Fixed-point theorem is a result about existence of fixed points, i.e. points fulfilling F(x)=x, under some conditions on the function F. Results of this type appear in many areas of mathematics, e.g. functional analysis (Banach), algebraic topology (Brouwer), lattice theory (Knaster-Tarski, ...

learn more… | top users | synonyms

2
votes
1answer
90 views

Quesion on a detail of the proof of Schauder-Tychonoff fixed point theorem

I'm trying to understand the proof of Schauder-Tychonoff fixed point theorem on page $96-97$, in Fixed Point Theory and Applications, Ravi P. Agarwal,Maria Meehan,Donal O'Regan, which can be found ...
1
vote
2answers
51 views

Brouwer fixed poin in 1-D

In $\mathbb R_{+}$ (non-negative) I realize that any nonnegative valued continuous function $f\colon X \rightarrow Y$ where $X, Y \subseteq \mathbb R_{+}$ with a negative finite gradient has a fixed ...
1
vote
2answers
311 views

Brouwer's fixed point theorem (for unit balls) and retractions

Let $X$ be a generic Banach space over $\mathbb R$ (also infinite dimensional), and let $B$ be the unit ball in $X$. I want to prove that the following proposition $B$ is a fixed-point space if ...
4
votes
1answer
219 views

How to prove that the following iteration process converges?

I have the following iteration process: $$ p_{n+1} = \frac{{p_{n}}^3 + 3 a p_{n} }{3 {p_{n}}^2 + a } , $$ where $a > 0$. Q1: How to prove that this iteration process converges for every number ...
1
vote
3answers
302 views

Prove that $f$ has a fixed point . [duplicate]

For $f:[a,b]\rightarrow [a,b]$ is a continuous . Prove that $f$ has a fixed point . Is that true if we change $[a,b]$ by $[a,b)$ or $(a,b)$.
3
votes
1answer
37 views

Brouwer transformation plane theorem

Can somebody show that BPTT, version 2 is deduced from BPTT, version 1 [BPTT, version 1] Let $h$ be a fixed point free orientation preserving homeomorphism of $\mathbb{R}^2$ Every point ...
6
votes
1answer
94 views

periodic point of homeomorphism of plane

Let $h$ be a homeomorphism of $\mathbb{R}^2$ onto itself such that $h(K)=K$ for some compact subset $K$ of $\mathbb{R}^2$. Show that $h$ has a periodic point in $\mathbb{R}^2$.
4
votes
0answers
124 views

algebraic or homotopical proof for Kakutani fixed point theorem

As Kakutani fixed point theorem is a genral case of Brouwer fixed point theorem, and one can read the proof from homotopy theory books. I wonder if there is any proof for the Kakutani using homotopy ...
3
votes
1answer
107 views

Show that sequence approaches fixed point of a function

Problem Let $f(x)$ be a differentiable function on $\Bbb R$ with $\left|\,f ' (x)\right| \leq r < 1$, where $r$ is constant. Then consider the sequence $\{x_n\}$ such that $x_1 = 0$, $x_{n+1} = ...
1
vote
0answers
67 views

Fixed Point Iteration Scheme

I have been asked to "Find a fixed point iteration scheme for minimising $f(x) = e^{cos (x)}$". Does anybody know what a fixed point iteration scheme actually is? I know it's not Fixed Point ...
1
vote
0answers
121 views

Properties of the derivative $\frac{\delta F(\phi(x))}{\delta\phi(y)}$ , where $ \phi(x) = F(\phi(x)) $ is a fixed point problem.

Dear experts I have a fixed point problem of the type: $ \phi(x) = F(\phi(x)) $, where $x \in \mathbb R^3 $. $\phi(x)$ is differentiable non-negative function on a given domain. I am trying to find ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Is there any space with normal structure but not uniform normal structure?

It is clear that uniformly normal structure implies normal structure. But, is there any space that has normal structure but it doesnt have uniformly normal structure?? Would you mind to give me some ...
0
votes
1answer
81 views

A smooth or analytic function from $\mathbb{R}$ to $\mathbb{R}$ that has fixed points at $kn^2$ where $n$ is prime and $k$ is integer

In A continuous function from $\mathbb{R}$ to $\mathbb{R}$ that has fixed points at $kn^2$ where $n$ is prime and $k$ is integer, I asked about continuous function. This time, I would like to ask the ...
0
votes
2answers
59 views

A continuous function from $\mathbb{R}$ to $\mathbb{R}$ that has fixed points at $kn^2$ where $n$ is prime and $k$ is integer

Can we find a continuous function from $\mathbb{R}$ to $\mathbb{R}$ that has fixed points at $kn^2$ for every integer $k$ and every prime number $n$? And other points other than these are not fixed ...
0
votes
1answer
67 views

Chaos/Fixed points. I was reading a book by Strogatz and I encountered this.

Now, I always thought a fixed point implied $f(x)=x$, so somebody tell me, what is he talking about here? Thank you.
0
votes
1answer
75 views

How to show a function taking the form as $F(x,y) = 0$ is a contraction mapping?

Let $\Phi (x)$ be the cumulative distribution function of the standard normal distribution. Given $x_0$, $x_1 = \Phi(x_0-x_1)$.If $x_n$ is given, $x_{n+1} = \Phi(x_{n}-x_{n+1})$(By drawing a graph, ...
3
votes
2answers
240 views

Using the Banach Fixed Point Theorem to prove convergence of a sequence

Use the Banach fixed point theorem to show that the following sequence converges. What is the limit of this sequence? $$\left(\frac{1}{3}, \frac{1}{3+\frac{1}{3}}, ...
1
vote
1answer
104 views

Question about the infimum of $|f(x)-x|$ , where $f(x)=x$, $x$ is a fixed point of the nonlinear equation.

I am trying to check if the following property holds for fixed points: Suppose: $ f(x)= x $ is given, with solution $x = \theta \gt 0 $ I would like to show : $ \forall \epsilon \in (0,1), ...
1
vote
2answers
175 views

Showing a contraction without a fixed point

Suppose $f: [1, \infty) \to [1, \infty]$ defined by $f(x) = x + \frac{1}{x}$ for all $x \geq 1$. I want to prove that: \begin{equation} |f(x)-f(y)| < |x-y| \end{equation} except when $x=y$, but ...
1
vote
1answer
239 views

How many fixed points can a differentiable function have?

Let $f$ be a differentiable function on $\mathbb{R}$. Then could any one tell me which of the following statements are necessarily true? If $f'(x)\le r<1$ for all $x$ then $f$ has at least one ...
3
votes
0answers
99 views

Connection between codata and greatest fixed points

It's easy to see how inductively-defined data types correspond to least fixed points. Let's take the natural numbers as an example, with constructors are $0 : \mathbb N$ and $s : \mathbb N \to \mathbb ...
3
votes
1answer
168 views

Generalization of Banach's fixed point theorem

I wanted to show that if $f:X->X$ is a function from a complete metric space to itself and if $f^k$ is a contraction, then $f$ has a unique fixed point (say $p$) and for any $x$ in $X$ $f^n(x)-> ...
4
votes
1answer
89 views

Unique solution to $x^4 + 7x -1 = 0 $ on $[0,1]$ (Banach's fixed point theorem)

I want to show that $x^4 + 7x -1 = 0 $ has a unique solution on $[0,1]$. The idea is to use Banach's fixed point theorem. However, I see a problem with this as the statement of the theorem says that ...
1
vote
1answer
109 views

Functions $f:X\to X$ with no fixed points, for $X$ a punctured disk or a sphere.

$X$ is the punctured closed unit disc $D^2-\{0\} = \{(x, y) \in \mathbb{R}^2: 0 \lt x^2+y^2 \le 1\}$ Is the answer that $f$ maps all $(x,y)$ to $0$ which is not included in the unit disk and so ...
1
vote
1answer
99 views

Stokes' and Green's Theorem Integral Setup

a) For the vector : $$v= 4y\hat{x}+x\hat{y}+2x\hat{z}$$ evaluate, $$\int(\nabla \times v) \cdot da$$ over the hemisphere represented by the upper half plane of $$x^2 + y^2 + z^2 = a^2$$ (this is ...
3
votes
1answer
317 views

Application of Banach fixed-point theorem

I am looking for a function $f:[0,1]\rightarrow\mathbb R$ which satifies $\int_{0}^{1}\frac{\sin(f(t)-y)}{2}\,\mathrm dy=f(t)$ for $t\in[0,1]$. The first thing I do is to define a function ...
0
votes
1answer
70 views

Is antipodal symmetry really necessary for Tucker's Lemma?

Tucker's Lemma is here. Let's stay within the 2D case for now. A standard proof is constructive: (1) Pick an arced edge on the boundary of the circle. Note its labeling (for example, (1, 2)). (2) ...
5
votes
3answers
321 views

Why is convexity a requirement for Brouwer fixed points? Shouldn't “no holes” be good enough?

Brouwer's fixed point theorem: Every continuous function $f$ from a convex compact subset $K$ of a Euclidean space to $K$ itself has a fixed point. I am wondering why the word "convex" is in ...
6
votes
2answers
265 views

Is there a simple proof of Borsuk-Ulam, given Brouwer?

(Brouwer) Any continuous function from a convex compact subset K of a Euclidian space to itself has a fixed point. Given this lemma, is there a simple proof of: (Borsuk-Ulam) Any continuous ...
5
votes
2answers
222 views

How to show something is a contraction?

If we let $X$ be a complete metric space, and let $S:X\to X$ be a map, such that $S^m$ is a contraction. We now want to show, that $S$ has a unique fixed point This is what I've thought so far: Due ...
1
vote
2answers
127 views

Limit of a sequence of fixed points also a fixed point?

Suppose I have a continuous function $f : [0,1]^n \rightarrow [0,1]^n$ (maybe $n$ is infinite). Suppose I have a sequence $\{a_n\}_{n=1}^\infty$ of points in $[0,1]^n$ where each $a_n$ is a fixed ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Name a stable output of a function taking 2 arguments

$\mathbb{C}$ is a fixed finite set, a fair chaotic sequence $(c_n \in \mathbb{C})$ is defined such that $\forall c \in \mathbb{C}, \exists n_0 \in \mathbb{N}, n > n_0 \wedge c_n = c$. That means ...
1
vote
3answers
266 views

Prove the sequence $x_n = \frac{x_{n-1}}{2}+\frac{A}{2x_{n-1}} \rightarrow \sqrt{A}$ as $n \to \infty$

Show that if A is any positive number, then the sequence defined by: $$x_n = \frac{x_{n-1}}{2}+\frac{A}{2x_{n-1}}$$ for any $n \geq 1$ converges to $\sqrt{A}$ whenever $x_0 > 0$.
6
votes
2answers
438 views

Convergence of fixed point iteration for polynomial equations

I'm looking for the solution $x$ of $$x^n+nx-n=0.$$ Thoughts: From graphing it for several $n$ it seems there is always a solution in the interval $[\tfrac{1}{2},1)$. For $n=1$, the ...
4
votes
1answer
150 views

Iteration of $x/\log x$

Consider $f(x)= \frac{x}{\log x}$ iterated n times for given x in $Z^+.$ $f^2 = f \circ f.$ Let $x_1 = x^2.$ What I would like to show (or disprove) : $\exists ~\alpha = x_n - e > 0 $ such ...
1
vote
1answer
273 views

Lipschitz condition on nonlinear ODE

Suppose we have the ODE $$x''=-a\sin{x}.$$ Then let $$x'=y$$ and $$y'=-a\sin{x}.$$ So $$\mathbf X = \begin{pmatrix} y \\ -a\sin{x} \end{pmatrix}.$$ Im confused about how to show a Lipschitz ...
8
votes
2answers
200 views

Finding a functor satisfying a recursive equation

Say I want to find a functor satisfying something like: \[FA = 1 \sqcup (A \times FA).\] Equivalently, I want to find for each $A$ a fixed point of: \[GB = 1 \sqcup (A \times B)\] (I'll worry about ...
3
votes
1answer
80 views

Brouwer's fixed point theorem for infinite dimensional real space in subsystems of second order arithmetic

$\text{WKL}_0$ proves Brouwer's fixed point theorem for continuous functions on $\lbrack 0,1 \rbrack^n$, when $n$ is finite. What subsystem of second order arithmetic is needed to prove Brouwer's ...
1
vote
1answer
62 views

Show the following using fixed point theorem

Show that if A is s pxp real matrix such that $||I_p-A|| <1$, then for any choice of b$\in\mathbb{R}^p$ and $u_0\in\mathbb{R}^p$ the vector $u_{n+1}=b+(I_p-A)u_n$ converge to a solution x of the ...
1
vote
2answers
119 views

Show that a function $f(x)$ maps to a set of points.Fixed point theorem

Show that the function $f(x)=\frac{1+x^2}{2}$ maps the set of points $0\leqslant x\leqslant 1$ into itself and has a fixed point in that interval even though there does not exists a positive ...
4
votes
2answers
262 views

Fixed points in category theory

Is there a usual way to express the concept of fixed points in category theory? What would I say to express that a morphism has a fixed point? Thank you!
3
votes
2answers
182 views

The equation $2 \cosh(3.1786803659501505 z) = z$?

Let $a$ be a positive real number and $z$ a complex number. I was wondering about the equation $2 \cosh(a z) = z$ where we solve for $z$. Clearly if $z$ is a solution than so is its conjugate. It ...
2
votes
3answers
193 views

Where does the iteration of the exponential map switch from one fixpoint to the 3-periodic fixpoint cycle?

In the answering of another question in MSE I've dealt with the iteration of $x=b^x$ where the base $b=i$. If I reversed that iteration $x=log(x)/log(i)$ then I run into a cycle of 3 periodic ...
3
votes
1answer
86 views

$x_{n+1}=\frac{2x_n+3f(x_n)}{5}$ showing $f$ has a fixed point

Let $f: \Bbb{R} \rightarrow \Bbb{R}$ be a differentiable function , and suppose that there is a constant $A<1$ such that $|f'(t)|\le A$ for all real $t$. Define a sequence $\{x_n\}$ by $ ...
4
votes
1answer
115 views

fixed-point iteration

Are there functions $f$ of one real variable $x\in X$ that are not contracting maps on the set $X$ but for which, given the starting point $x_0$, the fixed-point iteration $x_n=f(x_{n-1})$, for ...
2
votes
2answers
143 views

does it have unique fixed point?

$p:C[0,1]\rightarrow C[0,1]$ defined by $p(f(x))=\int_{0}^{x} (x-t)f(t)dt$, well, I am getting all constant functions are fixed points, but the answer says that it has unique fixed point. I got ...
2
votes
1answer
178 views

Homotopy equivalence an retractions

I have some questions about homotopy. Before starting here a definition: A topological space $X$ is called contractible if $X$ is homotopy equivalent with a one-point-space Suppose $X$ a toplogical ...
2
votes
1answer
154 views

Fixed point theorem on graphs?

I have a graph $G=(V,E)$ where to each vertex $v$ I have associated a value, $\hat{v}$ (ie I have a "network" in the terminology here http://snap.stanford.edu/snap/index.html ). Let $\phi : \hat{V} ...
2
votes
3answers
167 views

Is this function necessarily a contraction?

If $(X, d)$ is a compact metric space satisfying $d(f(x), f(y)) < d(x, y)$ for all $x, y \in X$ such that $x \ne y$, is $f$ necessarily a contraction? I know an analogue of the Banach Fixed Point ...
7
votes
1answer
278 views

Schwarz's Lemma, fixed points question

This is from an old qualifying examination question. If f is holomorphic in the unit disk $D$ and $|f(z)|<1$ for all $z\in D$. Suppose also that $f$ has two distinct fixed points in $D$ then ...