Questions on the factorial function, $n!=n\times(n-1)\times\cdots\times1$. Consider using the tag (gamma-function) if dealing with noninteger arguments.

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1answer
54 views

Calculus over integers for derivative/integral of factorial?

One usually introduces the Gamma function to define a derivative of the factorial. However couldn't one define a derivative over integers like $$ f'(n) = \frac{f(n+1) - f(n)}{1} ? $$ Such a discrete ...
6
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1answer
234 views

Proving $11! + 1$ is prime

Prove that: $$11! + 1$$ is a prime number. Without computing the number (or factorial). Obviously, from Wilson's theorem, a number $n$ is prime if, $$(n-1)! + 1 \equiv 0 \pmod{n}$$ Since $n = ...
4
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2answers
94 views

Calculate $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{(2n-1)!!}{(2n)!!\cdot 2^n}$

Calculate the sum $$\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{(2n-1)!!}{(2n)!!\cdot 2^n}$$ where $(2n-1)!!=1\cdot 3\cdots (2n-1)$, $(2n)!!=2\cdot 4 \cdots 2n$ Using Wolframalpha, the result is ...
0
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1answer
55 views

Is there any way to simplify this difference of factorials?

is there any way to simplify this expression or write it as a neat, concise formula? $$ \frac{(2m)!}{2m!} - \frac{(x+y)!}{x!y!} \cdot \frac{ [2m-(x+y)]!}{ (m-x)!(m-y)!} $$ Thank you!
3
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2answers
93 views

Stupid factorial question.

If i have $(3(n+1))!$ can I say: $(3(n+1))! = 3(n+1) \times (3n)!$ but if I expand by first multiplying the expression in the parenthesis; $(3(n+1))! = (3n+3) \times (3n+2) \times (3n+1) \times ...
0
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0answers
42 views

Is $\frac {(n^2)!}{(n-1)^2!} > n^2\#$ where $n^2\#$ is the primorial for $n^2$

Here's my thinking for why $\dfrac {(n^2)!}{(n-1)^2!} > n^2\#$: For $n=2$, $\dfrac{4!}{1!} = 24 > 4\# = 6$ Assume it is true for all $n$ so that $\dfrac{(n^2)!}{(n-1)^2!} > n^2\#$ ...
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6answers
114 views

Prove by induction that $n^2<n!$

How can I show that $n^2<n!$ for all $n\geq 4$ Step 1 For $n=1$, the LHS=$4^2=16$ and RHS=$4!=24$. So LHS$<$ RHS. Step 2 Suppose the result be true for $n=k$ i.e., $k^2<k!$ Step 3 ...
3
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2answers
124 views

The ultimate formula to factor them all.

Context I am working on Integer factorization problem, I found a formula for factoring numbers, and I need your help to simplify it. First I will explain how I get there and then I present the ...
0
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2answers
52 views

A series specifying factorial [duplicate]

Is there any mathematical contraction of the following factorial series function? $$ F(n) = 1.1! + 2.2! + 3.3! + ...... + n.n! $$ I tried it by inspecting that $$ x.x! = x^2.(x-1)!$$ I need ...
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2answers
147 views

Prove that factorial grows faster than exponential function using limits [duplicate]

How can I prove that the factorial function ($n!$) grows faster than exponential functions (ex: $2^n$) using limits?
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0answers
47 views

Integral representation of simplified factorial division

I know that $\int_0^\infty{t^ne^{-t}}dt=n!$ from the gamma function, but I'm looking for a single integral which can represent $\frac{n!}{(n-m)!}=n(n-1)(n-2)\cdots(n-m+1)$ so that I don't need to ...
3
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1answer
65 views

Simple factorials

I've been doing some work with factorials and the normal way of calculating them is simply not working so well. When the numbers get really big, doing iterative multiplications is not viable and gets ...
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1answer
151 views

Prove $\limsup_{n\to\infty}|\{(p,q)\in T\times T,p!q!=n\}|=6$

Let $T$ be the set of nonnegative integers, I need to prove that $$\limsup_{n\to\infty}|\{(p,q)\in T\times T,p!q!=n\}|=6$$ It's really easy to show that $$\limsup_{n\to\infty}|\{(p,q)\in T\times ...
11
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1answer
73 views

Does it follow that $(n!)^n$ divide $(n^2)!$

It is well known that $(n!)^2$ divides $(2n)!$. Does it follow that $(n!)^3$ divides $(3n)!$ and so on up to $(n!)^n$ dividing $(n^2)!$? If yes or no, could you provide the details behind the ...
1
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0answers
32 views

Rewriting Factorial Expressions [duplicate]

If I have an equation, say, $$ y = x! +1 $$ Is it possible to rewrite the equation in terms of $x$? For example, a simple algebraic equation might be $y = x^2$ --- and to rewrite it in terms of $x$, ...
5
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2answers
69 views

Prove that for any natural number $n>1$, we have $(2n)!<(n(n+1))^n$

Prove that for any natural number $n>1$, we have $(2n)!<(n(n+1))^n$ I tried using induction, but I failed in that approach, I rather found it was untrue, but on several case testing, I found ...
6
votes
3answers
108 views

Limit $\lim\limits_{n\to \infty} \sqrt [n]{\frac{(3n)!}{n!(2n+1)!}} $

First of all, sorry if something similar to this has been posted before (it's my first time in this web). I need to calculate the limit as $n\rightarrow \infty$ for this: $$\lim\limits_{n\to \infty} ...
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1answer
99 views

How to find the number of permutations with offset restriction

First question. Okay I have this problem that I've been trying to figure out for a while. I'm writing a computer program I need to quickly calculate the permutations of a set with 'n' elements with a ...
2
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2answers
150 views

Integer factorization: What is the meaning of $d^2 - kc = e^2$

I found an interesting behavior when placing the integer factorization problem in to geometry, I call it pyramid factoring. Lets assume we have $c$ boxes and we want to order them in to rectangle. ...
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2answers
65 views

Isn't $ n(n-1)(n-2)…(n-m+1) $ a factorial already?

Let $ m \ge 1 $ and $ n \ge 1 $ be integers Let $A$ be a set of size $m$ Let $B$ be a set of size $n$ How many one-to-one functions $f: A \rightarrow B$ are there? skipped stuff $$ ...
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1answer
82 views

How to solve Inequality with factorials

Im reading a book in Numerial analysis and I have the following which I dont understand involving inequalities and factorials, What i have is the following: $$\frac{1}{(2n+1)!(2n+1)} \leq 5*10^{-9}$$ ...
0
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1answer
39 views

Series increasing or decreasing with factorials

I have been working on some homework for calc 3 and my prof has put a couple sequences in which we must find if they are increasing or decreasing with factorials in them. I've googled and there are ...
0
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1answer
49 views

Computing $\mathrm{gcd} (100!, 3^{100})$

I am trying to compute $\mathrm{gcd}(100!,3^{100})$. I am still not sure how to reach an answer but I feel that Wilson's Theorem (i.e., $(p-1)!\equiv -1 \bmod p, p$ prime) and Fermat's Little theorem ...
0
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3answers
89 views

Cannot follow proof that $n! \leq en(n/e)^n$

prove that $n! \leq en(n/e)^n$ skip proof for base (n=1)... Assume it holds for $n-1$, verify for $n$. We have $n! = n* (n-1)! \leq n * e(n-1)(\frac{n-1}{e})^{n-1} $ by inductive assumption. we ...
3
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1answer
51 views

Prove for any integer $N$ that there exists $n > N$ where $n!-1$ is not a prime

I was thinking about Euclid's proof of the infinitude of primes and the fact that we could make the argument about $n!-1$ instead of $n!+1$ when I wondered if it would be easy to prove that for any ...
1
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2answers
41 views

Factorial formula problem [duplicate]

Prove that $(n-r)!(r!)$ divides $ n! $ i know its a factorial formula and it might be easy but i stuck .I tried induction to $n$ or analyzing the factorials but im missing something
0
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1answer
89 views

In how many ways can the word “WORD” be rearranged so that no letter is in its original position?

In how many ways can the word "WORD" be rearranged so that no letter is in its original position? The answer is $9$, but what is the formula for it?
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1answer
173 views

Finding the largest factorial with only three distinct decimal digits

I want to find the largest factorial whose decimal representation contains only three distinct digits. I am using the following Python code to compute the above, but no results up to 16000!: ...
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2answers
66 views

$x!=y^n$ for $x,y \neq 0,1$

A straightforward problem (find all integers such that $m!+3=n^2$) led me into thinking about the integers for which: $$x!=y^2$$ is true. I argued that other than the trivial case ($x!=1$) that this ...
1
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2answers
181 views

Inequality $(n!)^2\le \left[\frac{(n+1)(n+2)}{6}\right]^n$

Prove that $$ (n!)^2\le \left[\frac{(n+1)(n+2)}{6}\right]^n $$ holds for all $n\in\mathbb{Z^+}$. I tried induction but there's no obvious way to go from $n$ to $n+1$.
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3answers
359 views

Proving an identity involving factorials

I have stumbled upon the following statement and have verified it computationally for many $n$ (up to n=500, it took a long time for my computer to do out all of the math), yet I have no idea how to ...
0
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0answers
25 views

Function to define how combinations N items can be organized with a certain condition

This is not a factorial only problem If I have 5 items and I wanted to know how many possible ways they could be arranged, the answer is 5! or 120. However my situation is I need to know how many ...
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3answers
69 views

Simplifying factorials

I apologise for a repost, but my rep is not high enough to ask in a comment. But, in this question Simplify sum of factorials with mathematical induction I am confused how: $$(n+1)!-1+(n+1)(n+1)! = ...
3
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3answers
78 views

Proving $\frac{((2n)!)^2(i)!(j)!}{((n)!)^2(2i)!(2j)!}$ is an integer

I have verified this for many values of $n$, but I have no idea how to prove it. Does anyone know how I could go about showing that: $$\frac{((2n)!)^2(i)!(j)!}{((n)!)^2(2i)!(2j)!}$$ is an integer when ...
2
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1answer
31 views

Is there a way to express $(n-i)!(n-j)!(2i)!(2j)!$ in terms of $n$ and $r=i+j$?

I have been attempting to simplify the double sum: $$\sum_{i=0}^n \sum_{j=0}^n \frac{(-1)^{i+j} (2i+2j)!}{(n-i)!(n-j)!(2i)!(2j)!2^{i+j}(i+j)!}$$ And so what I am attempting to do is rewrite it in ...
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0answers
53 views

Limit of $\frac{1}{n}\log({n\choose np})$ without using Stirling's formula

I am trying to evaluate the following limit: $$ \forall p\in(0,1) ,\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty} \frac{1}{n}\log{n\choose \lfloor np \rfloor} =H(p),$$ where $\lfloor x\rfloor$ means the greatest integer ...
4
votes
3answers
61 views

Proving $ n! \geq 2^{n-1} $

Prove that $$ n! \geq 2^{n-1}$$ for $n \geq 1$. My initial solution by induction goes like this. For $n = 1 : 1 \geq 1 $. Assuming that $$ n ! \geq 2^{n-1}.$$ Then for $n+1$, $$ (n+1)! = ...
2
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3answers
60 views

Evaluate: $\sum_{k=2}^n\frac {n!}{(n-k)!(k-2)!}$

Evaluate: $$\sum_{k=2}^n\frac {n!}{(n-k)!(k-2)!}$$ Attempt $S_2=\frac {n!}{(n-2)!}$ $S_3=\frac {n!}{(n-3)!}$ $S_4=\frac {n!}{2(n-4)!}$ $\vdots$ $S_{n-1}=\frac {n!}{1!(n-3)!}$ $S_n=\frac ...
3
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4answers
62 views

Showing $\binom{2n}{n} = (-4)^n \binom{-1/2}{n}$

Is there a proof for the following identity that only uses the definition of the (generalized) binomial coefficient and basic transformations? Let $n$ be a non-negative integer. $$\binom{2n}{n} = ...
1
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1answer
41 views

Is there a closed form for this sequence?

I'm trying to find a closed form for the following sequence: $a$ $a(a-1)$ $a(a-1)(a-2)$ $a(a-1)(a-2)(a-3)$ The problem is, $a=\frac{1}{2}$. If it were some whole number, then I'd use ...
1
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2answers
85 views

Question about Binomial Sums [duplicate]

Prove that for any $a \in \mathbb{R}$ $$\sum_{k=0}^n (-1)^{k}\binom{n}{k}(a-k)^{n}=n!$$ I rewrote the sum as $$\sum_{k=0}^n \left((-1)^{k}\binom{n}{k} \sum_{i=0}^n (-1)^{i}a^{n-i} k^{i} ...
4
votes
2answers
122 views

How to calculate what this power series converges against? (double factorials)

I'm working on my physics master course homework and I'm given the following equation out of nowhere: $\displaystyle{ 1 + \sum_{n\ =\ 1}^{\infty}{z^n\left(\, 2n - 1\,\right)!! \over 2n!!} ={1 \over ...
3
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0answers
166 views

Sum problem involving Factorials

got the following problem to prove for $n \in \mathbb{N}$ and $1 \leq i \leq n$: \begin{equation} \sum_{k=1}^{n-i} \frac{(2n-1-i-2k)! 2^{2k}}{(n-i-k)! (n-k)! 2}=\sum_{k=1}^{n-i} \frac{(2n-1-i-k)! ...
1
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0answers
23 views

What condition does a recursive function have to fulfill to be well defined?

What condition does a recursive function have to fulfill to be well defined? Provide a well-defined recursive definition of the factorial of a number. Modify the definition so that is no longer ...
1
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1answer
138 views

Need help finding a closed form for complicated sum

I'm trying to find a closed form expression for the following sequence: $$a_n=\sum_{i=1}^{n}\frac{(n-1-i+d)!}{(n-2i)!(i)!}=\sum_{i=1}^{\frac{n}{2}}\frac{(n-1-i+d)!}{(n-2i)!(i)!}$$ Where $n$ and $d$ ...
3
votes
1answer
37 views

How to simplify a fraction involving factorials

I have following term: $$\frac{\frac{3^{2k+2}}{(2k+2)!}}{\frac{2^{2k}}{(2k)!}}=\frac{3^{2k+2}\cdot(2k)!}{(2k+2)! \cdot 3^{2k}}=9\cdot\frac{(2k)!}{(2k+2)!}$$ I know that you can simplify even further ...
1
vote
0answers
163 views

Sum concerning Catalan triangle and binomials

I am trying to prove the following relation. For $k \in \mathbb{N},k \geq 2$ and $i=1,\ldots,k-1$ \begin{equation} {2k-2-i \choose k-1-i}=\sum \limits_{l=0}^{k-1-i} 2^{2l} T(k-2-l,k-1-i-l)-2 \sum ...
3
votes
4answers
114 views

Solving for $r$ in ${12\choose{r}}=924$

I can solve the equation $_{12}C_r=924$ fairly easily by guess and test because there are so few possible $r$ values, but is there a clean way to solve an equation of this format algebraically? I ...
2
votes
1answer
64 views

Limit of $\lim \limits_{x \rightarrow \infty}\frac{(x!)^n}{(ax)!}$

For a given $n \geq 1$ $\hspace{2mm}(n \in \mathbb{R})$, I know that $$\lim \limits_{x \rightarrow \infty}\frac{(x!)^n}{(ax)!},$$ only exists and it is equal to zero if $a \geq n.$ However, I cannot ...
1
vote
3answers
79 views

convergence of $\sum_{n=2}^{\infty}\frac{(n+1)!(n+1)^{n-1}}{n^{2n}}$

$$\sum_{n=2}^{\infty}\frac{(n+1)!(n+1)^{n-1}}{n^{2n}}$$ I used the Cauchy test and it lead me to $\frac{\sqrt[n]{n!}}{n^2}$. But I can't tell what is the limit of this. I tried the Squeeze theorem: ...