For question involving exponential functions and questions on exponential growth or decay.

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38
votes
4answers
1k views

If $e^A$ and $e^B$ commute, do $A$ and $B$ commute?

It is known that if two matrices $A,B \in M_n(\mathbb{C})$ commute, then $e^A$ and $e^B$ commute. Is the converse true? If $e^A$ and $e^B$ commute, do $A$ and $B$ commute? Edit: Addionally, what ...
34
votes
11answers
17k views

Do factorials really grow faster than exponential functions?

Having trouble understanding this. Is there anyway to prove it?
31
votes
18answers
3k views

Simplest or nicest proof that $1+x \le e^x$

The elementary but very useful inequality that $1+x \le e^x$ for all real $x$ has a number of different proofs, some of which can be found online. But is there a particularly slick, intuitive or ...
31
votes
3answers
957 views

Limit with a big exponentiation tower

Find the value of the following limit: $$\huge\lim_{x\to\infty}e^{e^{e^{\biggl(x\,+\,e^{-\left(a+x+e^{\Large x}+e^{\Large e^x}\right)}\biggr)}}}-e^{e^{e^{x}}}$$ (original image) I don't ...
25
votes
3answers
844 views

If there are entire $G_k$s such that $f=\exp\circ\exp\circ\cdots \circ\exp\circ G_k$ ($k$ times), must $f$ be constant?

I am a French guest and I hope that my English isn't too bad... So here is my issue: I consider an entire function $f$ which satisfies the following property for each complex number $z\in ...
21
votes
13answers
1k views

Intuitive proofs that $\lim\limits_{n\to\infty}\left(1+\frac xn\right)^n=e^x$

At this link someone asked how to prove rigorously that $$ \lim_{n\to\infty}\left(1+\frac xn\right)^n = e^x. $$ What good intuitive arguments exist for this statement? Later ...
21
votes
9answers
1k views

Finding the limit of $\left(\frac{n}{n+1}\right)^n$

Find the limit of: $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\left(\frac{n}{n+1}\right)^n$$ I'm pretty sure it goes to zero since $(n+1)^n > n^n$ but when I input large numbers it goes to $0.36$. Also, when ...
20
votes
18answers
2k views

How to understand why $x^0 = 1$, where $x$ is any real number?

Alright, so the idea of an exponent, $x$, is that you are multiplying its base by itself $x$ number of times. With base $5$ and $x=3$, we have that $5^3$ = $5 \cdot 5 \cdot 5$ I understand that the ...
19
votes
3answers
368 views

How to prove $ \lim_{n \to \infty} e^n \cdot \left( \sum_{k=0}^{n-1} ({k-n \over e})^k/k! \right)- 2 \cdot n = \frac 23$?

I observed for the function $$ f(n)= e^n \sum_{k=0}^{n-1}\left(\dfrac{k - n}{e}\right)^k \cdot \dfrac{1}{k!} \tag 1$$ with small $n$ that ...
18
votes
4answers
318 views

Find the smallest k such that $n^k > \sum_{i=0}^{n-1} i^k$

Let $n \in \mathbb{N}$. Is it possible to find the smallest $k \in \mathbb{N}$ such that $$n^k > \sum_{i=1}^{n-1} i^k \ ?$$ It's easy to prove that such $k$ exist because: $$n^k > 1^k + 2^k ...
18
votes
3answers
275 views

What combinatorial quantity the tetration of two natural numbers represents?

Tetration is a generalization of exponentiation in arithmetic and a part of a series of other generalized notions, Hyperoperators. Consider $m\uparrow n$ denotes the tetration of $m$ and $n$. i.e. ...
17
votes
10answers
1k views

Why isn't $\lim \limits_{x\to\infty}(1+\frac{1}{x})^{x}= 1$?

Given $\lim \limits_{x\to\infty}(1+\frac{1}{x})^{x}$, why can't you reduce it to $\lim \limits_{x\to\infty}(1+0)^{x}$, making the result "$1$"? Obviously, it's wrong, as the true value is $e$. Is it ...
16
votes
1answer
802 views

Can you raise $\pi$ to a real power to make it rational?

We're all familair with this beautiful proof whether or not an irrational number to an irrational power can be rational. It goes something like this: Take $(\sqrt{2})^{\sqrt{2}}$ If it's rational, ...
14
votes
3answers
2k views

Is this question too easy or am I getting it wrong?

In my homework, I am asked to find the limit $$\lim\limits_{x\to0}{\frac{x}{e^x}}$$ But obviously, you could just substitute $x = 0$: $$\lim\limits_{x\to0}{\frac{x}{e^x}} = ...
14
votes
3answers
337 views

Find $x$ from $3^x\cdot x^3 = 1$

I saw a question on internet, tried to solve but I can't: \begin{equation} 3^x\cdot x^3 = 1 \end{equation} I get $\ln$ function and made some equalization and I reached that: \begin{equation} ...
14
votes
3answers
488 views

Is there a simple proof that $e^2$ is irrational using a positional numeral system?

My favorite proof that $e$ is irrational goes something like this. Observe that we can write any real number $r$ as $$ a \,+\, \frac{b_2}{2} \,+\, \frac{b_3}{3!} \,+\, \frac{b_4}{4!} \,+\, ...
14
votes
2answers
2k views

Integral of matrix exponential

Let $A$ be an $n \times n$ matrix. Then the solution of the initial value problem \begin{align*} \dot{x}(t) = A x(t), \quad x(0) = x_0 \end{align*} is given by $x(t) = \mathrm{e}^{At} x_0$. I am ...
13
votes
4answers
688 views

Prove that e is irrational

Prove that e is an irrational number. Recall that e $=\displaystyle\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{1}{n!},\,\,$ and assume $\mathrm{e}$ is rational. Then $$\sum\limits_{k=0}^\infty \frac{1}{k!} = ...
13
votes
6answers
434 views

$\pi$ from the unit circle, $\sqrt 2$ from the unit square but what about $e$? [duplicate]

If one wants to introduce $\pi$ to a not mathematically savvy person, the unit circle would be a good choice. The unit square would be the way to go for $\sqrt 2$. But what about $e$? I've reviewed ...
12
votes
6answers
1k views

Proving the inequality $e^{-2x}\leq 1-x$

How do I prove the inequality $e^{-2x}\leq1-x$ for $0\leq x\leq1/2$?
12
votes
3answers
464 views

Can $\displaystyle\lim_{h\to 0}\frac{b^h - 1}{h}$ be solved without circular reasoning?

In many places I have read that $$\lim_{h\to 0}\frac{b^h - 1}{h}$$ is by definition $\ln(b)$. Does that mean that this is unsolvable without using that fact or a related/derived one? I can of course ...
12
votes
4answers
359 views

Euler's identity: why is the $e$ in $e^{ix}$? What if it were some other constant like $2^{ix}$?

$e^{ix}$ describes a unit circle in polar coordinates on the complex plane, where x is the angle (in radians) counterclockwise of the positive real axis. My intuition behind this is that ...
12
votes
0answers
193 views

A closed form for $\int_0^\infty\left(\frac{2^{-x}-3^{-x}}x\right)^adx,\ a\notin\mathbb{Z}^+$

Let $$I(a)=\int_0^\infty\left(\frac{2^{-x}-3^{-x}}x\right)^adx.$$ $I(a)$ has closed form representations for all $a\in\mathbb{Z}^+$. Is there any algebraic (or at least period) ...
11
votes
6answers
6k views

Solve $e^x+x=1$

This seems to have stumped even my TA, so I'm asking it here. Given $e^x + x = 1$, solve for $x$. I already know that the answer is zero, but have no idea how to get there.
11
votes
4answers
1k views

Exponential growth of cow populations in Minecraft

Minecraft is a computer game where you can do many things including farm cows. When fed wheat, cows in Minecraft breed with each other in pairs and produce one baby per pair. After about 20 minutes ...
11
votes
6answers
366 views

Given a matrix $A$, find $A^n$

Given the matrix $$A = \left[{9\atop20}{-4\atop-9}\right]$$ how do I find $A^7$ or $A^{54}$ or $A^{2008}$ (etc.) ? I know I need the eigenvalues of A, but I'm not sure what to do afterwards. Is the ...
11
votes
1answer
194 views

Is $\exp:\overline{\mathbb{M}}_n\to\mathbb{M}_n$ injective?

More specific to my problem, this is a variation on Is $\exp:\mathbb{M_n}\to\mathbb{M_n}$ injective? which was promptly answered with a counterexample. Let $\mathbb{M}_n$ be the space of $n\times n$ ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

Show that $ e^{A+B}=e^A e^B$

If $A$ and $B$ are $n\times n$ matrices such that $AB = BA$ (that is, $A$ and $B$ commute), show that $$ e^{A+B}=e^A e^B$$ Note that $A$ and $B$ do NOT have to be diagonalizable.
10
votes
5answers
792 views

Solve the equation $2^x=1-x$

Solve the equation: $$2^x=1-x$$ I know this is extremely easy and I know the solution using graphical approach. Basically, I can see the solution, but I can't work it out algebraically.
10
votes
7answers
416 views

Find $\lim_{x\to-\infty}{x+e^{-x}}$

I have this exercise in my worksheet: $$\lim_{x\to-\infty}{x+e^{-x}}$$ I am always ending up with $-∞+∞$ or $\frac{∞}{∞}$. It says the answer is $+∞$, but how can I get that?
10
votes
4answers
244 views

prove that $\frac{1-e^{-x^2}}{x}\le 2\sqrt{2} , \ x>0$,

Can you show very easy methods? I hope I'll see many methods. Thank you everyone. Prove that: $$\frac{1-e^{-x^2}}{x}\le 2\sqrt{2} \ \ \ \qquad \forall x>0.$$
10
votes
2answers
218 views

Conjectural closed form for $\int_0^\infty\sqrt[3]z\ \operatorname{Ei}^2(-z)\,dz$

While trying to answer the question "A closed form for $\displaystyle\int_0^1\frac{\ln(-\ln x)\ \operatorname{li}^2x}{x}dx$", I came up with a conjecture: $$\int_0^\infty\sqrt[3]z\ ...
10
votes
2answers
643 views

Prove $e^{x+y}=e^{x}e^{y}$ by using Exponential Series

In order to show $e^{x+y}=e^{x}e^{y}$ by using Exponential Series, I got the following: $$e^{x}e^{y}=\Big(\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}{x^n \over n!}\Big)\cdot \Big(\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}{y^n \over ...
10
votes
2answers
204 views

Prove that $(e+x)^{e-x}>(e-x)^{e+x}$

I get stuck with proving that $$(e+x)^{e-x}>(e-x)^{e+x}$$ for $x \in (0, e)$. All I know, is that it is doable with Jensen inequality, and I started with defining $$f(x)=(e+x)^{e-x}$$ and further ...
9
votes
4answers
851 views

Confused about complex numbers

I am confused about something: \begin{eqnarray} (e^{2 i \pi})^{0.5} = (e^{2 i \pi \cdot 0.5})= e^{i \pi}=-1 \end{eqnarray} but \begin{eqnarray} e^{2 i \pi}=1~ and~ 1^{0.5}=1 \end{eqnarray} ...
9
votes
2answers
179 views

Prove $\sum_{n=1}^\infty(e-\sum_{k=0}^n\frac1{k!})=1$

This comes from the comments section of this question here, credits Lucian. The statement is $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\left(e-\sum_{k=0}^n\frac1{k!}\right)=1$$ This looks really interesting, so I was ...
9
votes
3answers
160 views

Show that $\,\,n!<\mathrm{e}\left(\frac{n}{2}\right)^n$

I'd like to prove that $\,\,n!<\mathrm{e}\left(\frac{n}{2}\right)^n$. What I have so far: $\sqrt[n]{n!} = \sqrt[n]{1\cdot 2 \cdot \ldots \cdot n} \leq \frac{1+\ldots ...
9
votes
2answers
88 views

Why is the ratio of the number of terms needed to achieve successive integer values in the harmonic series approximately $e$?

Consider the harmonic series: $$1+\frac{1}{2}+\frac{1}{3}+\frac{1}{4}+\frac{1}{5} + \cdots .$$ It takes $1$ term to achieve a partial sum of $1$, since $1$ is the first number. It takes $4$ terms to ...
8
votes
8answers
326 views

Why is the differentiation of $e^x$ is $e^x$?

$$\frac{d}{dx} e^x=e^x$$ Please explain simply as I haven't studied the first principle of differentiation yet, but I know the basics of differentiation.
8
votes
4answers
640 views

Proof of inequality $e^x + e^{-x} \leq 2e^{x^2}$

How would I prove that $$e^x + e^{-x} \leq 2e^{x^2}, \quad \text{for all real $x$}?$$ I narrowed it down to proving for $x \in (-1,1)$. I observed that for $(0,1)$ and for $(-1,0)$ I may need to ...
8
votes
5answers
212 views

Solving $2^{2x+1} - 2^{x+4} = 2^3 - 2^x$

$$2^{2x+1} - 2^{x+4} = 2^3 - 2^x$$ How can I solve an exponential equation that has many terms as the one above. Include more than one method if available.
8
votes
3answers
408 views

Solution to differential equations $y(0)=1$ and $y^{(n)}=y+1$

When I was solving some differential equations, I asked myself the following: Is there a function has the following: $$y'=y+1$$ $$y''=y+1$$ $$y'''=y+1$$ $$......$$ $$......$$ If the initial value is ...
8
votes
3answers
484 views

Evaluate a limit (probably involving L'Hôpital rule)

Evaluate the limit: $$\mathop {\lim }\limits_{x \to \infty } x\left( {{{\left( {1 + {1 \over x}} \right)}^x} - e} \right)$$ My attempts didn't yield a result. I'd be glad for a guidance. Thanks!
8
votes
1answer
244 views

Evaluate $\int_{-1}^{1} \exp(x+e^{x})\,dx$

Evaluate $$\int_{-1}^{1} \exp({x+e^{x}})\,dx$$ where $\exp(x)=e^x$. Can anyone give me any tips on where to start with this? I've tried doing it be substitution, with $ u=e^x$ and ended up needing ...
8
votes
1answer
118 views

Need your help with the integral $\int_0^\infty\frac{dx}{e^{\,e^{-x}} \cdot e^{\,e^{x}}}$.

Is it possible to evaluate this integral in a closed form? $$\int_0^\infty\frac{dx}{e^{\,e^{-x}} \cdot e^{\,e^{x}}}$$
8
votes
7answers
421 views

How to prove continuity of $e^x$.

I simply want a proof that $e^x$ is continuous. I have never really been able to find something satisfying these points: $e$ is defined to be the limit $\lim_{n\to\infty}\left(1+{1\over ...
8
votes
2answers
232 views

Is this a new expression for $e$?

Let $f(x) = x^x$. Then, let us define a function $p(x)$ such that: $$p(x) = \frac {f(x+1)}{f(x)} - \frac {f(x)}{f(x-1)}$$ As the value of $x$ increases, $p(x)$ approaches $e$, or (I think), ...
8
votes
2answers
492 views

Integration by parts: $\int e^{ax}\cos(bx)\,dx$

I need to evaluate the following function and then check my answer by taking the derivative: $$\int e^{ax}\cos(bx)\,dx$$ where $a$ is any real number and $b$ is any positive real number. I know ...
8
votes
3answers
276 views

Proving that a definition of e is unique

We can define $e$ as the number such that $\lim_{h \to 0} \frac{e^h-1}{h}=1$. However, of course we can only define $e$ this way if it is unique, i.e., there is no other value $c$ for which that is a ...
8
votes
1answer
132 views

How can I compute this limit? [duplicate]

I have to compute $$ \lim_{n\to\infty} \exp(-n)\left(1+n+\frac{n^2}{2}+\ldots+\frac{n^n}{n!} \right)$$ I think the value is 1, but i don't know how to proof this. Do I have to estimate the remainder ...