Questions on the factorial function, $n!=n\times(n-1)\times\cdots\times1$. Consider using the tag (gamma-function) if dealing with noninteger arguments.

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4answers
160 views

Which is larger :: $y!$ or $x^y$, for numbers $x,y$.

This is a generalization of this question :: Which is larger? $20!$ or $2^{40}$?. No explicit general solution was presented there and I'm just curious :D Thank-you. Edit :: I want a most-general ...
2
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1answer
41 views

Problem finding limit - which function is asymptotically larger

I have a homework question, so please don't answer fully but I would appreciate a push in the right direction. Basically we need to figure out if $n^{n+\frac{1}{2}}e^{-n}$ is larger,smaller, or equal ...
8
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3answers
176 views

Factorial limit from gamma function calculation

I want to show that $$\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\dfrac{\Gamma\left(n+\frac12\right)}{\sqrt{n}\Gamma(n)}=1$$ Using the formula for $\Gamma\left(n+\frac12\right)$ here, it reduces to ...
3
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2answers
94 views

Bernstein polynomial looks like this: $B_i^n={{n}\choose{i}}x^i(1-x)^{n-i}$.Find it's $r$'th derivative.

Bernstein polynomials are defined like this $B_i^n={{n}\choose{i}}x^i(1-x)^{n-i}$.I need to prove that $r$'th derivative of it is equal to: ...
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2answers
57 views

$B_{i}^{n}(x)={{n}\choose{i}}x^i(1-x)^{n-i}$, prove that $B_{i}^{n}(cu)=\sum\limits_{j=0}^{n}B_{i}^{j}(c)B_{j}^{n}(u)$

$B_{i}^{n}(x)={{n}\choose{i}}x^i(1-x)^{n-i}$, prove that $B_{i}^{n}(cu)=\sum\limits_{j=0}^{n}B_{i}^{j}(c)B_{j}^{n}(u)$ I tried to to solve it from the right side: ...
0
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1answer
33 views

Language to describe a number smaller than, but related to Bell number

I understand that the Bell number $B_n$ is the number of partitions of a set of size $n$. Despite my incredible ineptitude at combinatorics, I also understand most of how the binomial coefficient ...
10
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3answers
543 views

Which is greater, $300 !$ or $(300^{300})^\frac {1}{2}$?

Which is greater among $300 !$ and $\sqrt {300^{300}}$ ? The answer is $300 !$ (my textbook's answer). I do not know how to solve problems involving such large numbers.
2
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0answers
76 views

Find all possible solutions!

Find solutions for $$^nP_r=s!$$ For $(n,r,s)\in \mathbb{N}$ I could find some trivial solutions $(6,3,5)~,~(1,1,1)$ etc.
2
votes
2answers
59 views

Logic of statement

I can see the mathematical implication but could not get the logic, why $5!$ is equal to $^6P_3$? Please help proving why both the expressions are equal without mathematical manipulation!In any case, ...
2
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1answer
104 views

Why doesn't $0! = 1$ in the context of this general term?

Is my instructor wrong to say that $\left\{0,\frac{1!}{4},\frac{2!}{9},\frac{3!}{16},\dots\right\} = \left\{\frac{(n-1)!}{n^2}\right\}$? My understanding is that at $n=1$, $\frac{(n-1)!}{n^2}$ should ...
2
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0answers
48 views

Combinatorics - find $n!$ using inclusion-exclusion [duplicate]

difficult question I need help with. We are asked to show that $n! = \sum_{k=0}^n (-1)^k\binom{n}{k}(n-k)^n$ There is also a hint "try to think of the number of permutations of n elements using ...
2
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3answers
64 views

Check the convergence of series

$$\sum _{n=1}^{\infty } \frac{\left(2 n^2-n+1\right)!}{3^{n^2+1}}$$ Trying to solve with sign d'Alembert, nothing comes out, and prevents the transformation of quadratic factorial reduction. Wolfram ...
0
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1answer
465 views

Last digits of factorial

Yes, this is an attempt to understand why my solution for Project Euler problem 160 isn't working. I hesitate to post my code lest I offer a solution to someone else. The problem is to find the last ...
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4answers
7k views

Factorial, but with addition [duplicate]

Is there a notation for addition form of factorial? $$5! = 5\times4\times3\times2\times1$$ That's pretty obvious. But I'm wondering what I'd need to use to describe $$5+4+3+2+1$$ like the ...
2
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1answer
100 views

Convergence of $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty \frac{n!}{n^n} \times (5x)^n$

I have to check for which $x$ the series converges/diverges. $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty\frac{n!}{n^n} \times (5x)^n$ I know that for $|x| < \frac{1}{5}e$ it converges and for $|x| > ...
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1answer
149 views

In how many ways can five balls be chosen so that…

In how many ways can five balls be chosen so that (a) two are red and three are black? (b) three are red and two are black? out of $7$ black and $8$ red Should I use permutation? or ...
2
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3answers
96 views

Limit of sequence. with Factorial

Can't find the limit of this sequence : $$\frac{3^n(2n)!}{n!(2n)^n}$$ tried to solve this using the ratio test buy failed... need little help
5
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4answers
286 views

factorial as difference of powers: $\sum_{r=0}^{n}\binom{n}{r}(-1)^r(l-r)^n=n!$?

The successive difference of powers of integers leads to factorial of that power. I think this is the formula $\sum_{r=0}^{n}\binom{n}{r}(-1)^r(l-r)^n=n!$ But I found no proof on internet. Please ...
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2answers
95 views

Show that $p!$ and $(p - 1)! - 1$ are relatively prime

If $p$ is prime number, with $p>3$ Show that $p!$ and $(p - 1)! - 1$ are relatively prime. I tried $\text{gcd}\;(p!,(p-1)!-1)=d\Longrightarrow d\mid p!$ e $d\mid(p-1)!-1$ having ...
0
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3answers
157 views

how to solve factorial involving multiplication

I am trying to solve this question but not able to find any helpful material. It involves factorial with multiplications, $$\frac{8!}{5!}\cdot \frac{7!}{7!10!}$$ I tried crossing 8 and 5 and 7 with ...
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1answer
46 views

Review of an answer for finding a limit of a sequence

$$\eqalign{ & \mathop {\lim }\limits_{n \to \infty } {{n!} \over {(n + 1)(n + 2)...(2n)}} = {{n!} \over {{{(2n)!} \over {n!}}}} = \cr & {{n!n!} \over {2n!}} = {{n!} \over 2} = + \infty ...
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3answers
403 views

Making $121$ with five $0$s

So I say this puzzle online a few days ago and found it quite interesting. The original question was Make $120$ using only five $0$s. Well, I said to myself, this is utterly trivial. Note that ...
2
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2answers
180 views

Limit of a fraction of double factorials

How can we show that $\begin{align*} \lim_{n\rightarrow\infty} U_n = 0 \end{align*}$ where $\begin{align*} U_n = \frac{(n-1)!!}{n!!}=\frac{n-1}{n}\frac{n-3}{n-2}\frac{n-5}{n-4}\cdots \end{align*}$ ...
2
votes
2answers
193 views

Convergence testing involving factorial and square root

I'm trying to find the convergence of this using the ratio test: $$\displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^{\infty}\dfrac{1}{\sqrt{t!}}.$$ But I'm getting no luck! Can anyone help? (sorry I've not quite ...
3
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2answers
93 views

Prove that $\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{1}{k!}\geq \left(1+\frac{1}{n}\right)^n$ [duplicate]

It basically says it all in the title. I tried solving the inequality using the bernoulli inequality somehow $$\dfrac{\displaystyle\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{1}{k!}}{(1+\frac{1}{n})^n}\geq 1,$$ but the ...
1
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1answer
31 views

Is there an actual expansion of the Gamma function's integral?

$$\int_0^{\infty} x^{t-1} e^{-x} \, \mathrm{d}x = (t-1)! = \Gamma (t)$$ Is the expression $(t-1)!$ the actual result of integrating the gamma integral? Meaning, if you were to compute the integral ...
3
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1answer
124 views

Euler numbers grow $2\left(\frac{2}{ \pi }\right)^{2 n+1}$-times slower than the factorial?

Stirling's approximation of the factorial for even numbers is given by $$ (2n)! \sim \left(\frac{2n}{e}\right)^{2n}\sqrt{4 \pi n}. \tag{1} $$ Further, the Euler numbers grow quite rapidly for large ...
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1answer
70 views

Limit of a function not using Stirling's Approximation

I want to compute the following limit: $$\lim_{n\to\infty} \frac{\left(\frac{e}{F_{n+1}}\right)^{F_{n+1}} F_{n+1}!}{\left(\frac{e}{F_n}\right)^{F_n} F_n!},$$ where $F_n$ is the $n$th Fibonacci ...
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3answers
144 views

Solve Algebraical.ly $0.5=\dfrac{365!}{365^{n}(365-n)!} $

How does one go about solving this equation? Not sure how to approach this as no factorials will cancel out. Im sorry I meant $\dfrac{365!}{365^{n}(365-n)!}=0.5$.
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3answers
56 views

Is $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{2^nn!}{(n+1)!}$ absolutely convergent?

I'm very uncomfortable with factorials just because I haven't done many of them. But my basic understanding is if I start with (for example) $(n+1)!$ then this is equivalent to $(n+1)*(n)$ and if it ...
2
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1answer
70 views

Proving a sequence with induction reasoning

I have an assignment which I am quite stuck on. The question is the following: function f: N to N is defined recursivly: ...
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1answer
35 views

Series — Coefficient Cn and Radius of Convergence

. I'm lost, and my textbook is failing me
3
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3answers
159 views

Use a factorial argument to show that $C(2n,n+1)+C(2n,n)=\frac{1}{2}C(2n+2,n+1)$

I need some help, showing that the left hand side is equivalent to the right hand side. I tried but I get stuck, I am not sure if I am on the right path. Here is my attempt: $C(2n,n+1) + C(2n,n)$ ...
3
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5answers
210 views

Need help understanding the factorial formula $n!=n(n-1)(n-2)\cdots(3)(2)(1)$

The caption says the following: If $n$ is an integer such that $n \ge 0$ then $n$ factorial is defined as, $$n!=n(n-1)(n-2)\cdots(3)(2)(1)$$ if $n \ge 1$ by definition. I'm really just confused by ...
2
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2answers
425 views

Factorial lower bound

A professor in class gave the following lower bound for the factorial $$ n! \ge {\left(\frac n2\right)}^{\frac n2} $$ but I don't know how he came up with this formula. The upper bound of $n^n$ was ...
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1answer
36 views

show that if $m,n\in\mathbb{N}$ are such that $(m,n)=1$, then $\frac{(m+n-1)!}{m!n!}\in\mathbb{N}.$

show that if $m,n\in\mathbb{N}$ are such that $(m,n)=1$, then $$\frac{(m+n-1)!}{m!n!}\in\mathbb{N}.$$ I have a theorem (shown in my text) that says $$\fbox{If $a_1,...,a_m\in\mathbb{N}^*$ then ...
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2answers
106 views

Show that there is no natural number $n$ such that $3^7$ is the largest power of $3$ dividing $n!$

Show that there is no natural number $n$ such that $7$ is the largest power $a$ of $3$ for which $3^a$ divides $n!$ After doing some research, I could not understand how to start or what to do to ...
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3answers
77 views

If $N$ is a multiple of $100$, $N!$ ends with $\left(\frac{N}4-1 \right)$ zeroes.

Did certain questions about factorials, and one of them got a reply very interesting that someone told me that it is possible to show that If $N$ is a multiple of $100$, $N!$ ends with ...
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1answer
39 views

Find the smallest value of $n$ so that the greater potency of $5$ which divides $n!$ is $5^{84}$. What are the other numbers that enjoy this property?

Find the smallest value of $n$ so that the greater potency of $5$ which divides $n!$ is $5^{84}$. What are the other numbers that enjoy this property? I thought I would put together an equation ...
0
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2answers
38 views

For $j \in \{0,…,n-1\}$ is $(n-j)!(j+1)! \leq n!$ true?

For $j \in \{0,...,n-1\}$ is $(n-j)!(j+1)! \leq n!$ true? I mean $\dfrac{n!}{(n-j)!(j+1)!}$ doesn't have to be an integer. I need this inequality in another exercise, so Is it provable?
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2answers
102 views

Find the greatest power of $104$ which divides $10000!$

Find the greatest power of $104$ which divides $10000!$ I thought $$104=2^3\cdot13$$ so I have to find $n$ such that $$(2^3\cdot13)^n\mid 10000!$$ Obviously, we can see that there are fewer ...
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1answer
82 views

How to derive $\frac{d}{dn}n! = \Gamma(1 + n)\psi^{(0)}(n+ 1)$?

How can you derive $\frac{d}{dn}n! = \Gamma(1 + n)\psi^{(0)}(n + 1)$? I have tried checking Wolfram Alpha for a step-by-step solution, but none is given. Moreover, of what is the second function, ...
2
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1answer
111 views

Find the prime factor decomposition of $100!$ and determine how many zeros terminates the representation of that number.

Find the prime factor decomposition of $100!$ and determine how many zeros terminates the representation of that number. Actually, I know a way to solve this, but even if it is very large and ...
0
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1answer
74 views

Finite calculus: Apply difference operator to generalized falling factorial $(ax+b)^{\underline m}$

The $m$th falling factorial power of $x$ is defined as $x^{\underline m}:=x(x-1)...(x-m+1),$ and the difference operator as $\Delta f(x) := f(x+1)-f(x).$ One fundamental statement in finite ...
3
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1answer
64 views

Simplifying this logarithm series

$$\sum_{i\; =\; 2}^{99}{\frac{1}{\log _{i}\left( 99! \right)}}$$ How would you evaluate (or at least simplify) this logarithm series?
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1answer
78 views

How does Knuth's second algorithm to calculate permutations work?

I have started reading the Art of Computer Programming Volume 1 by Knuth. The first half of the book is basic concepts in maths. On page 45 there is an algorithm to obtain the next (amount of) ...
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1answer
48 views

help on manipulating this algebraic expression

So I have something like: $\frac {k!}{(k-3)!3!}$ I'm going to add $\frac 12k(k-1)$ to this, and I want to obtain $\frac {(k+1)!}{(k-2)!3!}$ as the result. I'm having trouble with this since I need ...
0
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3answers
155 views

A sum involving Fibonacci numbers, $\sum_{k=1}^\infty F_k/k!$

Let $F_k$ be Fibonacci numbers. I am looking for a closed form of the sum $\sum_{k=1}^\infty F_k/k!$. I tried to use Wolfram Alpha, but it is not doing the sum Fibonacci[k]/k! , k=1 to infinity. ...
0
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3answers
85 views

determining the greatest n in which 3^n divides 30!

Determine the greatest integer n such that $3^n\mid 30!$ I have no idea of how to approach this problem. I would first calculate $30!$ but obviously that number is way too large. Any help?
0
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2answers
29 views

Difference operation on factorials

Please how is the combination addition formula ${{t}\choose{r}}={{t-1}\choose{r}}+{{t-1}\choose{r-1}}$ useful in proving the difference equation $\Delta_{t}{{r+t}\choose{t}}={{r+t}\choose{t+1}}$? ...