Questions about exponentiation

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1answer
57 views

Square root of $\frac{2}{2^x}$; how do I find $x$?

I have this: $$\sqrt{\frac{2}{2^x}} = 9.313225746154785 \times 10^{−10}$$ (sqrt(2/(2^x))) How should I find $x$? I know it's 61 for this case, but I'd like to know how to solve it for when I don't. ...
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1answer
32 views

Calculating limit in parts. Why possible?

Let $f$, continuous function, differentiable at $x=1$ and $f(1)>0$. Consider the following equation: $$\lim \limits_{x\to 1} ...
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1answer
36 views

How to show that $w$ is a $N$th primitive root of unity?

I am studying the discrete Fourier transform. For sequence $x_{0}, \dots, x_{N-1}$ it is defined as $$X_{k} = \sum_{n=0}^{N-1} x_{n}e^{-2\pi ikn/N} \quad 0 \leq k \leq N-1$$ according to Wikipedia. ...
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4answers
111 views

Proving exponential is growing faster than polynomial

Let $P(x)$, a polynomial which isn't the zero-polynomial. I want to prove the following limits $$\lim \limits_{x\to\infty} \left|P(x)\right|e^{-x} = 0$$ $$\lim \limits_{x\to-\infty} ...
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2answers
81 views

Is $\lim_{x\to 0+} \frac{\ln(x)}{\ln(x)} = \frac{-\infty}{-\infty} = 1$

$$\lim_{x\to 0^+} \sin(x)^\frac{1}{\ln(x)} = ... = \exp \left(\lim_{x\to 0^+} \frac{\ln(\frac{\sin x}{x}) + \ln(x)}{\ln(x)}\right)$$ Now, from continuity we can evaluate each term separately. ...
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2answers
46 views

Find the value of $\frac{S_{5}S_{2}}{S_{7}}$

If $a$, $b$, $c$ $\in \mathbb R$, we define $S_{k}=\frac{a^k+b^k+c^k}{k}$ (where $k$ is a non-negative integer). Given that $S_{1}=0$, find the value of $$\frac{S_{5}S_{2}}{S_{7}}$$ I tried: ...
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5answers
904 views

Solving base e equation

So I ran into some confusion while doing this problem, and I won't bore you with the details, but it comes down to trying to solve $e^x - e^{-x} = 0$. I know to solve it, we can rewrite it as $e^x - ...
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0answers
45 views

$U(n) =$ the smallest strictly positive integer $k$ such that $2^k-1$ is divisible by the first $n$ primes. What are the first values of $U(n)$?

$U(n) =$ the smallest strictly positive integer $k$ such that $2^k-1$ is divisible by the first $n$ prime numbers (except for the first prime number: $2$). What are the first values of $U(n)$ up to ...
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1answer
50 views

How do they integrate this exponential?

Below, I tired to integrate te^(-j2pi*t) from 0 to 1. But am not getting what my professor got for n not equal to zero, which is also shown. I tried LIATE but am always getting something with an ...
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4answers
109 views

$(-1)^{0.2}=0.8090 + 0.5878i$ how can this be?

I'm working on a numerical analysis project (working with matlab a lot) and I noticed that when I ask for matlab to compute the exponent of a negative number, it gives wrong output when the exponent ...
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2answers
24 views

Concerning Rules of Exponents & Absolute Value

I understand that one of the accepted definitions of the absolute value function is $\left| x \right| = \sqrt{x^2}$. However, I do not understand why if I substitute $-5$ in for $x$ that I can't do ...
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2answers
121 views

Combination of quadratic and arithmetic series

Problem: Calculate $\dfrac{1^2+2^2+3^2+4^2+\cdots+23333330^2}{1+2+3+4+\cdots+23333330}$. Attempt: I know the denominator is arithmetic series and equals ...
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0answers
55 views

Exponential integral with $x^2$ and $\cos x$

The first part is just a Gaussian integral and the second is the modified Bessel function of the first kind for $n=0$, but I couldn't find any information and what to do with their summation. Any tips ...
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2answers
16 views

Find numbers who compose the sum of sequence numbers(nth root)

I have an sequence of numbers 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and so on. Given an number, which must be the sum of the sequence, for example: 44(which is the sum of 4+8+32). How do I know the number 44 is composed ...
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1answer
21 views

Algebraic Proof of Sum of Exponential Powers is Product of Exponentials

Can somebody provide a proof of the summation of powers law for the product of two exponentials, using only algebra and the Taylor series, no derivatives or calculus tricks?
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1answer
48 views

Why do we define the complex exponential as we do?

Why do we define the complex exponential as we do? Defining $e^{z}$ as $e^{x}e^{iy}$ certainly seems to make sense, but I'm not sure the formal reason as to why it's defined like this. Was it from ...
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3answers
88 views

Solve exponential equation $3^x= 2^x+2$

How do we solve this? I can't think of an easy way.. Is there any way to solve it without using newton's method or other approximations? $3^x=2^x+2$
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0answers
14 views

Fast way to find exponential of a matrix dot product where one of them is diagonal

Suppose $Q$ is a dot product of diagonal matrix A and matrix B: $$ Q=A\cdot B= \left( \begin{matrix} a_1 & 0 & \cdots & 0 \\ 0 & a_2 & \cdots & 0 \\ ...
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4answers
72 views

closed-form term for this sum:

related to this question: Is there an easy closed-form term for $$\sum_{j=k}^{\infty} \frac{x^j}{j!}e^{-x},$$ thus when the sum starts at a constant $k$ instead of $1$? EDIT: Thanks for your help. ...
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2answers
69 views

If any integer to the power of $x$ is integer, must $x$ be integer?

My apologies if this has been asked already, I've searched but couldn't find it... Let $x$ such that for every $y \in N$, $y^x$ is an integer. Does that necessarily mean that $x$ is an integer?
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1answer
175 views

Solving Weird Exponential Equations

I am working on my math homework when I encountered a difficult problem. I simplified the equation and substituted smaller numbers to get this: $n*2^n>10$ I have tried standard algebraic ...
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1answer
38 views

Choosing a branch of the square root

Assume $O$ is the compliment of the non-positive part of the real line to the complex plane. This is an open and connected set. Only one of the values of $\sqrt z$ in $O$ has positive real part. With ...
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21 views

Simplification of a power weighted alternating binomial sum

Given positive integers $T$, $n$ and $m$ and real number $p$ with $0< p < 1$, how can I simplify the following binomial sum: $$ \sum_{k=m}^{\lfloor ...
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1answer
46 views

How to simplify this equation? $1+\sqrt {2^{2a_{n}+b_{n}+1}-16^{a_{n}}-4^{b_{n}}}=\log _{3}\left( a_{n}+b_{n}\right) $

How to simplify this equation? $1+\sqrt {2^{2a_{n}+b_{n}+1}-16^{a_{n}}-4^{b_{n}}}=\log _{3}\left( a_{n}+b_{n}\right) $
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5answers
47 views

Fraction with negative exponent fraction.

Q: $$\left(\frac{27 a^6 b^{-3}}{c^{-2}}\right)^{-2/3}$$ A: $$\frac{b^2}{9 a^4 c^{4/3}}$$ How in the world are they getting that?
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69 views

What is the limit of $\log_k(k^a + k^b)$ for $k \to +\infty$?

I'm not very good with analysis (I never studied it) but because of my "work" on other topics of mathematics I came to this problem. $$\lim_{k \to +\infty }\log_k(k^a + k^b)=\max(a,b)$$ I'm sure ...
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1answer
44 views

$\mathrm{Ei}(x)$, the exponential function, some question.

I have a question involving with $\mathrm{Ei}(x)$, define as $\int_{-x}^{\infty}e^u \cdot u^{-1} \mathrm{d}u$. My question is, when I have a expression say $\exp(x) \cdot \mathrm{Ei}(x)+1$. I want ...
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3answers
54 views

negative powers $(x^{-2} = 1/x^2)$

I need clarification for negative power of a number. I understand $x$ to the power of $2$ is equal to $x\cdot x$ But how $x$ to the power of $-2$ is equal to $\dfrac{1}{x^2}$ ?
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2answers
49 views

Definition of $a^b$ for complex numbers

Problem statement Let $\Omega \subset C^*$ open and let $f:\Omega \to \mathbb C$ be a branch of logarithm, $b \in \mathbb C$, $a \in \Omega$. We define $a^b=e^{bf(a)}.$ $(i)$ Verify that if $b \in ...
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1answer
52 views

How are the cardinalities of the object images of adjoint functors related?

Here is a very silly question: Adjoint functors satisfy $$\mathrm{hom}_{\mathcal{C}}(FA,B) \cong \mathrm{hom}_{\mathcal{D}}(A,GB).$$ I consider numbers $a,b$ and read this as ...
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1answer
43 views

Something that grows faster than NP class of problem does

I have a theoretical question. F.ex. we have a NP-class of problem, i.e. which do need exponential time on deterministic Turing machine. Is there anything that is growing faster than exponent does. ...
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72 views

Factorial of zero is 1. Why? [duplicate]

Why is the factorial of zero, one. What is the mathematical proof behind it?
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28 views

Special cases of the $A^k$ matrix power

Let $A$ be az $n \times n$ real matrix. Suppose, that there is a fixed $k_0 \in \mathbb{N}_+$, and for this $k_0$ the matrix power $A^{k_0}$ has a closed formula, for example $A^{k_0}=k_0 A$ or ...
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0answers
49 views

If $f$ is holomorphic, then there is a holomorphic function $h$ such that $e^{h(z)}=f(z)$

Let $f:G\to\mathbb{C}$ denote a holomorphic function over a star-shaped domain $G$ and $f\ne 0$ on $G$. I want to show that it holds $\frac{f'}{f}$ is holomorphic There is a holomorphic function ...
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0answers
14 views

Finding the exponent in this situation

Basically how do I find an exponent of 2 that when multiplied with another number would bring the result closest to the positive side 1? Like this: $y = x \cdot 2^a$, where $y≥1$ has to be as small as ...
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3answers
41 views

If $2 \cdot log_e{(x -2y)} = log_e{y} + log_e{x}$, then find the numerical value of $\frac{x}{y}$

If $2 \cdot log_e{(x -2y)} = log_e{y} + log_e{x}$, then find the numerical value of $\frac{x}{y}$ My try: $2 \cdot log_e{(x -2y)} = log_e{y} + log_e{x}$ $log_e{(x-2y)^2} = log_e{xy}$ ...
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3answers
46 views

$M$ matrix, $\mathrm{rank}\ M=1$. Prove that $det(e^M)=1$ iff $M$ is not diagonalizable

M is a $n\times n$ matrix over $\mathbb R$. with $\mathrm{rank}\ M=1$. Prove that $det(e^M)=1$ if and only if $M$ is not diagonalizable. I really don't know how to start thinking about this.. :/ I'd ...
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1answer
17 views

Proving increasing function, base < 1, exponent increasing

For a fair lottery game where the odds of $1$ ticket winning are $1$ in $p$, where you can spend a total of $K$ dollars, and where you will spread your ticket purchases equally among $n$ draws, prove ...
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1answer
20 views

Question about calculating exponent of polynomial

$V=R_{3}[X] $ and $T:V->V$ is a linear transformation : $T(p(x)) = p(x) + xp'(x)$ I need to find $e^{T(1+x+x^{2}-x^{3})}$ I don't understand how to do it? what does it mean to calculate exponent ...
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0answers
9 views

An extension of the Golden-Thompson inequality

For three symmetric positive-semidefinite matrices $A,B,C$ I am trying to figure out if the following inequality is correct, at least in some cases: $$tr\left(A e^{B+C} \right) \leq tr\left(A ...
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2answers
52 views

Simplifying $x^i$ to real numbers

I have been studying power functions, and started to think about imaginary powers. Take the function $x^i$. Because I don't know how to multiply a number $i$ times, I tried to simplify the equation ...
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0answers
20 views

Solving sum of one variable with real exponents

I'm working with an annoying maximisation problem at the moment. I've spent a long time Googling, but I'm not having much success and I suspect it would be simple enough if I had the right tools. I ...
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1answer
28 views

Calculus / exponential

Find values of a and b so that $y = a·b^x$ and the line $y = x + 2$ are tangent at $x = 0$. I tried to substitute with the zero and it seem that the $B=1$ at all time but what about the $a$?
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2answers
46 views

Writing $e^{i\theta}(e^{in\theta}-1)/(e^{i\theta}-1)$ in $(a+i b)$ form

How to write: $$e^{i\theta}\cdot\frac{e^{in\theta}-1} {e^{i\theta}-1}$$ in $$(a+i b) $$ $$ ?$$ I tried to multiplicate by $$e^{i}$$ (the numerator and ...
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1answer
41 views

Infinite Perfect power of numbers in a certain form

A question I found very interesting , which I found written on a blackboard while visiting a near by community science center is as follows. Prove that there exist infinitely many $m,n,k$ for ...
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1answer
34 views

Lower bound for $(x + y)^k $?

I'm wondering, is there a lower bound for $(x + y)^k $? For example, if $x,y,k > 0$, can we say that $(x + y)^k \geq x^k + y^k$? If anyone has a source/reference for this, that would be great.
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1answer
12 views

Finding an exponential formula passed upon the start and end points.

I'd like to create pricing curve that's based upon a reverse exponential function. I know the starting point and ending point, but don't know how to create the curve in between. For example, say for ...
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4answers
64 views

If $10^{80}=2^x$, what is the value of $x$?

If $10^{80}=2^x$, what is the value of $x$? (Or, what binary word length would you need to contain $10$ to the $80$?)
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1answer
146 views

Solving the equation $a ^ b + b ^ a = 200$

Find $a$ and $b$, $a ^ b + b ^ a = 200$ One of the answers is $a = 1$ and $b = 199$. Lets say $a, b$ belongs to $\mathbb{R}$ then there will be many solutions, for each $a$ there exist $b$, in ...
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1answer
21 views

Find highest power of 2 that divides $3^{2^k}-1$

I am trying to find highest power of 2 that divides $3^{2^k}-1$ but I have no idea where to start - could you give me any hint?