For question involving exponential functions and questions on exponential growth or decay.

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10
votes
5answers
664 views

Solve the equation $2^x=1-x$

Solve the equation: $$2^x=1-x$$ I know this is extremely easy and I know the solution using graphical approach. Basically, I can see the solution, but I can't work it out algebraically.
10
votes
2answers
289 views

Prove $e^{x+y}=e^{x}e^{y}$ by using Exponential Series

In order to show $e^{x+y}=e^{x}e^{y}$ by using Exponential Series, I got the following: $$e^{x}e^{y}=\Big(\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}{x^n \over n!}\Big)\cdot \Big(\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}{y^n \over ...
6
votes
3answers
537 views

Finding asymptotes of exponential function and one-sided limit

Find the asymptotes of $$ \lim_{x \to \infty}x\cdot\exp\left(\dfrac{2}{x}\right)+1. $$ How is it done?
2
votes
1answer
135 views

Can the graph of $x^x$ have a real-valued plot below zero?

The function $f(x) = x^x$ gives a complex number only if x has an even denominator. I'm not sure about irrational numbers. Why, then, is the best graph I can find of that function that of Wolfram ...
21
votes
13answers
1k views

Intuitive proofs that $\lim\limits_{n\to\infty}\left(1+\frac xn\right)^n=e^x$

At this link someone asked how to prove rigorously that $$ \lim_{n\to\infty}\left(1+\frac xn\right)^n = e^x. $$ What good intuitive arguments exist for this statement? Later ...
28
votes
18answers
2k views

Simplest or nicest proof that $1+x \le e^x$

The elementary but very useful inequality that $1+x \le e^x$ for all real $x$ has a number of different proofs, some of which can be found online. But is there a particularly slick, intuitive or ...
21
votes
9answers
1k views

Finding the limit of $\left(\frac{n}{n+1}\right)^n$

Find the limit of: $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\left(\frac{n}{n+1}\right)^n$$ I'm pretty sure it goes to zero since $(n+1)^n > n^n$ but when I input large numbers it goes to $0.36$. Also, when ...
7
votes
7answers
969 views

About $\lim \left(1+\frac {x}{n}\right)^n$

I was wondering if it is possible to get a link to a rigorous proof that $$\displaystyle \lim_{n\to\infty} \left(1+\frac {x}{n}\right)^n=\exp x$$
6
votes
3answers
213 views

Prove that $e^{-A} = (e^{A})^{-1}$

Let $A, B \in R^{n \times n}$. Prove that $e^{-A} = (e^{A})^{-1}$. ($R$ is the real numbers) I've tried messing around with both sides, evaluated as sums. I just can't get the two to match up. Any ...
3
votes
3answers
200 views

Is it trivial to say $\mathop {\lim }\limits_{n \to \infty } {(1 + {k \over n})^n} = e^{k}$

Is it trivial to say $$\mathop {\lim }\limits_{n \to \infty } {(1 + {k \over n})^n} = e^{k},$$ considering the fact that we know $$\mathop {\lim }\limits_{n \to \infty } {(1 + {1 \over n})^n} = e?$$ ...
38
votes
4answers
1k views

If $e^A$ and $e^B$ commute, do $A$ and $B$ commute?

It is known that if two matrices $A,B \in M_n(\mathbb{C})$ commute, then $e^A$ and $e^B$ commute. Is the converse true? If $e^A$ and $e^B$ commute, do $A$ and $B$ commute? Edit: Addionally, what ...
12
votes
4answers
306 views

Euler's identity: why is the $e$ in $e^{ix}$? What if it were some other constant like $2^{ix}$?

$e^{ix}$ describes a unit circle in polar coordinates on the complex plane, where x is the angle (in radians) counterclockwise of the positive real axis. My intuition behind this is that ...
10
votes
2answers
728 views

Show that $ e^{A+B}=e^A e^B$

If $A$ and $B$ are $n\times n$ matrices such that $AB = BA$ (that is, $A$ and $B$ commute), show that $$ e^{A+B}=e^A e^B$$ Note that $A$ and $B$ do NOT have to be diagonalizable.
9
votes
3answers
388 views

Can $\displaystyle\lim_{h\to 0}\frac{b^h - 1}{h}$ be solved without circular reasoning?

In many places I have read that $$\lim_{h\to 0}\frac{b^h - 1}{h}$$ is by definition $\ln(b)$. Does that mean that this is unsolvable without using that fact or a related/derived one? I can of course ...
7
votes
3answers
338 views

How was $e$ first calculated?

I understand how $\pi$ is calculated, but I am interested in references that explain when and how the natural exponent $e$ was developed. What mathematical principles are behind the value of $e$?
4
votes
2answers
279 views

Closed form for $n$-th derivative of exponential

I need the closed-form for the $n$-th derivative ($n\geq0 $): $$\frac{\partial^n}{\partial x^n}\exp\left(-\frac{\pi^2a^2}{x}\right)$$ Thanks! By following the suggestion of Hermite polynomials: ...
13
votes
7answers
412 views

$\pi$ from the unit circle, $\sqrt 2$ from the unit square but what about $e$? [duplicate]

If one wants to introduce $\pi$ to a not mathematically savvy person, the unit circle would be a good choice. The unit square would be the way to go for $\sqrt 2$. But what about $e$? I've reviewed ...
8
votes
7answers
251 views

How to prove continuity of $e^x$.

I simply want a proof that $e^x$ is continuous. I have never really been able to find something satisfying these points: $e$ is defined to be the limit $\lim_{n\to\infty}\left(1+{1\over ...
5
votes
3answers
98 views

Stuck on this integral involving exp and the floor function

Here is the integral $$\int_0^\infty \lfloor x \rfloor e^{-x}dx$$ Here is what I have so far: $$I = \sum_{n=0}^\infty \int_n^{n+1} n e^{-x}dx$$ $$ = \sum_{n=0}^\infty -ne^{-n-1} + ne^{-n}$$ $$ = ...
3
votes
1answer
158 views

integral evaluation of an exponential

let be the function $$ e^{-a|x|^{b}} $$ with $ a,b $ positive numbers bigger than zero then how could i evaluate this 2 integrals ? $$ \int_{-\infty}^{\infty}dxe^{-a|x|^{b}}e^{cx}$$ here 'c' can ...
2
votes
5answers
563 views

How does $e^{i x}$ produce rotation around the imaginary unit circle?

Euler' formula states that: $e^{i x} = \cos(x) + i \sin(x)$ I can see from the MacLaurin Expansion that this is indeed true, however, I don't intuitively understand how raising $e^{i x}$ power ...
6
votes
7answers
1k views

How would you explain why “e” is important? (And when it applies?) [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Intuitive Understanding of the constant “e” Let's say you want to explain this to your teenage son. I understand the technical definition of $e$ $$ ...
5
votes
9answers
2k views

Proving $\lim \limits_{n\to +\infty } \left(1+\frac{x}{n}\right)^n=\text{e}^x$.

I knew that $e^x=\lim \limits_{n\to+\infty }{\left(1+\frac{x}{n}\right)^n}$. But I've never seen its proof. So I tried to prove it using $\exp(\ln x)=\ln(\exp(x))=x$. Here is what I've tried so far : ...
4
votes
3answers
232 views

Iterates of $f_b(x) = x - \log_b(x) $ - for $\log(b) \approx 0.399$: convergence to accumulation points or chaos?

In a previous question I arrived at the family of functions (depending on a real parameter b for the base of exponentiation/logarithm): $$ f(x) = x - \log_b(x) \qquad \qquad b \gt 0$$ with the ...
1
vote
3answers
196 views

How to solve the definite integral $\int_{-4}^{-2}e^{-x}\,dx$?

I'm trying to find the value of the integral $\int_{-4}^{-2}e^{-x}\,dx$ but I just couldn't solve it. Actually I found in a List of integrals that $\int e^x\,dx=e^x+C$ so I concluded: ...
1
vote
2answers
338 views

Power Series Expansion Problem Analysis

Please show that for all $x,y\in\mathbb{R}$, $$e^{x+y} - e^xe^y = \lim_{k\to\infty} \sum_{n=1}^k \sum_{j = 0}^n\left(\frac{x^{k+j}}{(k+j)!}\frac{y^{n-j}}{(n-j)!} + ...
9
votes
2answers
195 views

Conjectural closed form for $\int_0^\infty\sqrt[3]z\ \operatorname{Ei}^2(-z)\,dz$

While trying to answer the question "A closed form for $\displaystyle\int_0^1\frac{\ln(-\ln x)\ \operatorname{li}^2x}{x}dx$", I came up with a conjecture: $$\int_0^\infty\sqrt[3]z\ ...
17
votes
10answers
1k views

Why isn't $\lim \limits_{x\to\infty}(1+\frac{1}{x})^{x}= 1$?

Given $\lim \limits_{x\to\infty}(1+\frac{1}{x})^{x}$, why can't you reduce it to $\lim \limits_{x\to\infty}(1+0)^{x}$, making the result "$1$"? Obviously, it's wrong, as the true value is $e$. Is it ...
9
votes
2answers
157 views

Prove $\sum_{n=1}^\infty(e-\sum_{k=0}^n\frac1{k!})=1$

This comes from the comments section of this question here, credits Lucian. The statement is $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\left(e-\sum_{k=0}^n\frac1{k!}\right)=1$$ This looks really interesting, so I was ...
10
votes
1answer
181 views

Is $\exp:\overline{\mathbb{M}}_n\to\mathbb{M}_n$ injective?

More specific to my problem, this is a variation on Is $\exp:\mathbb{M_n}\to\mathbb{M_n}$ injective? which was promptly answered with a counterexample. Let $\mathbb{M}_n$ be the space of $n\times n$ ...
20
votes
18answers
2k views

How to understand why $x^0 = 1$, where $x$ is any real number?

Alright, so the idea of an exponent, $x$, is that you are multiplying its base by itself $x$ number of times. With base $5$ and $x=3$, we have that $5^3$ = $5 \cdot 5 \cdot 5$ I understand that the ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Why is $e^{x}$ not uniformly continuous on $\mathbb{R}$?

It seems intuitively very clear that $e^{x}$ is not uniformly continuous on $\mathbb{R}$. I'm looking to 'prove' it using $\epsilon$-$\delta$ analysis though. I reason as follows: Suppose $\epsilon ...
3
votes
1answer
152 views

How can one prove the impossibility of writing $ \int e^{x^{2}} \, \mathrm{d}{x} $ in terms of elementary functions?

Can we express $ \displaystyle \int e^{x^{2}} \, \mathrm{d}{x} $ in terms of elementary functions? (Note: Infinite series are not allowed.) If not, then is there a proof that $ \displaystyle \int ...
6
votes
3answers
124 views

How to prove $(\frac{n+1}{e})^n<n!<e(\frac{n+1}{e})^{n+1}$ without integrating method?

How to prove $$\left(\frac{n+1}{e}\right)^n<n!<e\left(\frac{n+1}{e}\right)^{n+1}$$ without integrating method? In fact we could prove this by noticing that $$i<x<i+1\Rightarrow \ln ...
5
votes
5answers
119 views

Finding the derivative of $2^{x}$ from first terms?

I was trying to understand why $e^{x}$ is special by finding the derivatives of other exponential functions and comparing the results. So I tried ${\rm f}\left(x\right) \equiv 2^{x}$, but now I'm ...
2
votes
4answers
196 views

Does the series $\,\displaystyle\sum_{n = 1}^{\infty}\left(2^{1/n} - 1\right)\,$ converge?

I'm trying to determine if the following sum converges or diverges (this is question 38 in section 11.7 of Stewart's Early Transcendentals): $$\sum_{n = 1}^{\infty}(2^{1/n} - 1)$$ I've considered ...
2
votes
6answers
289 views

If $a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_n>0$ and $a_1+a_2+\ldots+a_n<\frac{1}{2}$, prove that $(1+a_1)(1+a_2)\ldots(1+a_n)<2$.

If $a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_n>0$ and $a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n<\frac{1}{2}$, prove that $$(1+a_1)(1+a_2)\cdots(1+a_n)<2$$ I've tried using Holder's inequality (the same result can easily be derived using ...
2
votes
3answers
149 views

Prove that the limit definition of the exponential function implies its infinite series definition.

Here's the problem: Let $x$ be any real number. Show that $$ \lim_{m \to \infty} \left( 1 + \frac{x}{m} \right)^m = \sum_{n=0}^ \infty \frac{x^n}{n!} $$ I'm sure there are many ways of pulling this ...
2
votes
1answer
408 views

Commuting in Matrix Exponential

Let $A$, and $B$ be commuting $n\times n$ matrices, i.e. $A.B = B.A$. Let \begin{equation} \exp(A) = \sum_{i=0}^\infty\frac{1}{i!} A^i \end{equation} show that $\exp(A+B) = \exp(A).\exp(B)$.
1
vote
1answer
80 views

Since $2^n = O(2^{n-1})$, does the transitivity of $O$ imply $2^n=O(1)$?

Let us assume that $f(n)=2^{n+1}$, $g(n)=2^n$ be two functions. Now, use limit to find $O(f(n))$: $\lim_{n\to\infty} \dfrac{2^{n+1}}{2^n}=2$. This is not equal to infinity, so the limit exists, hence ...
1
vote
0answers
86 views

Generalisation of Lambert W function?

I want to solve an equation of the form: $\exp(C / x) - 1 = D / (x + a)$ This seems to be almost in a form where I can express solutions in terms of the Lambert W function but I can't seem to figure ...
0
votes
1answer
88 views

Exponential equation+derivative

I saw here on math.stackexchange.com an equation which has very nice solutions (by solutions I mean a proof): $3^x+28^x=8^x+27^x$, where $x$ is a real number. However, I think there must be an ...
0
votes
1answer
116 views

Natural growth and decay rate of a bacteria culture

A bacteria culture initially contains $100$ cells and grows at a rate proportional to its size. After an hour the population has increased to $420$. (a) Find an expression for the number of bacteria ...
0
votes
0answers
90 views

Development of imaginary exponent without appealing to “ambiguity” between $i$ and $-i$

Is there a way to develop the definition of the imaginary exponent, $z^i$, for complex $z$, that does not appeal to the notion that $i$ and $-i$ are "qualitatively indistinct" and that does not rely ...
7
votes
2answers
128 views

What are the properties of the roots of the incomplete/finite exponential series?

Playing around with the incomplete/finite exponential series $$f_N(x) := \sum_{k=0}^N \frac{z^k}{k!} \stackrel{N\to\infty}\longrightarrow e^z$$ for some values on alpha (e.g. ...
6
votes
10answers
1k views

how to see the logarithm as the inverse function of the exponential?

I saw here in math.stackexchange some proofs of how the log and exp functions are related to each other, but I want to get an intuition for that. In layman terms, how would you explain the connection ...
5
votes
2answers
163 views

Upper bound for $(1-1/x)^x$

I remember the bound $$\left(1-\frac1x\right)^x\leq e^{-1}$$ but I can't recall under which condition it holds, or how to prove it. Does it hold for all $x>0$?
5
votes
3answers
217 views

What are other solutions to this differential equation, “similar” to $\sin x$ and $e^x$?

I've been studying electronics, where they make great use of the relationship between the sine and exponential functions ($e^{i \omega t} = \cos{\omega t} + i \sin \omega t)$. This relationship is ...
4
votes
1answer
142 views

What $\alpha$ such that if $xy=\alpha$, then $e^{-x}+e^{-y}\geq 2e^{-\sqrt \alpha} $?

For every $ x,y \gt 0$, if $ xy=\alpha$, then we have $$e^{-x}+e^{-y}\geq 2e^{-\sqrt \alpha} $$ What are the possible values of $\alpha$? $2 < e^{1/(n+1)} + e^{-1/n}$ led to this problem. ...
3
votes
2answers
120 views

Why does $\sum_{i=0}^{\infty}\frac{a^i}{i!}=e^a$?

Here is a standard identity: $$\sum_{i=0}^{\infty}\frac{a^i}{i!}=e^a$$ Why does it hold true?