Questions on the Fibonacci numbers, a special sequence of integers that satisfy the recurrence $F_n=F_{n-1}+F_{n-2}$ with the initial conditions $F_0=0$ and $F_1=1$.

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57
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4answers
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Fibonacci number that ends with 2014 zeros?

This problem is giving me the hardest time: Prove or disprove that there is a Fibonacci number that ends with 2014 zeros. I tried mathematical induction (for stronger statement that claims that ...
53
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1answer
3k views

Quadratic reciprocity via generalized Fibonacci numbers?

This is a pet idea of mine which I thought I'd share. Fix a prime $q$ congruent to $1 \bmod 4$ and define a sequence $F_n$ by $F_0 = 0, F_1 = 1$, and $\displaystyle F_{n+2} = F_{n+1} + \frac{q-1}{4} ...
50
votes
3answers
574 views

Closed form solution for $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{1}{1+\frac{n^2}{1+\frac{1}{\stackrel{\ddots}{1+\frac{1}{1+n^2}}}}}$.

Using a symbolic computation software (Mathematica), I got the following interesting results: $$ \begin{align} \sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{1}{1+\frac{n^2}{1+\frac{1}{1+\frac{1}{1+n^2}}}} &= ...
46
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5answers
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Does every prime divide some Fibonacci number?

I am tring to show that $\forall a \in \Bbb P\; \exists n\in\Bbb N : a|F_n$, where $F$ is the fibonacci sequence defined as $\{F_n\}:F_0 = 0, F_1 = 1, F_n = F_{n-1} + F_{n-2}$ $(n=2,3,...)$. How can ...
44
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4answers
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Eyebrow-raising pattern of number of primes between terms of the Fibonacci number sequence?

So, $$1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21...$$ Any connection to primes?...it appears not. However, in between the Fibonacci numbers are how much primes? Let's see: 1 and 1 ZERO 1 and 2 NADA 2 and 3 ZILCH 3 and 5 ZIP ...
37
votes
5answers
789 views

Is ${F_{n}}^2 - 28$ always a composite number?

The problem is as follows: Prove or disprove that if ${F_{n}}$ is $n$-th Fibonacci number, and $n>5$, than $${F_{n}}^2 - 28$$ cannot be a prime. I came across this problem accidentally ...
37
votes
7answers
4k views

Project Euler, Problem #25

Problem #25 from Project Euler asks: What is the first term in the Fibonacci sequence to contain 1000 digits? The brute force way of solving this is by simply telling the computer to generate ...
36
votes
1answer
1k views

Why does this test for Fibonacci work?

In order to test if a number $A$ is Fibonacci, all we need to do is compute $5A^2 + 4$ and $5A^2 -4$. If either of them is a perfect square, the number is Fibonacci, otherwise not. Why does this test ...
33
votes
4answers
946 views

Conjecture: Only one Fibonacci number is the sum of two cubes

As the title says, I need help proving or disproving that there is only one Fibonacci number that's the sum of two (positive) cubes, $2$. I did a small brute force test with Fibonacci numbers below ...
32
votes
6answers
5k views

Proof the Fibonacci numbers are not a polynomial.

I was asked a while ago to prove there is no polynomial $P$ in $\mathbb R$ such that $P(i)=f_i$ for all $i\geq0$. I tried to get a proof as slick as possible and here's what I got. Let ...
32
votes
4answers
678 views

Fibonacci numbers from $998999$

Is there a nice explanation of ...
31
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3answers
719 views

Very curious properties of ordered partitions relating to Fibonacci numbers

I came across some interesting propositions in some calculations I did and I was wondering if someone would be so kind as to provide some explanations of these phenomenon. We call an ordered ...
30
votes
5answers
10k views

Checking if a number is a Fibonacci or not?

The standard way (other than generating up to $N$) is to check if $(5N^2 + 4)$ or $(5N^2 - 4)$ is a perfect square. What is the mathematical logic behind this? Also, is there any other way for ...
27
votes
2answers
1k views

Why do some Fibonacci numbers appear in an approximation for $e^{\pi\sqrt{163}}$?

It is rather well-known that, $e^{\pi\sqrt{43}} \approx 960^3 + 743.999\ldots$ $e^{\pi\sqrt{67}} \approx 5280^3 + 743.99999\ldots$ $e^{\pi\sqrt{163}} \approx 640320^3 + 743.999999999999\ldots$ Not ...
24
votes
3answers
901 views

Why does $\frac{1 }{ 99989999}$ generate the Fibonacci sequence?

$\frac{1}{99989999} = 1.00010002000300050008001300210034005500890144... \times 10^{-8}$ (Link), which includes the Fibonacci sequence $(1\ 1\ 2\ 3\ 5\ 8\ 13\ 21\ 55\ 89\ 144\ldots )$. This is ...
22
votes
7answers
1k views

How are we able to calculate specific numbers in the Fibonacci Sequence?

I was reading up on the Fibonacci Sequence when I've noticed some were able to calculate specific numbers. So far I've only figured out creating an array and counting to the value, which is incredibly ...
21
votes
1answer
362 views

The Fibonacci sum $\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{1}{F_{2^n}}$ generalized

The evaluation, $$\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{1}{F_{2^n}}=\frac{7-\sqrt{5}}{2}=\left(\frac{1-\sqrt{5}}{2}\right)^3+\left(\frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}\right)^2$$ was recently asked in a post by Chris here. I ...
21
votes
1answer
412 views

Fibonacci-related sum

Related to this question Find a solution for f(1/x)+f(1+x)=x, what is this sum: $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}(-1)^n\left(\frac{F_n}{F_{n+1}}-\frac1{\phi}\right)$$ where $F_n$ is the $n$th Fibonacci number and ...
20
votes
6answers
483 views

Why does every “fibonacci like” series converge to $\phi$?

It's is well known that the ratio of side-by-side fibonacci numbers converge to $\phi$. But it seems by my calculations, that if one starts with any pair of numbers one will also get a ratio that ...
19
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4answers
8k views

The generating function for the Fibonacci numbers

Prove that $$1+z+2z^2+3z^3+5z^4+8z^5+13z^6+...=\frac{1}{1-(z+z^2)}$$ The coefficients are Fibonacci numbers, i.e., the sequence $\left\{1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,...\right\}$.
19
votes
2answers
1k views

Understanding this pattern behind the Fibonacci sequence

To be honest, I'm pretty awful at mathematics however, when up till 6AM I do like to do random things throughout the night to keep me occupied. Tonight, I began playing with the Fibonacci sequence in ...
18
votes
16answers
14k views

Applications of the Fibonacci sequence

The Fibonacci sequence is very well known, and is often explained with a story about how many rabbits there are after $n$ generations if they each produce a new pair every generation. Is there any ...
18
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1answer
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Combinatorial proof of a Fibonacci identity: $n F_1 + (n-1)F_2 + \cdots + F_n = F_{n+4} - n - 3.$

Does anyone know a combinatorial proof of the following identity, where $F_n$ is the $n$th Fibonacci number? $$n F_1 + (n-1)F_2 + \cdots + F_n = F_{n+4} - n - 3$$ It's not in the place I thought it ...
17
votes
1answer
8k views

Prove that two any consecutive terms of Fibonacci sequence are relatively prime

Prove that two any consecutive terms of Fibonacci sequence are relatively prime My attempt: We have $f_1 = 1, f_2 = 1, f_3 = 2...$. So obviously $\gcd(f1, f2) = 1$. Suppose that $\gcd(f_n, ...
16
votes
2answers
1k views

Find all integer solutions for the equation $|5x^2 - y^2| = 4$

In a paper that I wrote as an undergraduate student, I conjectured that the only integer solutions to the equation $$|5x^2 - y^2| = 4$$ occur when $x$ is a Fibonacci number and $y$ is a Lucas number. ...
16
votes
4answers
613 views

Converting recursive equations into matrices

How do we convert recursive equations into matrix forms? For instance, consider this recursive equation(Fibonacci Series): $$F_n = F_{n-1} + F_{n-2}$$ And it comes out to be that the following that ...
15
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5answers
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Is it true that the Fibonacci sequence has the remainders when divided by 3 repeating?

About this Fibonacci sequence, is it true that the remainders when divided by three repeat along with the sequence like this: Fibonacci sequence: $1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, ...
14
votes
3answers
830 views

Prove the Fibonacci sum $\sum \limits_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{F_n}{p^n} = \frac{p}{p^2-p-1}$

We are familiar with the nifty fact that given the Fibonacci series $F_n = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8,\dots$ then $0.0112358\dots\approx 1/89$. In fact, $$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{F_n}{10^n} = ...
14
votes
6answers
249 views

show that $\frac{1}{F_{1}}+\frac{2}{F_{2}}+\cdots+\frac{n}{F_{n}}<13$

Let $F_{n}$ is Fibonacci number,ie.($F_{n}=F_{n-1}+F_{n-2},F_{1}=F_{2}=1$) show that $$\dfrac{1}{F_{1}}+\dfrac{2}{F_{2}}+\cdots+\dfrac{n}{F_{n}}<13$$ if we use Closed-form expression ...
14
votes
2answers
588 views

Fibonacci[n]-1 is always composite for n>6. why?

In[11]:= Select[Table[Fibonacci[n], {n, 1, 10000}], PrimeQ[# - 1] &] Out[11]= {3, 8} Edit: Fibonacci[n]-1 is always composite for n>6. why? $$\sum\limits_{i = 0}^n {{F_i}} = {F_{n + 2}} - 1$$ ...
14
votes
2answers
317 views

Generalized Fibonacci Sequence Question

The Fibonacci Sequence is defined as the recurrence $a(n)=a_{n-1}+a_{n-2}$ where $a(0)=0$ and $a(1)=1$. Today, I was bored so I considered the sequence $a(n)=\sqrt{a_{n-1}}+\sqrt{a_{n-2}}$. Ten ...
14
votes
1answer
290 views

Fibonacci Sequence in $\mathbb Z_n$.

Consider a Fibonacci sequence, except in $\mathbb Z_n$ instead of $\mathbb Z$: $$F(1) = F(2) = 1$$ $$F(n+2) = F(n+1) + F(n)$$ It is easy to see that each of these sequences must cycle through some ...
13
votes
4answers
297 views

How to prove $ \sum_{k=0}^n \frac{(-1)^{n+k}{n+k\choose n-k}}{2k+1}=\frac{-2\cos\left(\frac{2(n-1)\pi}{3}\right)}{2n+1}$

How to prove $$\sum_{k=0}^n \binom{n+k}{n-k}\frac{(-1)^{n+k}}{2k+1}=-\frac{2}{2n+1}\,\cos\left(\frac{2(n-1)\pi}{3}\right)\;\text{?}$$ I have a proof by induction for it, but it isn't simple! I want ...
13
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6answers
274 views

Binomial Sum Related to Fibonacci: $\sum\binom{n-i}j\binom{n-j}i=F_{2n+1}$

How would I prove $$ \sum\limits_{\vphantom{\large A}i\,,\,j\ \geq\ 0}{n-i \choose j} {n-j \choose i} =F_{2n+1} $$ where $n$ is a nonnegative integer and $\{F_n\}_{n\ge 0}$ is a sequence of ...
12
votes
8answers
2k views

Showing that an equation holds true with a Fibonacci sequence: $F_{n+m} = F_{n-1}F_m + F_n F_{m+1}$

Question: Let $F_n$ the sequence of Fibonacci numbers, given by $F_0 = 0, F_1 = 1$ and $F_n = F_{n-1} + F_{n-2}$ for $n \geq 2$. Show for $n, m \in \mathbb{N}$: $$F_{n+m} = F_{n-1}F_m + F_n F_{m+1}$$ ...
12
votes
1answer
368 views

Why do the Fibonacci numbers recycle these formulas?

The Fibonacci numbers $F_n = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, \dots$ obey the following recurrence relations, $ \begin{aligned} &F_{n}-\;F_{n-1}-F_{n-2} = 0\\[1.5mm] &F_{n-1}^3-F_{n}^3-F_{n+1}^3 = ...
12
votes
1answer
449 views

Fibonacci, compositions, history

There are three basic families of restricted compositions (ordered partitions) that are enumerated by the Fibonacci numbers (with offsets): a) compositions with parts from the set {1,2} (e.g., 2+2 = ...
12
votes
2answers
331 views

Interpolated Fibonacci numbers - real or complex?

The common Binet-formula for the Fibonacci-numbers $$ f_n = {\varphi^n- (1-\varphi)^n \over \sqrt 5 } \small {\qquad \qquad \text{ where }\varphi={1+\sqrt 5\over 2}}$$ allows interpolation to ...
11
votes
5answers
5k views

Why does the Fibonacci Series start with 0, 1?

The Fibonacci Series is based on the principle that the succeeding number is the sum of the previous two numbers. Then how is it logical to start with a 0? Shouldn't it start with 1 directly?
11
votes
5answers
2k views

How to tell if a Fibonacci number has an even or odd index

Given only $F_n$, that is the $n$th term of the Fibonacci sequence, how can you tell if $n \equiv 1 \mod 2$ or $n \equiv 0 \mod 2$? I know you can use the Pisano period, however if $n \equiv 1$ or ...
11
votes
3answers
782 views

Infinite Series: Fibonacci/ $2^n$

I presented the following problem to some of my students recently (from Senior Mathematical Challenge- edited by Gardiner) In the Fibonacci sequence 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55... each term ...
11
votes
4answers
270 views

Fibonacci Cubes: $F_n^3 + F_{n+1}^3 - F_{n-1}^3 =F_{3n}$

Prove $$F_n^3 + F_{n+1}^3 - F_{n-1}^3 =F_{3n}$$ I've tried induction, either its just very long or a neat trick is required in the inductive step but for some odd reason its not working out. ...
10
votes
3answers
267 views

Evaluate the sum: $\sum\limits_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac1{F_{(2^n)}}$

Evaluate the sum: $$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{F_{(2^n)}}$$ where $F_{m}$ is the $m$-th term of the Fibonacci sequence. I need some support here. Thanks.
10
votes
3answers
2k views

How many numbers are in the Fibonacci sequence

Assuming I'm asked to generate Fibonacci numbers up to N, how many numbers will I generate? I'm looking for the count of Fibonacci numbers up to N, not the Nth number. So, as an example, if I ...
10
votes
4answers
3k views

Interesting properties of Fibonacci-like sequences?

Everyone is familiar with the Fibonacci Sequence, [0] 1 1 2 3 5 8 ... and many of it's interesting properties. For example, as the sequence continues, the ratio of ...
10
votes
4answers
281 views

Linear Combinations of Fibonacci Numbers (integer coefficients)

While working on problem #2 on Project Euler, I came across the need to express $F_n$ as a linear combination of $F_{n-3}$ and $F_{n-6}$. This is relatively simple to do: $$\begin{align} F_n &= ...
9
votes
4answers
4k views

Fibonacci modular results

Can any one give a generalization of the following properties in a single proof? I have checked the results, which I have given below by trial and error method. I am looking for a general proof, which ...
9
votes
3answers
2k views

Fibonacci sequence divisible by 7?

Make and prove a conjecture about when the Fibonacci sequence, $F_n$, is divisible by $7$. I've realized it's when $n$ is a multiple of $8$. I just don't know how to go about proving it.
9
votes
3answers
524 views

Significance of starting the Fibonacci sequence with 0, 1…

DISCLAIMER: I do not deal with in-depth mathematics on a daily basis as some of you may, so please pardon my ignorance or lack of coherence on this topic. QUESTION: What is the significance of ...
9
votes
4answers
100 views

Proof of ${F(n+4)}^{4} - {4F(n+3)}^{4} - {19F(n+2)}^{4} - {4F(n+1)}^{4}+{F(n)}^{4} = -6$

Observe: \begin{matrix} F(n)|&{F(n)}^{4}& - {4F(n+1)}^{4}& - {19F(n+2)}^{4}&- {4F(n+3)}^{4}&{F(n+4)}^{4}& = -6\\ 1|& 1& -4& -304& -324& 625&=-6\\ ...