Questions about exponentiation, the operation of raising a base $b$ to an exponent $a$ to give $b^a$.

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6
votes
4answers
480 views

How do pocket calculators calculate exponents?

I'd like to know specifically how a pocket calculator (TI calculators also apply) calculates $e^{0.1}$, and what methods or algorithms pocket calculators use in order to produce their answer.
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Combining log terms

I have this particular problem. We have to combine the log terms into a single log term: $$\dfrac{(2\ln a- \ln b - 5\ln c)}{2}$$ I did it in the following way : $$''~= \ln a -\frac{1}{2}\ln b - ...
2
votes
2answers
42 views

When (and why) did the convention that exponents are evaluated from right to left arise?

Earlier, I saw this question on Quora: X^Y^Z Which one do I do first? and the current most-upvoted answer is this: The ^ operator is not associative, so that: (X^Y)^Z is not the same value as ...
1
vote
2answers
31 views

How many uranium-238 atoms are left after 1.338 x 10^10 years?

The half-life of uranium-238 is about 4.46 x 10^9 years. How many will there be after 1.338 x 10^10 years? How can I figure this out? I know it's exponential, but how?
1
vote
0answers
40 views

series of powers of integer powers

Given two real positive numbers $a,b\in(0,\infty)$ and a series of natural integers $n=1,2,3,\dots$, is there any known formula to apply in order to calculate the series $$s(n)=a^{b^n}?$$ My goal is ...
1
vote
2answers
33 views

Simplification of powers

I think this is a really simple question, but for some reason my brain can't get round it. I am proving a combinatorial result by probabilistic method and the last step has got me really confused. ...
1
vote
1answer
14 views

Confusion with repeated exponents

When someone writes: $3^{3^3}$ Do they mean $3^{(3^{3})}=3^{27}$ OR ${{(3^3)}^3} = 27^3$ ? There are no brackets Please reply ... this may be a silly question ... Thanks!
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Solving for single variable proving to be extremely difficult.

I have been at this equation for about two days now, and I can not for the life of me find a way to solve to i. If anyone can please show me a step by step into solving this, it would help me out so ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

Example for $a^k\equiv b^k$ and $k\equiv j$ but $a^j\not\equiv b^j\pmod n$

I need some help in the number theory please , Who can give me an example : If $$a^k≡b^k \pmod{n}$$ and $$k≡j \pmod{n}$$ is not necessary to be $$a^j≡b^j \pmod{n}$$
1
vote
2answers
32 views

Gaussian distribution raised to a power

Given that $X$ follows a Gaussian distribution $e^{-x^2/2\sigma^2}$, what distribution is followed by $X^{1/3}$? How does one start to solve this problem? I guess it isn't ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Ask about description of exponent number.

I'm a Taiwanese student and face an English describe problem. My teacher told me " 1.34 x 10 of negative 4 exponent means 1.34 x 10^(-4)" in English description. And I wander why this exponent is use ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Factorals with exponents. Is their a way?

I know of multiplication factorials with the 4! = 4*3*2*1 and I know of the addition with the nth triangle. I am busy deriving my own equation for something, and i am getting stuck on how to furthur ...
1
vote
2answers
42 views

Question on power, If 2x^2x^2x^2x… =4 Solve for x

I've seen this random example, in which can anyone give me clue how to solve for $ x $ here?
0
votes
0answers
50 views

Inverse and named fixed values, with ↑↑?

The inverse of $+$ is $-$, of $\times$ is $/$ and of $\text{^}$ is Log. Continuing upwards hyperoperationally, what is the inverse of $↑↑$? Whats more somtimes values that are fixed are given ...
-1
votes
2answers
55 views

Find remainder of $3^{12} + 5^{12}$ when divided by $13$ [closed]

What is the remainder when $3^{12} + 5^{12}$ is divided by $13$?
22
votes
7answers
3k views

Is $\exp(x)$ the same as $e^x$?

For homework I have to find the derivative of $\text {exp}(6x^5+4x^3)$ but I am not sure if this is equivalent to $e^{6x^5+4x^3}$ If there is a difference, what do I do to calculate the derivative of ...
2
votes
3answers
161 views

Is there an operation that takes $a^b$ and $a^c$, and returns $a^{bc}$?

I know that multiplying exponents of the same base will give you that base to the power of the sum of the exponents ($a^b \times a^c = a^{b+c}$), but is there anything that can be done with exponents ...
0
votes
6answers
85 views

Why does $(2^{20}+2^{20}+2^{20}+2^{21})=5\cdot 2^{20}$?

I did this question on artofproblemsolving.com and I do not understand the solution. Why do I have $5 \cdot 2^{20}$? Can anyone explain?
5
votes
1answer
111 views

For each irrational number $b$, does there exist an irrational number $a$ such that $a^b$ is rational?

It is well known that there exist two irrational numbers $a$ and $b$ such that $a^b$ is rational. By the way, I've been interested in the following two propositions. Proposition 1 : For each ...
-2
votes
1answer
65 views

What is 0 raised to 0 ???!!!! [duplicate]

I have read many articles on this confusion but i am still confused... My simple question is - What is $0^0$? What is the present agreement to this? I feel that it should be 1 as anything to ...
1
vote
4answers
51 views

Is the sum of two exponential function can be equivalent to a third exponential function? [closed]

What will be the sum of two exponential functions $2\exp(4 x) + 3 \exp(5 x)$ equivalent to a third exponential function? Is it possible?
0
votes
3answers
33 views

How to solve for f?

The question asks to solve for the variable: $$2=6(3^{4f-2})$$ I am not quite sure how to solve for $f$ because the bases on either side cannot be made equal. Here is an example of a similar ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Exponentiation for hash function & associativity

Some cryptographic papers use $H^n(x)$ to mean $H(H^{n-1}(x))$ where $H^0(x) = x$ and $H$ is a cryptographic hash. So $H^3(x)$ would be $H(H(H(x)))$. Is this definition formally correct? It seems to ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Evaluating Expressions with Integer Exponents

Simplify the expression by writing as a single power and then evaluate for a=-1,b=-2 and c=3. $$(b^{3}a^{4})^{2} \times (a^{3}c)^{3} \over ac^{3}$$ Here is what I did: ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Exponents with base close to $1$.

I was just fiddling around with a calculator and calculating powers of numbers really close to $1$ like $1.01,1.001\dots$ trying to find at what value they exceed $2$. This got me thinking if I could ...
0
votes
4answers
68 views

What is the reciprocal of $(-1/2)^k$?

What is the reciprocal of $(-1/2)^k$? The answer is meant to be $2^{-k}$ as if you flip something upside down the power becomes negative. However, I am not sure what happens to the negative in front ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

How to compute $(a+1)^b\pmod{n}$ using $a^b\pmod{n}$?

As we know, we can compute $a^b \pmod{n}$ efficiently using Right-to-left binary method Modular exponentiation. Assume b is a prime number . Can we compute directly $(a+1)^b\pmod{n}$ using ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

Audio frequency increment yielding wrong results

I am writing something in the ChucK programming language, which is designed specifically for audio time functions (in this case, hertz). I'm having a really difficult time with a mathematical ...
5
votes
0answers
81 views

The smallest non-zero integer $c$ such that $\sum\limits_{n=1}^m\pm(x+n)^6 = c$?

We have the neat equalities, I. Group 1 For $k=2,3,4,5,\dots$ $$\sum_{n=1}^{2^k}\epsilon_n(x+n)^k = 2^{\frac{k(k-1)}{2}}k! = 4,\;48,\;1536,\;\color{brown}{122880},\dots$$ for appropriate ...
0
votes
1answer
45 views

Can I simplify $ \ln(A/B)+C$ any more?

This should be a rather simple problem however I am having difficulty getting this simplified. If I need to simplify the expression $$ \ln(A/B)+C$$ My first step is $$ A/B + e^c$$ However MATLAB and ...
0
votes
4answers
52 views

How do you algebraically derive “x <= 0” from “-x = | x |”

A = "-x = | x |" B = "x <= 0" If A, then B. By plugging in numbers or testing ranges less than zero, greater than zero, and equal to zero, I can verify that A ...
4
votes
1answer
60 views

A problem with exponent laws…

Solve for $x$: $$x^{\frac 13}={32\over \sqrt{x}}$$ I'm not sure how start up this problem. I thought you had to multiply both sides by $\sqrt{x}$ so that it cancels out on the right side and moves ...
2
votes
0answers
34 views

How to reduce exponentiation expressions?

It is a simple question but I am afraid of its simplicity. Is that correct : $2^{30}+2^{30}+2^{30}+2^{30} = 2^{30}(1 + 1 + 1 + 1) = (2^{30})\cdot 4 = 2^{30}\cdot2^2 = 2^{32}$? I am doing complex ...
0
votes
2answers
26 views

Why is $-x = (x^2) ^ {\frac{1}{2}}$ not logically equivalent to $(-x) ^ 2 = ((x^2) ^ {\frac{1}{2}}) ^ 2$?

Why is $-x = (x^2) ^ {\frac{1}{2}}$ not logically equivalent to $(-x) ^ 2 = ((x^2) ^ {\frac{1}{2}}) ^ 2$ for all values of x? First equation: $-x = (x^2) ^ {\frac{1}{2}}$ Second equation: $(-x) ^ ...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

Help with repeated squaring

I'm having trouble figuring out how to use repeated squaring to figure out 289^377 mod 589. I've seen other websites break the exponent down into (1 + 4 + 16 ... ), but I'm not sure when to do that.
4
votes
0answers
57 views

Why can $x^0$ sometimes be simplified to 1 even when x can equal 0?

For example, the Taylor series for $e^x$ is $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{x^n}{n!}$. It seems like it should be indeterminate or undefined at $x=0$, since the first term would contain $0^0$, but it's not ...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

Raising numbers with powers

So the question is as follows: Let $f(x) = \int_{0}^x \frac{x}{2\sqrt{t}}dt$. Suppose $f(f(f(...f(f(a))...)))$ (done $2013$ times) $= 2^{2013}$. Find the real-valued solution of $a$ Now, for my ...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

Pattern in Digits in Powers of 2

Along a similar line to this question, (pattern in decimal representation of powers of 5), I was playing around in a mathematics program called GAP. I was entering powers of two, when I noticed an ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

How to simplify recurrence relation?

I'm having trouble seeing how $$5(2^{n-1} + 5\cdot 3^{n-1}) - 6(2^{n-2} + 5\cdot3^{n-2})$$ simplifies to: $$2^{n-2}\cdot (10 - 6) + 3^{n-2} \cdot (75 - 30)$$ How can I simplify the above ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Calculating the number of times a value must be halved for it to be less than or equal to another value

This is not a homework question; I'm working out an algorithm for an app I'm writing and I want to calculate the number of times I must halve a base value for it to be less than or equal to a minimum. ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Does (x^y)^a+b = x^(y*(a+b)) or x^((y*a)+b)?

I posses two Math books, both of which define a certain property of the algebraic manipulation of exponents in different ways. For example: Book one would claim that: 2^((3)2+3) = 2(3*5) = 2^15, ...
0
votes
1answer
61 views

An upper bound for $a_1 (\sum_{i=2}^n a_i^{n-1})$ in terms of $a_1^n + \sum_{i=2}^n a_i^n$

Assume that $n \in \mathbb{N}, n \geq 2$ and $a_i \in \mathbb{R}, a_i > 0, \forall i=1,...,n$ Show that $$ \frac{a_1 (\sum_{i=2}^n a_i^{n-1})}{ a_1^n + \sum_{i=2}^n a_i^n} \leq 1 -\frac{1}{n}$$ ...
2
votes
2answers
60 views

What is the correct value?

My confusion is: $(-9)^{2/3} = ((-9)^{2})^{1/3} = ((-9)^{(1/3)})^{2} = 4.32$ But my calculator shows math error, and google says: $(-9)^{2/3} = 2.16+3.74i$
3
votes
1answer
30 views

Simplifying exponents

I've been refreshing my maths over the last couple of weeks, and it's been a challenge since it has been a long time since I was actively using it (20+ years). Anyways, Khan Academy and old textbooks ...
5
votes
1answer
71 views

Is there a $k$ such that $2^n$ has $6$ as one of its digits for all $n\ge k$?

It is true that every power of $2$ of the form $2^{6+10x}$, $x\in\mathbb{N}$, has $6$ as one of its digits. Something more is true, the last two digits are either $64$ or $36$. The OP suggests that ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

Logarithmic question

In the following question I fail to understand why the A option is correct. I understand that D is wrong, and that B and C are correct, but why is A correct? If $3^x=4^{x-1}$, then $x $cannot be ...
6
votes
2answers
365 views

Prove an inequality on natural number

Show that if $ a,b\in N$ and $a < b$, then $$\frac{a^a}{(a+1)^{a+1}} > \frac{b^b}{(b+1)^{b+1}}.$$
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Find $E[W|X>Y]$ where $W = X+Y$ and $X,Y \sim \exp(2)$ independently

I need an idea on how to solve following conditional expectation $E[W|X>Y]$ where $W = X+Y$ and $X,Y \sim \exp(2)$ and $X$ and $Y$ are independent. Thanks.
1
vote
1answer
32 views

How to prove that $f(x) = x^ε - \log x$ is $\infty$ when $x\to\infty$?

I'm trying to prove that the function $x^ε$ is "bigger" than $\log x$ when $x\to\infty$, for every $ε>0$. Or to put it in a more formal way: For every $ε>0$, there exists a constant $N$ for ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

How to solve an equation with absolute value and x as exponent.

The inequation is: I thought that the solution would be the same as if there was no x as exponent, but in Microsoft Math it says it has no solution and about the equation it said it has solutions. ...