# Tagged Questions

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### Understanding the elements in groups(modulo, cyclic and other(?))

Question exactly as given on past exam: Consider the group $G=(\mathbb{Z}/15\mathbb{Z})^\times$ (under multiplication). Let $H$ be the subgroup generated by $2$ (that is, $H = \langle 2 \rangle$). ...
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### Is there any usage of this sum formula?

Let $\phi$ be the Euler phi function, then $$n=\sum_{d|n}\phi(d)$$ It is one of the most famous formulas in number theory. It can be generalized by using groups. Let $G$ be a group of order $n$ and ...
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### Existence of a map $\phi:\mathbb{Z}_{N^2}^* \mapsto \mathbb{F}$

Is there a map between the group of $\mathbb{Z}_{N^2}^*$ where $N$ is a composite number , a product of two equal size secure prime numbers $p$ and $q$ and a finite field $\mathbb{F}$, such that for ...
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### Show that the number of elements in the equivalence class is n?

Question is : Let $G$ be a finiote group of order n = $p^{\alpha}$m, where $p$ is a prime number and if $p^r$ | m but $p^{r+1} \nmid$ m Let $\mathcal M$ be the set of all subset of $G$ which have ...
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### Fast way of calculating the order of an element in $\mathbb{Z}_n$?

Is there a fast way of calculating the order of an element in $\mathbb{Z}_n$? If i'm asked to calculate the order of $12 \in \mathbb{Z}_{22}$ I just sit there adding $12$ to itself and seeing if the ...
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### Solving for $x$ where $p^x \equiv 1 \pmod {q\#}$

For a given primorial $q\#$, you can generate a subset of the reduced residue system by using the power of a prime $p$ where $p > q$. For example, for $5\#$, we can use the powers of $7$ to ...
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### Element of a certain order in multiplicative group of residues

Let's say that $G$ is the multiplicative group of residues mod $p$, where $p$ is prime. I know that the order of an element $g \in G$ is the least $k$ for which $g^k \equiv 1 \mod{p}$. How can we go ...
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### Why multiplicative group $\mathbb{Z}_n^*$ is not cyclic for $n = 2^k$ and $k \ge 3$

Let G be the multiplicative group $\mathbb{Z}_n^*$ for $n = 2^k$ and $k \ge 3$. Can we prove that no element has order bigger than $2^{k-2}$ ? My solution (not really a solution) : Since $n=2^k$, I ...
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### What is the order of $2$ in $(\mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z})^\times$?

Is it there some theorem that makes a statement about the order of $2$ in the multiplicative group of integers modulo $n$ for general $n>2$?
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### Which families of groups have interesting formulas for the number of elements of given order?

Suppose that $G$ is a group and that $n$ is a positive integer diving the order of $G$. Let $f_n(G)$ be the number of elements satisfying $x^n = 1$ in $G$. According to a theorem of Frobenius, then we ...
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### Why is the order of an element in the group of units mod n , $U(n)$, equal to the totient of n?

I came across this statement in an abstract algebra textbook, I am looking for a proof. EDIT: I guess I was not clear, what I meant was If $k\ \epsilon\ U(n)$ and $m\ \epsilon\ \mathbb{Z}^+$ and ...
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### $(p,\frac{n}{p^\alpha})=1$ then $p\nmid\binom{n}{p^\alpha}$

Let $n=p^\alpha m$ wherein $(p,m)=1$. Then we have $$p\nmid\binom{n}{p^\alpha}$$ What I have done is just playing with $\binom{n}{p^\alpha}$ ...
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### Why are generators of $Z^{*}_p, p=c \cdot 2^k + 1$ so small?

I was implementing NTT for long integer multiplication and thus searched for generators of several $Z^{*}_p$ groups where $p=c\cdot 2^k + 1$. I used the algorithm described in Wikipedia which uses ...
### Primitive root modulo $p$
I am currently trying to find a primitive element of the multiplicative group of field $GF(p)$. Since the numbers are relatively small, I know the factorization of \phi(p)=p-1 = {p_1}^{k_1} ...
A group $G$ is metacyclic if it contains a cyclic normal subgroup $N$, such that $G/N$ is also cyclic. $N$ is called the kernel, and the order of $G/N$ is the index of the metacyclic group. There is ...