Fixed-point theorem is a result about existence of fixed points, i.e. points fulfilling F(x)=x, under some conditions on the function F. Results of this type appear in many areas of mathematics, e.g. functional analysis (Banach), algebraic topology (Brouwer), lattice theory (Knaster-Tarski, ...

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Unique fixed point of a contraction defined on a closed ball which maps the boundary back into the ball

Let $X$ be a Banach space, $r > 0$, $A: K_r(X) \rightarrow X$ a contraction (where $K_r(X)$ is the closed ball of radius $r$ and center $0$ in $X$), with contraction constant $0<q<1$, which ...
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156 views

An application of Banach fixed point theorem for initial value problem

Find a condition for $\beta>0$ which implies that the differential equation system \begin{align} x'(t)&=x(t)+y(t) ,\\ y'(t)&=t^{2}+tx(t) \end{align} with initial conditions $x(0)=0, ...
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51 views

Fixed-Points Limit Set

Let $f : \mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow X$ be continuous and $X \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ be compact and convex. For all $p \in \mathbb{R}$, consider $A_p \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}$, with $p \mapsto A_p$ ...
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166 views

An application of Banach fixed theorem on an integral equation

I'm learning some applications of the Banach Fixed Point Theorem and I have the following question: Consider the integral equation $\displaystyle x(t)=\int_{0}^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\arctan ...
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74 views

Is there a proof for the Central Limit Theorem via some fixed point theorem?

This question arose in my mind when I learned that the Gaussian is a fixed point for the Fourier transform. On the other hand, in e.g. the Banach fixed point theorem we have convergence to a fixed ...
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if $f_{n}(x)=f(f_{n-1}(x))$then $f_{10}(x)=x,x\in [0,1]$

Define the function $f:[0,1]\to[0,1]$ by the following. $$f(x)=\begin{cases} x+\dfrac{1}{2},&0\le x\le\dfrac{1}{2}\\ 2(1-x),&\dfrac{1}{2}<x\le 1. \end{cases}$$ Let $f_1(x)=f(x)$ and ...
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94 views

Show that $f$ has infinitely many fixed points

Let $f:ℂ→ℂ$ be an entire function. Assume that the equation $f(s)=a$ has infinitely many real solutions for all reals $a$. Show that $f$ has infinitely many fixed points, i.e., there exists infinitely ...
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157 views

Continuous function on closed unit ball

Take a continuous mapping $f: \bar{B^{n}} \rightarrow \bar{B^{n}}$, where $\bar{B^{n}}$ is a closed unit ball in $\mathbb{R}^{n}$. Assume that $f(x) \neq x$ for every $x \in \bar{B^{n}}$. Define ...
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42 views

A basic question about upper hemicontinuity

Given a correspondence $f:X\rightarrow 2^X$, suppose X is a closed simplex in $\mathbb{R}^n$, and $f$ is compact-valued. We say $f$ is upper hemicontinuous if, $\forall x\in X$ and every open subset ...
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Banach fixed point theorem and Picard-Lindelöf applied to this equation (explanation needed)

Consider the following equation which holds for all $w$ in some space, $$\langle v(t), w \rangle = \langle v(0), w \rangle - \int_0^t \langle F(s,v(s)), w \rangle$$ where $\langle F(s,v),w \rangle$ is ...
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125 views

Every increasing function from a certain set to itself has at least one fixed point

I need a hint for the following question: Let $S$ be a nonempty ordered set such that every nonempty subset $E\subseteq S$ has both a least upper bound and a greatest lower bound. Suppose $f:S ...
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74 views

fixed point iteration $x_{k+1}=f(x_k)$ with multiple fixed points

I have a fixed point iteration problem in my research, as below: $$x_{k+1}=f(x_k)$$ where $$f(x)=\frac{\lambda r}{g}\sum_{i,j}\pi_if_{ij}\left[1- \exp\left\{\displaystyle ...
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34 views

On a Variational Inequality

Let $H$ be a Hilbert space with real inner product. Consider $f: C \rightarrow C$, where $C \subset H$ is closed and convex. I am not sure about the variational inequality problem: find $x \in H$ ...
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70 views

Conditions yielding a unique fixed point of a continuous differentiable function.

Let $f$ be a function defined on $[0,1]$ which is continuous for each point in $[0,1]$ and differentiable for each point in $(0,1)$. Suppose that $f^\prime (x) \neq 1$ for every $x \in (0,1)$. ...
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Converse of a fixed-point theorem

I'm having some trouble furnishing a proof here. Let $(E, d)$ be a metric space such that any $k$-Lipschitz function has a fixed point for $0 < k < 1$. Does it follow, then, that $E$ is ...
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55 views

Constructive fixed-point theorems where finite iteration yields the fixed point

I would like to show that $p$, a fixed point of some effective map $f : S\rightarrow S$, can be constructed effectively. Ideally, I would like there to exist a finite $n$ such that $p = f^n(p_0)$, ...
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How to show this is a contraction

Let's say I want to find a fun way to write a number $l$. I can procede by doing so: (as I saw here Can we get just $3$ from $\pi$?) Let $f(x) = \sqrt{2lx - l^2}$. The only fixed point is $f(x) = x ...
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47 views

Is the composition of monotone operators monotone?

Let $H$ be a real Hilbert space with inner product $\langle\cdot, \cdot \rangle: H \times H \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, and induced norm $\left\| \cdot \right\|: H \rightarrow \mathbb{R}_{\geq 0}$. Let ...
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Fixed Point of a Function

I am trying to answer the following question: Prove the function $f(x)=1-x^2$ has a fixed point on $[0,1]$. Find the value of this fixed point explicitly. I know how to prove that it has a fixed ...
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Aitkens Extrapolation

The Aitken's extrapolation can be written as $$X^n = X_{n-2} + \dfrac{(X_{n-1}- X_{n-2})^2}{(X_{n-1}- X_{n-2})-(X_n- X_{n-1})}$$ Verify it? And $X^n$ can be viewed being defined recursively by ...
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169 views

Definition of upper hemicontinuity of a correspondence.

When using and examining Kakutani's fixed-point theorem, I've got a question about upper hemicontinuity. A correspondence $f:X\rightarrow2^Y$ is a point-to-set mapping. One way to define upper ...
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103 views

How to use Markov-Kakutani fixed point theorem to show that abelian groups are amenable?

Recall that a group $\Gamma$ is amenable if there exists a state $\mu$ on $l^{\infty}(\Gamma)$ which is invariant under the left translation action: for all $s\in \Gamma$ and $f\in ...
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Heuristics for sequence convergence

Having a finite sequence of double precision floating point numbers (obtained using the fixed point iteration of a function), is there any algorithm which can be used to determine that this sequence ...
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fixed point iteration algebra problem

I am looking at an example which finds the root of: $$ f(x) = \cos(3x) \tag 1$$ using the fixed point iteration method. It uses $$ g(x) = \frac{2x+\cos(3x)}{2} \tag 2$$ However, it was my ...
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Strictly increasing on R

Choose correct options , more than one may be correct Let f be the function defined by $$h(x)=e^x (x-1)+x^2$$ we've : $h$ is positive on $(0,\infty)$ $h$ is negative on $(0,1)$ $h$ is ...
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Fixed Point (Differential Equation)

I want to study about the Fixed point before my class next week. The problem is that I could not find a good site online. If you guys know some sites which talk about this thing in the fundamental ...
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44 views

Proving Banach's fixed point theorem

The hint tells me how to proceed but I am stuck. I define the sequence ${z_n}$ as is stated in the hint, First off, I want to prove that $|z_{n+k} - z_n| < \epsilon$ I add $z_{n+k-1}$ and ...
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Show that $x_{k+1}:=g^{-1}(g(x_k)-f(x_k))$ converges to a root of $f$

If $f:[-1,1]\to\mathbb R$ continously differentiable and $g:[-1,1]\to[-2,2]$ continuously differentiable and bijective such that, $|f'(x)-g'(x)|\le 1/2 \inf\limits_{y\in[-1,1]}g'(y)$ ...
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Calculate the Derivative of a univariable integral at a point $4$

Considering the function below: the objective is to calculate $F'(4)$ (the derivative of $F(x)$ in the point $4$)? we know that: and that: so if I try to replace $x$ by $4$ in $F'(x)$ I get ...
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74 views

Root of a function? (Proof with Banach theorem)

Given is a function $f$: $\left [ -1,1 \right ]\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, which is continuous and differentiable. The function $g$: $\left [ -1,1 \right ]\rightarrow \left [ -2,2 \right ]$ is a ...
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On Tarski-Knaster theorem

Let $P(X)$ denote the power set of $X$ (the set of all subsets of $X$) with a partial order given by inclusion. If $F: P(X) \to P(X)$ is monotone (order preserving), then $F$ has a fixed point. How ...
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Bug in Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem using Sperner?

so I am just trying to illustrate to an informal audiance how to prove the Brower Fixed Point Theorem using Sperner's lemma. I seem to have trouble with the iterative application of Sperner's lemma. ...
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generalization of Banach fixed-point theorem on short maps?

If $ \ T:X \longrightarrow X \ $ is contraction, then using Banach fixed-point theorem we know that the fixed point exists and all other points converge to that point. But what happens if $T$ is not ...
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Fixed-point iteration, Convergence of a sequence?

Given is the function $f(x)=x^{3}+x-1$ on $\mathbb{R}$. Use the Fixed-point iteration for $x\in \left [ 0.5 , 1 \right ]$ to show that the sequence $\left \{ x \right \}_{n}$ converges to the ...
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Limit of a monotone function

Let $f\colon [a,b] \to[a,b]$ be a non-decreasing function in a sense that $f(x)\leq f(y)$ whenever $x\leq y$. Although there may be several fixpoints of $f$, at least one does always exist and there ...
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Has this theorem (on existence of inverse) an analogous for unbounded operators?

Let $S,T:X\to X$ be bounded linear operators, where $X$ is a Banach space. It's a consequence of the Banach Fixed Point Theorem that if $T$ is invertible and $\|T-S\|\|T^{-1}\|<1$ than $S$ is ...
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Showing that $f$ has exactly one fixed point

Let $\gamma$ be the circle $\{z \in \mathbb{C}: \lvert z\rvert=1 \}$. Suppose $f$ is a function analytic on an open set containing $\gamma$ and its interior and that $\lvert\, f(z)\rvert<1$ for ...
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What is the method for solving this class of problem?

$\frac{dx}{dt} = y$ $\frac{dy}{dt} = -\partial y - \mu x - x^2$ Find the fixed points and discuss stability. I'd at least like to know what I should be googling, any help is appreciated.
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Confused about a version of Schauder's fixed point theorem

I have read this: We have a map $S:W_0 \to W_0$. Moreover $W_0$ is not empty, convex, and weakly compact in $W$. Thus we can apply Schauder's fixed point theorem: Schauder's fixed point ...
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The most important theorems in fixed point theory

What are the most important theorems in fixed point theory and why are they so important? I know some: Banach's contraction principle, Brouwers fixed point theorem, caristi fixed point theore... I ...
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Weighted Average Fixed Point Theorem

I was wondering if someone can help with the following question. I am pretty sure I have to apply the Intermediate Value Theorem for the solution, just I am not quite sure exactly how to set the ...
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Show an iterative fixed point method does not converge

I was asked the following question: let $g(x)=\frac{30}{1+x}$. Notice that $g(5)=5$. Is there an $\epsilon >0$ such that the series $\{x_k\}_{k=0}^{\infty}$ defined by $x_{k+1}=g(x_k)$ and ...
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Perron-Frobenius Theorem. A particular case?

Let $\{a_{i,j}\} =A \in \mathbb{R}^{N \times N}$ be a non-negative matrix, such that: $a_{i,i} = 0 ~~ \forall i \in \{1, \ldots, N\}$ $a_{i,j} \geq 0 ~~ \forall i \neq j$ Given the previous ...
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Fixed point in a metric space with distance at most 1

The question is: Suppose that $X$ is a complete metric space such that the distance function is at most 1, and $f:X\rightarrow X$ is such that $d(f(x),f(y))\le d(x,y)−1/2(d(f(x),f(y)))^2$. Prove that ...
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Is every convergent limit of an iteration a fixed point as well?

Let $f(x)$ be a function and suppose $\lim_{n \to \infty}f^n(a)=L$ for some $a$ in the domain of $f$. What are the sufficient conditions for $L$ being a fixed point of $f$? Is the continuity of $f$ ...
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Proof for the existence of a second fixed point in Poincaré's last geometric theorem

In "Geometry and Billiards" by S. Tabachnikov the author proves Poincaré's last geometric theorem: "An area-preserving transformation of an annulus that moves the boundary circles in opposite ...
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Cone metric spaces and fixed point theory

These days cone metric spaces, as a generalization of metric spaces, started to be very interesting... A special interest for this space is its application to the fixed point theory. On the last ...
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Prove that $\exists\ C$ such that $T: C \to C$ with $C=\overline{\text{conv}}T(C)$

I have a problem: Let $K$ be a nonempty, closed, bounded and convex subset of reflective Banach space $X$. Suppose that $$T:K \to K$$ is nonexpansive. Prove that $\exists\ C$ such that ...
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Is there a method for finding the fixed point of logarithmic functions?

I am faced with this function (warning, I am not good at math) $x(t+1)=0.5 \ln x(t)+1$ initial condition = 1 . I know the fixed point is 1 because $0.5 \ln (1)+1=1$ but I wanted to know the ...
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100 views

Fixed points of multivariable calculus

I have discrete case. $z=1-x-y$; $x=a_1(x^{2}+2yz)+a_2(z^{2}+2xy)+a_3(y^{2}+2xz)$; $y=b_1(x^{2}+2yz)+b_2(z^{2}+2xy)+b_3(y^{2}+2xz)$; $z=c_1(x^{2}+2yz)+c_2(z^{2}+2xy)+c_3(y^{2}+2xz)$; where ...