9
votes
1answer
293 views

Complex Factorial Equaling One

For what complex values of $z$ is $$z! =1? $$ Are they even all known? Are there finitely many or infinitely many? (Yes, the trivial $z$ are 0 and 1. )
7
votes
4answers
154 views

A closed form of $\sum_{k=0}^\infty\frac{(-1)^{k+1}}{k!}\Gamma^2\left(\frac{k}{2}\right)$

I am looking for a closed form of the following series \begin{equation} \mathcal{I}=\sum_{k=1}^\infty\frac{(-1)^{k+1}}{k!}\Gamma^2\left(\frac{k}{2}\right) \end{equation} I have no idea how to ...
2
votes
0answers
51 views

Factorial of Complex Values

Since the gamma function is an analytic continuation of the factorial function, we can find the factorial of complex values. How does one go about doing so? I've looked far and wide on the internet ...
4
votes
2answers
121 views

Euler's limit formula for the factorial function

In Euler's first (known) letter to Goldbach on October 13, 1729 he mentions an infinite product that interpolates the factorial function: ...
2
votes
1answer
50 views

Approximation of a factorial

In books I can find a lot of approximations of factorial, which doesn't require the a lot of multiplications, like for example Stirling's approximation. Very popular is also the Euler's solution which ...
4
votes
1answer
171 views

More identities of the Ramanujan Double factorial type.

Ramanujan discovered the following identity $$x=\sum_{n=0}^\infty (-1)^n ...
8
votes
3answers
153 views

Factorial limit from gamma function calculation

I want to show that $$\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\dfrac{\Gamma\left(n+\frac12\right)}{\sqrt{n}\Gamma(n)}=1$$ Using the formula for $\Gamma\left(n+\frac12\right)$ here, it reduces to ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

How to derive $\frac{d}{dn}n! = \Gamma(1 + n)\psi^{(0)}(n+ 1)$?

How can you derive $\frac{d}{dn}n! = \Gamma(1 + n)\psi^{(0)}(n + 1)$? I have tried checking Wolfram Alpha for a step-by-step solution, but none is given. Moreover, of what is the second function, ...
4
votes
2answers
536 views

Proof that the gamma function is an extension of the factorial function

I've already proved that $$\Gamma (n)= (n-1)!$$ but I donĀ“t really know what else to do to verify that $\Gamma$ is an extension of the factorial function for real numbers (positive) Thank you! And ...
1
vote
2answers
69 views

How $\alpha(\alpha+1)\ldots(\alpha+k-1)=\frac{\Gamma(\alpha+k)}{\Gamma(\alpha)}$?

Probability function of Negative Binomial Distribution, $NB(\alpha,p)$, is $$P(X=k)=\binom{\alpha+k-1}{k}(1-p)^{\alpha}p^k,\quad \alpha>0$$ Probability generating function of Negative Binomial ...
5
votes
3answers
201 views

How Many Ways to Build a 6-Pack

There is a beverage company here that claims to have a selection of 200 different beers. They have a special deal where you can build your own six pack at a discount. They advertise that there are ...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

How do we calculate factorials for numbers with decimal places? [duplicate]

I was playing with my calculator when I tried $1.5!$. It came out to be $1.32934038817$. Now my question is that isn't factorial for natural numbers only? Like $2!$ is $2\times1$, but how do we ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

Non-equality with Gamma functions

Let $n \in N$, $k \in Z_+$. Show that $$ \frac{\Gamma\left(k+\frac 12\right)}{\Gamma\left(k+\frac ...
4
votes
4answers
246 views

$\left(-\frac{1}{2}\right)! = \sqrt{\pi}?$ [duplicate]

I recently learned that $\left(-\frac{1}{2}\right)! = \sqrt{\pi}$ but I don't understand how that makes sense. Can someone please explain how this is possible? Thanks!
1
vote
1answer
313 views

Summation with factorial terms (involving Laguerre polynomials)

As part of an exercise including gamma functions and Laguerre polynomials, I need to show that for a Laguerre polynomial $L_n(x)$, $$\int\limits_0^\infty L_n(x)x^ke^{-x}dx = 0 \textrm{ with } n \in ...
17
votes
2answers
9k views

How to find the factorial of a fraction?

From what I know, the factorial function is defined as follows: $$n! = n(n-1)(n-2) \cdots(3)(2)(1)$$ And $0! = 1$. However, this page seems to be saying that you can take the factorial of a ...
1
vote
1answer
152 views

Gamma function question

Gamma function is also known as generalized factorial function . why does the term "generalized" have been used ? Again, why is the Gamma function called Euler's second integral?
4
votes
0answers
94 views

Generalizing Jitsuro Nagura's result: my resulting upper bound for the second chebyshev function is too low. What am I doing wrong?

I've been reading through Jitsuro Nagura's classic proof that there is a prime between $x$ and $\frac{6x}{5}$ and it seems to me that it should be possible to improve on his upper bound for the second ...
0
votes
0answers
81 views

Using Stirling's Formula to approximate a difference of logarithms of factorials in the same way as Jitsuro Nagura.

In Jitsuro Nagura's classic proof of a prime existing between $x$ and $\frac{6x}{5}$, he uses Stirling's formula to show that: $$T\left(x\right) - T\left(\frac{x}{2}\right) - ...
0
votes
0answers
54 views

Do these inequalities regarding the gamma function and factorials work?

I am seeing if it is possible to generalize lemma 1 in Nagura's proof that there is always a prime between $x$ and $\frac{6x}{5}$. In a previous question, I asked whether the following inequality is ...
2
votes
0answers
60 views

Trying to generalize an inequality from Jitsuro Nagura: Does this work?

I am investigating the generality of Lemma 1 in Nagura's proof that there is always a prime between $x$ and $\frac{6x}{5}$. In Lemma 1, Nagura establishes when $n > 1$, $x \ge 1$: ...
0
votes
1answer
116 views

Proving that a specific gamma function is a guaranteed lower bound for a factorial function

In reviewing Ramanujan's proof of Bertrand's postulate, Ramanujan observes that: $$\ln\Gamma(x) - 2\ln\Gamma(\frac{x+1}{2}) \le \ln(\lfloor{x}\rfloor!) - 2\ln(\lfloor\frac{x}{2}\rfloor!)$$ I have ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

Is it possible to generalize Ramanujan's lower bound for factorials when $\{\frac{x}{b_2}\} + \{\frac{x}{b_3}\} < 1$?

This is the second attempt at a proof. My first attempt had a flaw in its logic. After reviewing the mistake in logic, I believe that with a revised logic, the argument can be saved. The revision ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Is it possible to generalize Ramanujan's lower bound for factorials when $\{\frac{x}{b_2}\} + \{\frac{x}{b_3}\} \ge 1$?

This is the second attempt at a proof. My first attempt had a flaw in its logic. After reviewing the mistake in logic, I believe that with a revised logic, the argument can be saved. The revision ...
8
votes
1answer
227 views

Is it possible to generalize Ramanujan's lower bound for factorials that he used in his proof of Bertrand's Postulate?

I am starting to feel more confident in my understanding of Ramanujan's proof of Bertrand's postulate. I hope that I am not getting overconfident. In particular, Ramanujan's does the following ...
1
vote
0answers
138 views

Using the gamma function as an upper and lower bound to the logarithm of a factorial function.

I am trying to find an upper and lower bound for the following function: $$f(x) = \ln(\lfloor\frac{x}{b_1}\rfloor!) - \ln(\lfloor\frac{x}{b_2}\rfloor!) - \ln(\lfloor\frac{x}{b_3}\rfloor!)$$ where ...
5
votes
1answer
377 views

Question about Ramanujan's proof of Bertrand's Postulate

I am reviewing Ramanujan's proof of Bertrand's Postulate which can be found here. At step #7, he writes: "But it is easy to see that..." $\log\Gamma(x) - 2\log\Gamma\left(\frac{1}{2}x + ...
10
votes
1answer
340 views

How to solve $x!=5^x$?

Or, more generally, $$\Gamma (x+1)=\int_0^{\infty}t^{x}e^{-t}dt=p^x$$ with $p \in \mathbb{Z}^+$ and $x \in \mathbb{C}$. Perhaps begin with $\large p^x=p^x \lim_{n \rightarrow ...
5
votes
3answers
215 views

Limits defined for negative factorials (i.e. $(-n)!,\space n\in\mathbb{N}$)

I apoligize if this is a stupid/obvious question, but last night I was wondering how we can compute limits for factorials of negative integers, for instance, how do we evaluate: ...
1
vote
2answers
215 views

Relating Gamma and factorial function for non-integer values.

We have $$\Gamma(n+1)=n!,\ \ \ \ \ \Gamma(n+2)=(n+1)!$$ for integers, so if $\Delta$ is some real value with $$0<\Delta<1,$$ then $$n!\ <\ \Gamma(n+1+\Delta)\ <\ (n+1)!,$$ because ...
4
votes
2answers
116 views

Summation of a binomial style sum, equal to gamma function?

I am trying to prove the following for a very, very long time: $$\sum_{k=0}^j \frac{ (-1)^k}{k! (j-k)!} \frac{1}{2k+1} = \frac{1}{2} \frac{\sqrt{\pi}}{\Gamma(3/2 + j)}$$ or, equivalently ...
14
votes
6answers
3k views

Stirling's formula: proof?

Suppose we want to show that $$ n! \sim \sqrt{2 \pi} n^{n+(1/2)}e^{-n}$$ Instead we could show that $$\lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{n!}{n^{n+(1/2)}e^{-n}} = C$$ where $C$ is a constant. Maybe $C = ...
5
votes
3answers
638 views

Asymptotics of terms and errors in Stirling's Approximation

I have two related questions. Both are related to the asymptotics of Stirling's approximation, which is why I have included them in the same question. I will separate the questions if it is deemed ...
27
votes
1answer
639 views

A series problem by Knuth

I came across the following problem, known as Knuth's Series which originally was an American Mathematical Monthly problem. Prove that $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty ...