^\alpha.$$ The first question is: does this have a name (Mathematica gives it as a sum of polylogs of complex arguments, but this seems unnatural). Also, ...
2
votes
2answers
101 views

Why does specifying an interval for a function make the function odd or even?

I am currently reading about Fourier series and Orthogonality of functions and Complete Sets of functions. Below are two extracts from the book I'm reading for which I simply do not understand: <...
2
votes
1answer
49 views

Show that $\lim_{n\to\infty}\|f_*^{(n)}\|_1^{\frac{1}{n}}=\|\hat{f}\|_\infty$

Let $1<p\leq 2$ and $f\in L^p(\mathbb{T})$, i.e. $f$ is $p-$th power integrable and is $1-$periodic. Define $$f_*^{(n)}=f*f*\dots*f\quad n\text{ times}$$ Show that $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\|f_*^{(n)}\|...
2
votes
2answers
34 views

Removing $e^{-in\pi x/\ell}$ from an integral

I'm considering a proof of the convergence of the Fourier series. It begins by considering the full Fourier series of the periodic extension of $\phi$ defined on $[-\ell, \ell]$. The full Fourier ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Fourier coefficients of the product of two functions

Given two functions $f,g\in L^2(\mathbb{T})$, I have to prove that the Fourier coefficients of $fg$ are given by $$\hat{fg}(n)=\sum_{k\in{Z}}\hat{f}(n-k)\hat{g}(k)$$ and that this series converges ...
2
votes
3answers
410 views

Calculating the Fourier series of $x^{3}$

I was given as homework to calculate the Fourier series of $x^{3}$. I know, in general, how to obtain the coefficients of the series using integration with $$\sin(nx),\cos(nx)$$ multiplied by the ...
2
votes
1answer
110 views

Expansion of this function in a Fourier-Legendre series

Let $f : (-1,1)\to \mathbb{R}$ be given by $$f(x) = \begin{cases}0, & x\in (-1,0) \\ 1, & x \in [0,1)\end{cases}$$ and suppose we want to compute the Fourier-Legendre series of $f$, that is ...
1
vote
1answer
117 views

“Counterexample” for a weaker version of Riemann–Lebesgue lemma

My teacher gave us this version of Riemann–Lebesgue lemma in class: Let $g(t)$ be an absolutely integrable function on $[a,b]$, then $$\lim_{p\to\infty} \int_a^b g(t)\sin(pt)dt=0$$ Similarly for $\...
1
vote
1answer
253 views

Diagonalization of circulant matrices

Why does the following hold?: $A$ circulant matrix iff it has a representation of the form $F^{-1}DF$ where $D$ is a diagonal matrix and $F$ is a discrete Fourier transformation. I get that $F^{-1}DF$ ...
1
vote
3answers
4k views

Fourier transform of $\frac{\sin{x}}{x}$

can you help me with this question find $\sin$ Fourier transform of $\frac{\sin{x}}{x}$
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Why do the first spikes in these plots point in opposite directions?

With the following Mathematica program: ...
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vote
0answers
49 views

Expanding Fourier Series of $f(x)=x^2$ where $0<x<1$ (even and odd)

I tried to solve Fourier series (which appeared on title) and ended up to below solution : on even state : $ \phi(x)= \begin{cases} x^2 & 0<x<1 \\ x^2 & -1<x<0 \end{cases} $ $...
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vote
0answers
286 views

Fourier Series on a 2-Torus

Taking into account the answer given to this question, in special, the relation between the eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator and the Characters of a group does this imply that on a ...
1
vote
1answer
116 views

Fourier series for square-wave function?

Show that the Fourier series for the square wave function $$f(t)=\begin{cases}-1 & -\frac{T}{2}\leq t \lt 0, \\ +1 & \ \ \ \ 0 \leq t \lt \frac{T}{2}\end{cases}$$ is $$f(t)=\frac{4}{\pi}\...
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votes
1answer
2k views

Finding the Fourier series of a piecewise function

I'm s little confused about Fourier series of functions that are piecewise. Here’s an example of such a function: $$f(x) = \begin{cases} x & -\frac\pi2 < x < \frac\pi2 \\[5pt] \pi - x & \...
0
votes
2answers
83 views

Verify that $\frac{\pi}{4} = 1-\frac{1}{3}+\frac{1}{5}-\frac{1}{7}+…$ can be found via a Fourier series for $x$ in $-\pi\lt x \le \pi$

Using the general Fourier series expansion: $$f(x)=\frac{a_0}{2}+ \sum_{r=1}^{r=\infty}\left(a_r\cos\left(\frac{2\pi r x}{T}\right)+b_r\sin\left(\frac{2\pi r x}{T}\right)\right)\space\space\space\...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Show that the series converges and is equal to the following.

Define $F(x) = i(-\pi - x)$ if $-\pi \leq x < 0$ and $F(x) = i(\pi - x)$ if $0<x\leq \pi$, with $F(0) = 0$. Show that if $x \neq 0$ mod $2\pi$, then the series $E(x) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{...
9
votes
8answers
1k views

Why does this Fourier series have a finite number of terms?

I am learning about Fourier series in class and the basic form of a Fourier Series is $$a_{0}+\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} [a_{n}\cos(nx)+b_{n}\sin(nx)]$$ so a fourier series should have an infinity number ...
8
votes
2answers
558 views

Compute $\sum\limits_{n = 1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n^4}$.

Compute the Fourier series for $x^3$ and use it to compute the value of $\sum\limits_{n = 1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n^4}$. I determined the coefficients of the Fourier series, which are $$a_0 = \dfrac{\...
6
votes
3answers
905 views

FFT with powers of 3

Classic Fast Fourier Transfrom (FFT) works fine, when $n$ is power of 2. How to generalize FFT procedure when $n$ is power of 3? Is it possible to easily modify the algorithm and preserve its ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Relationship of Fourier series and Hilbert spaces?

I just read in a textbook that a Hilbert space can be defined or represented by an appropriate Fourier series. How might that be? Is it because a Fourier series is an infinite series that adequately "...
6
votes
1answer
15k views

What is the Fourier transform for $f(x)=e^{-x^2}$

I remember their being a special rule for this kind of function but I cant remember what it was. Anyone know how ? thanks
5
votes
1answer
252 views

For a polygon on complex plane, when are the vertex 'Fourier coefficients' non-zero

Consider an $n$-sided convex polygon $P$ that contains the origin in the complex plane. Let the $j$-th vertex be denoted $z_j = r_j e^{i\theta_j}$ ($0 \leq \theta_j < 2 \pi$) for $j= 1 \dots n$. I'...
5
votes
1answer
5k views

Fourier series for $\sin x$ is zero?

I have no practical reason for wanting to do this, but I was wondering why the Fourier series for $\sin x$ is the identical zero function. I'm probably doing something wrong or missing some important ...
4
votes
1answer
587 views

Is it possible for cosine functions to have Fourier sine series expressions or sine functions to have Fourier cosine series expressions?

Is it possible for cosine functions to have Fourier sine series expressions or sine functions to have Fourier cosine series expressions? For example, do $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty a_n\sin nu=\cos u$ ...
4
votes
2answers
3k views

Identifying the product of two Fourier series with a third?

Given the product of two functions defined explicitly through their Fourier coefficients (of unknown undeveloped form): $\sum_k{c_k e^{i k t}} \cdot \sum_k{c'_k e^{i k t}}$ Is there any way to ...
3
votes
3answers
109 views

Fourier series simplification

I want to show that $$\frac{1}{\pi} \int_{-\pi}^{\pi} f(x)g(x)dx = \frac{a_0\alpha_0}{2} + \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} (a_n\alpha_n + b_n\beta_n)$$ where $f,g: [-\pi,\pi] \to \mathbb{R}$ are integral ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Fourier and Legendre series

Find the Fourier sin series for the function $f(x) = x^3$ on the interval $0\leq x \leq L$. the Legendre series for the same function. One representation involves an infinite number of terms, while ...
3
votes
1answer
146 views

Fourier series for $[x]-x+\frac{1}{2}$

$[x]-x+\frac{1}{2}$ has the Fourier series $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\sin{2n\pi x}}{n\pi}.$$ By evaluating the series directly, which requires some work, it can be shown that the series is ...
3
votes
1answer
684 views

heat equation solution

This is the question, I have solved it but I need someone to double check my solution. Question: Find the temperature $u(x, t)$ in a rod of length $L$ if the initial temperature is $f(x)$ throughout ...
3
votes
1answer
64 views

Minimal modulus for the finite field NTT

I need your support. Suppose I am performing an NTT in a finite field $GF(p)$. I assume it contains the needed primitive root of unity. I am using it to compute the convolution of two vectors of ...
3
votes
1answer
219 views

How large are the second, third, fourth, etc. ringing artifacts in Gibbs phenomenon?

I've read that in the Gibbs phenomenon, partial Fourier series will over- or underestimate a function's value in neighborhoods of jump discontinuities. Specifically, the maximum error will converge to ...
2
votes
2answers
177 views

How to solve this equation by Fourier series?

$$ y''+3y=\sin ^4 x ,\quad y=\frac{1}{8} +\frac{\cos2x}{2}-\frac{\cos4x}{104}.$$ Now the text book states the solution, but I don't know the process of solving this equation. I need your help!
2
votes
2answers
186 views

Sum of Fourier Series

I need to find the Fourier Series for $f\in \mathcal{C}_{st}$ that is given by $$f(x)=\begin{cases}0,\quad-\pi<x\le 0\\ \cos(x),\quad0\le x<\pi\end{cases}.$$ in the interval $]-\pi,\pi[$ ...
2
votes
1answer
115 views

Fourier series without Fourier analysis techniques

It is known that one can sometimes derive certain Fourier series without alluding to the methods of Fourier analysis. It is often done using complex analysis. There is a way of deriving the formula $$\...
2
votes
1answer
95 views

Coefficient in the Fourier expansion of the cusp form

Ideal of cusp for $\Gamma_{0}(4)$ is principal and generated by $f(z)=η(2z)^{12}=q+\sum a(n)q^n $, this is discussed here. How one can compute the coefficient $a(n)$ when $n$ is rather large ? for ...
2
votes
0answers
88 views

Drawing a continuous function with divergent Fourier series at $x=0$…

Does anyone know how the graph looks like for a continuous function with Fourier series diverging at $x=0$ ? The example due to Fejer (a variation of the du Bois-Reymond construction), is explicitly ...
2
votes
1answer
8k views

Using Fourier series to calculate an infinite sum

Given the Fourier series of the $2\pi$-periodic function defined for $$-\pi\leqslant x \leqslant \pi$$ by $$f(x) = |x|$$ is $$ \frac{\pi}{2} -\frac{4}{\pi} \sum_{k\geq 1, k\ odd}^{\infty} \frac{cos(kx)...
2
votes
2answers
140 views

$\lim_{\lambda \to \infty} \int^b_0 f(t) \frac{\sin(\lambda t)}{t} $

For a continuous function, $f:[0,b] \to \Bbb{R}$ show that: $$ \lim_{\lambda\to\infty} \int^b_0 f(t) \frac{\sin(\lambda t)}{t}\,dt = \frac{\pi}{2}\,f(0) $$ I know it has something to do with the ...
2
votes
3answers
656 views

About completeness of the Fourier series.

The Fourier series of a function is given by $$ \frac{a_0}{2} + \sum_{n=1}^\infty a_n \cos n \theta + \sum_{n=1}^\infty b_n \sin n \theta . $$ Here what does the statement " $\sum_{n=1}^\infty b_n \...
2
votes
3answers
236 views

Series help, fourier series

How do I know if a given function can be represented by a fourier series, that converges to the value of that function at non discontinuities. Also where did Fourier come up with the idea of ...
2
votes
2answers
685 views

The link between vectors spaces ($L^2(-\pi, \pi$) and fourier series

So in my PDE course we started with a review of complex numbers and vector spaces to introduce us to fourier series. I have a few questions about this. I know 'big ell 2' and 'little el 2' are ...
1
vote
1answer
3k views

Continuity and discontinuity in fourier series?

Can somebody please explain continuity and discontinuity in fourier series?